bims-hafaim Biomed News
on Heart Failure Metabolism
Issue of 2021‒06‒13
seven papers selected by
Kyle McCommis
Saint Louis University

  1. Circulation. 2021 Jun 09.
      Background: Metabolic remodeling precedes most alterations during cardiac hypertrophic growth under hemodynamic stress. The elevation of glucose utilization has been recognized as a hallmark of metabolic remodeling. However, its role in cardiac hypertrophic growth and heart failure in response to pressure overload remains to be fully illustrated. Here, we aimed to dissect the role of cardiac PKM1 (pyruvate kinase muscle isozyme 1) in glucose metabolic regulation and cardiac response under pressure overload. Methods: Cardiac specific deletion of PKM1 was achieved by crossing the floxed PKM1 mouse model with the cardiomyocyte-specific Cre transgenic mouse. PKM1 transgenic mice were generated under the control of tetracycline response elements, and cardiac specific overexpression of PKM1 was induced by doxycycline administration in adult mice. Pressure overload was triggered by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Primary neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were used to dissect molecular mechanisms. Moreover, metabolomics and NMR spectroscopy analyses were conducted to determine cardiac metabolic flux in response to pressure overload. Results: We found that PKM1 expression is reduced in failing human and mouse hearts. Importantly, cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of PKM1 exacerbates cardiac dysfunction and fibrosis in response to pressure overload. Inducible overexpression of PKM1 in cardiomyocytes protects the heart against TAC-induced cardiomyopathy and heart failure. At the mechanistic level, PKM1 is required for the augmentation of glycolytic flux, mitochondrial respiration, and ATP production under pressure overload. Furthermore, deficiency of PKM1 causes a defect in cardiomyocyte growth and a decrease in pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity at both in vitro and in vivo levels. Conclusions: These findings suggest that PKM1 plays an essential role in maintaining a homeostatic response in the heart under hemodynamic stress.
    Keywords:  PDH; PKM1; glucose oxidation
  2. Acta Pharm Sin B. 2021 May;11(5): 1098-1116
      Heart failure (HF) is a global public health problem with high morbidity and mortality. A large number of studies have shown that HF is caused by severe energy metabolism disorders, which result in an insufficient heart energy supply. This deficiency causes cardiac pump dysfunction and systemic energy metabolism failure, which determine the development of HF and recovery of heart. Current HF therapy acts by reducing heart rate and cardiac preload and afterload, treating the HF symptomatically or delaying development of the disease. Drugs aimed at cardiac energy metabolism have not yet been developed. In this review, we outline the main characteristics of cardiac energy metabolism in healthy hearts, changes in metabolism during HF, and related pathways and targets of energy metabolism. Finally, we discuss drugs that improve cardiac function via energy metabolism to provide new research ideas for the development and application of drugs for treating HF.
    Keywords:  Cardiac dysfunction; Energy deficit; Energy metabolism; Heart failure; Hormones; Natural products; Substrate metabolism; Synthetic drugs
  3. J Cell Physiol. 2021 Jun 08.
      Even though aberrant mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling is known to cause cardiomyopathy, its underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Because augmentation of αB-crystallin and hspB2 was presented in the cortical tubers and lymphangioleiomyomatosis of tuberous sclerosis complex patients, we deciphered the role of αB-crystallin and its adjacent duplicate gene, hspB2, in hyperactive mTOR-induced cardiomyopathy. Cardiac Tsc1 deletion (T1-hKO) caused mouse mTOR activation and cardiomyopathy. Overexpression of αB-crystallin and hspB2 was presented in the hearts of these mice. Knockout of αB-crystallin/hspB2 reversed deficient Tsc1-mediated fetal gene expression, mTOR activation, mitochondrial damage, cardiomyocyte vacuolar degeneration, cardiomyocyte size, and fibrosis of T1-hKO mice. These cardiac-Tsc1; αB-crystallin; hspB2 triple knockout (tKO) mice had improved cardiac function, smaller heart weight to body weight ratio, and reduced lethality compared with T1-hKO mice. Even though activated mTOR suppressed autophagy in T1-hKO mice, ablation of αB-crystallin and hspB2 failed to restore autophagy in tKO mice. mTOR inhibitors suppressed αB-crystallin expression in T1-hKO mice and rat cardiomyocyte line H9C2. Starvation of H9C2 cells activated autophagy and suppressed αB-crystallin expression. Since inhibition of autophagy restored αB-crystallin expression in starved H9C2 cells, autophagy is a negative regulator of αB-crystallin expression. mTOR thus stimulates αB-crystallin expression through suppression of autophagy. In conclusion, αB-crystallin and hspB2 play a pivotal role in Tsc1 knockout-related cardiomyopathy and are therapeutic targets of hyperactive mTOR-associated cardiomyopathy.
    Keywords:  TSC1; cardiomyopathy; hspB2; mTOR; αB-crystallin
  4. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2021 Jun 11. 20(1): 121
      BACKGROUND: Cardiac remodeling is one of the major risk factors for heart failure. In patients with type 2 diabetes, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of the first hospitalization for heart failure, possibly through glucose-independent mechanisms in part, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. This study aimed to shed light on the efficacy of dapagliflozin in reducing cardiac remodeling and potential mechanisms.METHODS: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats, induced by chronic infusion of Angiotensin II (Ang II) at a dose of 520 ng/kg per minute for 4 weeks with ALZET® mini-osmotic pumps, were treated with either SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin (DAPA) or vehicle alone. Echocardiography was performed to determine cardiac structure and function. Cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) were treated with Ang II (1 μM) with or without the indicated concentration (0.5, 1, 10 μM) of DAPA. The protein levels of collagen and TGF-β1/Smad signaling were measured along with body weight, and blood biochemical indexes.
    RESULTS: DAPA pretreatment resulted in the amelioration of left ventricular dysfunction in Ang II-infused SD rats without affecting blood glucose and blood pressure. Myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis and increased collagen synthesis caused by Ang II infusion were significantly inhibited by DAPA pretreatment. In vitro, DAPA inhibit the Ang II-induced collagen production of CFs. Immunoblot with heart tissue homogenates from chronic Ang II-infused rats revealed that DAPA inhibited the activation of TGF-β1/Smads signaling.
    CONCLUSION: DAPA ameliorates Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling by regulating the TGF-β1/Smad signaling in a non-glucose-lowering dependent manner.
    Keywords:  Angiotensin II; Cardiac fibrotic remodeling; Dapagliflozin; Sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors; TGFβ1/Smad signaling
  5. J Am Heart Assoc. 2021 Jun 05. e020205
      Background Dietary Mg intake is associated with a decreased risk of developing heart failure, whereas low circulating Mg level is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. We investigated whether Mg deficiency alone could cause cardiomyopathy. Methods and Results C57BL/6J mice were fed with a low Mg (low-Mg, 15-30 mg/kg Mg) or a normal Mg (nl-Mg, 600 mg/kg Mg) diet for 6 weeks. To test reversibility, half of the low-Mg mice were fed then with nl-Mg diet for another 6 weeks. Low-Mg diet significantly decreased mouse serum Mg (0.38±0.03 versus 1.14±0.03 mmol/L for nl-Mg; P<0.0001) with a reciprocal increase in serum Ca, K, and Na. Low-Mg mice exhibited impaired cardiac relaxation (ratio between mitral peak early filling velocity E and longitudinal tissue velocity of the mitral anterior annulus e, 21.1±1.1 versus 15.4±0.4 for nl-Mg; P=0.011). Cellular ATP was decreased significantly in low-Mg hearts. The changes were accompanied by mitochondrial dysfunction with mitochondrial reactive oxygen species overproduction and membrane depolarization. cMyBPC (cardiac myosin-binding protein C) was S-glutathionylated in low-Mg mouse hearts. All these changes were normalized with Mg repletion. In vivo (2-(2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl-4-ylamino)-2-oxoethyl)triphenylphosphonium chloride treatment during low-Mg diet improved cardiac relaxation, increased ATP levels, and reduced S-glutathionylated cMyBPC. Conclusions Mg deficiency caused a reversible diastolic cardiomyopathy associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative modification of cMyBPC. In deficiency states, Mg supplementation may represent a novel treatment for diastolic heart failure.
    Keywords:  Ca handling; diastolic dysfunction; hypomagnesemia; mitochondrial dysfunction
  6. Aging Dis. 2021 Jun;12(3): 826-840
      Cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), also referred to as scavenger receptor B2, has been shown to serve multiple functions in lipid metabolism, inflammatory signaling, oxidative stress, and energy reprogramming. As a scavenger receptor, CD36 interacts with various ligands, such as oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1), and fatty acid (FA), thereby activating specific downstream signaling pathways. Cardiac CD36 is mostly expressed on the surface of cardiomyocytes and endothelial cells. The pathophysiological process of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) encompasses diverse metabolic abnormalities, such as enhanced transfer of cardiac myocyte sarcolemmal FA, increased levels of advanced glycation end-products, elevation in oxidative stress, impaired insulin signaling cascade, disturbance in calcium handling, and microvascular rarefaction which are closely related to CD36 signaling. This review presents a summary of the CD36 signaling pathway that acts mainly as a long-chain FA transporter in cardiac myocytes and functions as a receptor to bind to numerous ligands in endothelial cells. Finally, we summarize the recent basic research and clinical findings regarding CD36 signaling in DCM, suggesting a promising strategy to treat this condition.
    Keywords:  CD36; cardiomyocyte; diabetic cardiomyopathy; endothelial cell
  7. Neth Heart J. 2021 Jun 07.
      In the Netherlands, approximately 250,000 people are living with heart failure. About one-third of them have comorbid diabetes mellitus type 2. Until recently, the effects of antidiabetic agents on heart failure were largely unknown. This changed after an observed increased risk of heart failure and ischaemic heart disease associated with thiazolidinediones that prompted the requirement for cardiovascular outcome trials for new glucose-lowering drugs. In the past decade, three new classes of antidiabetic agents have become available (i.e. dipeptidyl peptidase‑4 inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide‑1 receptor agonists and sodium-glucose cotransporter‑2 (SGLT2) inhibitors). Although the first two classes demonstrated no beneficial effects on heart failure compared to placebo in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2, SGLT2 inhibitors significantly and consistently lowered the risk of incident and worsening heart failure. Two recent trials indicated that these favourable effects were also present in non-diabetic patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, resulting in significantly lower risks of hospitalisation for heart failure and presumably also cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. SGLT2 inhibitors have been shown to be benefit on top of recommended heart failure therapy including sacubitril/valsartan and may also prove beneficial for heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. In this review, we discuss the effects of antidiabetic agents on heart failure.
    Keywords:  Diabetes mellitus type 2; Heart failure; Pharmacology