bims-hafaim Biomed News
on Heart Failure Metabolism
Issue of 2021‒04‒25
fourteen papers selected by
Kyle McCommis
Saint Louis University

  1. Circ Res. 2021 Apr 22.
      Rationale: Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a mortal clinical syndrome without effective therapies. We recently demonstrated in mice that a combination of metabolic and hypertensive stress recapitulates key features of human HFpEF.Objective: Using this novel preclinical HFpEF model, we set out to define and manipulate metabolic dysregulations occurring in HFpEF myocardium. Methods and Results: We observed impairment in mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation associated with hyperacetylation of key enzymes in the pathway. Down-regulation of sirtuin 3 and deficiency of NAD+ secondary to an impaired NAD+ salvage pathway contribute to this mitochondrial protein hyperacetylation. Impaired expression of genes involved in NAD+ biosynthesis was confirmed in cardiac tissue from HFpEF patients. Supplementing HFpEF mice with nicotinamide riboside or a direct activator of NAD+ biosynthesis led to improvement in mitochondrial function and amelioration of the HFpEF phenotype. Conclusions: Collectively, these studies demonstrate that HFpEF is associated with myocardial mitochondrial dysfunction and unveil NAD+ repletion as a promising therapeutic approach in the syndrome.
  2. Cardiovasc Res. 2021 Apr 23. pii: cvab149. [Epub ahead of print]
      AIMS: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is essential to the development of multiple tissues and organs and is a target of cancer therapeutics. Due to the embryonic lethality of global EGFR deletion and conflicting reports of cardiac-overexpressed EGFR mutants, its specific impact on the adult heart, normally or in response to chronic stress, has not been established. Using complimentary genetic strategies to modulate cardiomyocyte-specific EGFR expression, we aim to define its role in the regulation of cardiac function and remodeling.METHODS AND RESULTS: A floxed EGFR mouse model with α-myosin heavy chain-Cre-mediated cardiomyocyte-specific EGFR downregulation (CM-EGFR-KD mice) developed contractile dysfunction by 9 weeks of age, marked by impaired diastolic relaxation, as monitored via echocardiographic, hemodynamic and isolated cardiomyocyte contractility analyses. This contractile defect was maintained over time without overt cardiac remodeling until 10 months of age, after which the mice ultimately developed severe heart failure and reduced lifespan. Acute downregulation of EGFR in adult floxed EGFR mice with adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9)-encoded Cre with a cardiac troponin T promoter (AAV9-cTnT-Cre) recapitulated the CM-EGFR-KD phenotype, while AAV9-cTnT-EGFR treatment of adult CM-EGFR-KD mice rescued the phenotype. Notably, chronic administration of the β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) agonist isoproterenol effectively and reversibly compensated for the contractile dysfunction in the absence of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in CM-EGFR-KD mice. Mechanistically, EGFR downregulation reduced the expression of protein phosphatase 2 A (PP2A) regulatory subunit Ppp2r3a/PR72, which was associated with decreased phosphorylation of phospholamban (PLB) and Ca2+ clearance, and whose re-expression via AAV9-cTnT-PR72 rescued the CM-EGFR-KD phenotype.
    CONCLUSIONS: Altogether our study highlights a previously unrecognized role for EGFR in maintaining contractile homeostasis under physiologic conditions in the adult heart via regulation of PR72 expression.
    TRANSLATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Our study highlights a previously unrecognized role for EGFR in maintaining contractile homeostasis under physiologic conditions in the adult heart via regulation of PR72, a PP2A regulatory subunit with an unknown impact on cardiac function. Further, we have shown that cardiomyocyte-expressed EGFR is required for the promotion of cardiac hypertrophy under conditions of chronic catecholamine stress. Altogether, our study provides new insight into the dynamic nature of cardiomyocyte-specific EGFR.
  3. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2021 Apr 27. pii: S0735-1097(21)00567-2. [Epub ahead of print]77(16): 2022-2039
      The mechanisms responsible for the positive and unexpected cardiovascular effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in patients with type 2 diabetes remain to be defined. It is likely that some of the beneficial cardiac effects of these antidiabetic drugs are mediated, in part, by altered myocardial metabolism. Common cardiometabolic disorders, including the metabolic (insulin resistance) syndrome and type 2 diabetes, are associated with altered substrate utilization and energy transduction by the myocardium, predisposing to the development of heart disease. Thus, the failing heart is characterized by a substrate shift toward glycolysis and ketone oxidation in an attempt to meet the high energetic demand of the constantly contracting heart. This review examines the metabolic pathways and clinical implications of myocardial substrate utilization in the normal heart and in cardiometabolic disorders, and discusses mechanisms by which antidiabetic drugs and metabolic interventions improve cardiac function in the failing heart.
    Keywords:  SGLT2i; cardiac function; myocardial metabolism
  4. Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 22. 11(1): 8781
      Obesity is implicated in cardiovascular disease and heart failure. When fatty acids are transported to and not adequately oxidized in cardiac cells, they accumulate, causing lipotoxicity in the heart. Since hepatic progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (Pgrmc1) suppressed de novo lipogenesis in a previous study, it was questioned whether cardiac Pgrmc1 protects against lipotoxicity. Hence, we focused on the role of cardiac Pgrmc1 in basal (Resting), glucose-dominant (Refed) and lipid-dominant high-fat diet (HFD) conditions. Pgrmc1 KO mice showed high FFA levels and low glucose levels compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Pgrmc1 KO mice presented low number of mitochondrial DNA copies in heart, and it was concomitantly observed with low expression of TCA cycle genes and oxidative phosphorylation genes. Pgrmc1 absence in heart presented low fatty acid oxidation activity in all conditions, but the production of acetyl-CoA and ATP was in pronounced suppression only in HFD condition. Furthermore, HFD Pgrmc1 KO mice resulted in high cardiac fatty acyl-CoA levels and TG level. Accordingly, HFD Pgrmc1 KO mice were prone to cardiac lipotoxicity, featuring high levels in markers of inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress, fibrosis, and heart failure. In vitro study, it was also confirmed that Pgrmc1 enhances rates of mitochondrial respiration and fatty acid oxidation. This study is clinically important because mitochondrial defects in Pgrmc1 KO mice hearts represent the late phase of cardiac failure.
  5. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2021 Apr 22.
      PURPOSE: Although the cardioprotective benefits of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are now widely appreciated, the mechanisms underlying these benefits remain unresolved. Tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 12a (Tnfrsf12a) is a receptor for tumor necrosis factor superfamily member 12 (Tnfsf12). Tnfrsf12a is highly inducible and plays a key role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Here we set out to determine if SGLT2 inhibition affects the Tnfsf12/Tnfrsf12a system in the stressed myocardium.METHODS: C57BL/6N mice that had undergone sham or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery were treated with either the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin (400 mg/kg diet; 60-65 mg/kg/day) or standard chow alone and were followed for 8 weeks. Tnfrsf12a expression in mouse hearts was assessed by in situ hybridization, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting.
    RESULTS: Left ventricular (LV) mass, end-systolic volume, and end-diastolic volume were all increased in TAC mice and were significantly lower with empagliflozin. Myocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis in TAC hearts were similarly attenuated with empagliflozin. Tnfrsf12a expression was upregulated in mouse hearts following TAC surgery but not in the hearts of empagliflozin-treated mice. In cultured cardiomyocytes, Tnfrsf12a antagonism attenuated the increase in cardiomyocyte size that was induced by phenylephrine.
    CONCLUSION: Empagliflozin attenuates LV enlargement in mice with hypertrophic heart failure. This effect may be mediated, at least in part, by a reduction in loading conditions which limits upregulation of the inducible, proinflammatory, and prohypertrophic TNF superfamily receptor, Tnfrsf12a. Disruption of the Tnfsf12/Tnfrsf12a feed forward system may contribute to the cardioprotective benefits of SGLT2 inhibition.
    Keywords:  Cardiac hypertrophy; Diabetes; Empagliflozin; Heart failure; Pressure overload; SGLT2 inhibitor
  6. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2021 Apr 19. pii: S0022-2828(21)00082-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: PI3Kα (Phosphoinositide 3-kinase α) regulates multiple downstream signaling pathways controlling cell survival, growth, and proliferation and is an attractive therapeutic target in cancer and obesity. The clinically-approved PI3Kα inhibitor, BYL719, is in further clinical trials for cancer and overgrowth syndrome. However, the potential impact of PI3Kα inhibition on the heart and following myocardial infarction (MI) is unclear. We aim to determine whether PI3Kα inhibition affects cardiac physiology and post-MI remodeling and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms.METHODS AND RESULTS: Wildtype (WT) 12-wk old male mice receiving BYL719 (daily, p.o.) for 10 days showed reduction in left ventricular longitudinal strain with normal ejection fraction, weight loss, mild cardiac atrophy, body composition alteration, and prolonged QTC interval. RNASeq analysis showed gene expression changes in multiple pathways including extracellular matrix remodeling and signaling complexes. After MI, both p110α and phospho-Akt protein levels were increased in human and mouse hearts. Pharmacological PI3Kα inhibition aggravated cardiac dysfunction and resulted in adverse post-MI remodeling, with increased apoptosis, elevated inflammation, suppressed hypertrophy, decreased coronary blood vessel density, and inhibited Akt/GSK3β/eNOS signaling. Selective genetic ablation of PI3Kα in endothelial cells was associated with worsened post-MI cardiac function and reduced coronary blood vessel density. In vitro, BYL719 suppressed Akt/eNOS activation, cell viability, proliferation, and angiogenic sprouting in coronary and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Cardiomyocyte-specific genetic PI3Kα ablation resulted in mild cardiac systolic dysfunction at baseline. After MI, cardiac function markedly deteriorated with increased mortality concordant with greater apoptosis and reduced hypertrophy. In isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes, BYL719 decreased hypoxia-associated activation of Akt/GSK3β signaling and cell survival.
    CONCLUSIONS: PI3Kα is required for cell survival (endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes) hypertrophic response, and angiogenesis to maintain cardiac function after MI. Therefore, PI3Kα inhibition that is used as anti-cancer treatment, can be cardiotoxic, especially after MI.
    Keywords:  Angiogenesis; Myocardial infarction; Myocardial remodeling; PI3Kα; Signaling
  7. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 644954
      Inflammation is involved in cardiac remodeling. In response to pathological stimuli, activated cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) secreting inflammatory cytokines and chemokines play an important role in monocyte/macrophage recruitment. However, the precise mechanism of CF-mediated inflammatory response in hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) in this process. We found that KLF15 expression decreased while chemokine CXCL1 and its receptor CXCR2 expression increased in the hearts of angiotensin II (Ang II)-infused mice. Compared to the wild-type mice, KLF15 knockout (KO) mice aggravated Ang II-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Deficiency of KLF15 promoted macrophage accumulation, increase of CXCL1 and CXCR2 expression, and mTOR, ERK1/2, NF-κB-p65 signaling activation in the hearts. Mechanistically, Ang II dose- dependently decreased KLF15 expression and increased CXCL1 secretion from cardiac fibroblasts but not cardiac myoblasts. Loss- or gain-of-function studies have shown that KLF15 negatively regulated CXCL1 expression through its transactivation domain (TAD). Intriguingly, the adenovirus-mediated full length of KLF15-but not KLF15 with TAD deletion overexpression-markedly prevented pathological change in Ang II-infused mice. Notably, the administration of CXCR2 inhibitor SB265610 reversed KLF15 knockout-mediated aggravation of cardiac dysfunction, remodeling, and inflammation induced by Ang II. In conclusion, our study identifies that KLF15 in cardiac fibroblasts negatively regulates CXCL1/CXCR2 axis-mediated inflammatory response and subsequent cardiac remodeling in hypertension.
    Keywords:  cardiac remodeling; hypertension; inflammation; renin-angiotensin system; transcription factor
  8. Aging (Albany NY). 2021 Apr 23. 13
      The long-term characteristics of transcriptomic alterations and cardiac remodeling in chronic heart failure (CHF) induced by myocardial infarction (MI) in mice are not well elucidated. This study aimed to reveal the dynamic changes in the transcriptome and cardiac remodeling in post-MI mice over a long time period. Monitoring C57BL/6 mice with MI for 8 months showed that approximately 44% of mice died of cardiac rupture in the first 2 weeks and others survived to 8 months with left ventricular (LV) aneurysm. The transcriptomic profiling analysis of cardiac tissues showed that the Integrin and WNT pathways were activated at 8 months after MI while the metabolism-related pathways were inversely inhibited. Subsequent differential analysis at 1 and 8 months post-MI revealed significant enrichments in biological processes, including consistent regulation of metabolism-related pathways. Moreover, echocardiographic monitoring showed a progressive increase in LV dimensions and a decrease in the LV fractional shortening during the first 4 weeks, and these parameters progressed at a lower rate till 8 months. A similar trend was found in the invasive LV hemodynamics, cardiac morphological and histological analyses. These results suggested that mouse MI model is ideal for long-term studies, and transcriptomic findings may provide new CHF therapeutic targets.
    Keywords:  cardiac remodeling; heart failure; mice; myocardial infarction; transcriptomic profiling
  9. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 636553
      Our previous research has shown that type-2a Sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) undergoes posttranscriptional oxidative modifications in cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) in the context of excessive cardiac oxidative injury. However, whether SERCA2a inactivity induces cytosolic Ca2+ imbalance in mitochondrial homeostasis is far from clear. Mitofusin2 (Mfn2) is well known as an important protein involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/mitochondrial Ca2+ tethering and the regulation of mitochondrial quality. Therefore, the aim of our study was to elucidate the specific mechanism of SERCA2a-mediated Ca2+ overload in the mitochondria via Mfn2 tethering and the survival rate of the heart under conditions of cardiac microvascular ischemic injury. In vitro, CMECs extracted from mice were subjected to 6 h of hypoxic injury to mimic ischemic heart injury. C57-WT and Mfn2KO mice were subjected to a 1 h ischemia procedure via ligation of the left anterior descending branch to establish an in vivo cardiac ischemic injury model. TTC staining, immunohistochemistry and echocardiography were used to assess the myocardial infarct size, microvascular damage, and heart function. In vitro, ischemic injury induced irreversible oxidative modification of SERCA2a, including sulfonylation at cysteine 674 and nitration at tyrosine 294/295, and inactivation of SERCA2a, which initiated calcium overload. In addition, ischemic injury-triggered [Ca2+]c overload and subsequent [Ca2+]m overload led to mPTP opening and ΔΨm dissipation compared with the control. Furthermore, ablation of Mfn2 alleviated SERCA2a-induced mitochondrial calcium overload and subsequent mito-apoptosis in the context of CMEC hypoxic injury. In vivo, compared with that in wild-type mice, the myocardial infarct size in Mfn2KO mice was significantly decreased. In addition, the findings revealed that Mfn2KO mice had better heart contractile function, decreased myocardial infarction indicators, and improved mitochondrial morphology. Taken together, the results of our study suggested that SERCA2a-dependent [Ca2+]c overload led to mitochondrial dysfunction and activation of Mfn2-mediated [Ca2+]m overload. Overexpression of SERCA2a or ablation of Mfn2 expression mitigated mitochondrial morphological and functional damage by modifying the SERCA2a/Ca2+-Mfn2 pathway. Overall, these pathways are promising therapeutic targets for acute cardiac microvascular ischemic injury.
    Keywords:  CMEC; Mfn2; SERCA2a; hypoxia; ischemia injury; mitochondria
  10. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2021 Mar 03. pii: S0022-5223(21)00410-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    Keywords:  SGLT2 inhibition; adrenergic signaling; cardiac substrate metabolism; heart failure; insulin signaling; mTOR signaling
  11. Pharmacotherapy. 2021 Apr 18.
      Heart failure (HF) impacts more than 6 million Americans with an annual mortality rate approaching 22%. Along with optimizing guideline-directed management and therapy (GDMT), the development of treatment options to improve mortality and morbidity in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is paramount. Cardiovascular outcome trials in patients with type 2 diabetes have shown that sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors improve both cardiovascular (CV) and renal outcomes and have consistently reduced hospitalizations for HF in patients with and without a previous history of HF. A precise mechanism by which SGLT2 inhibitors provide benefits for patients with HFrEF has not been identified, and it is probable that multiple pathways may best explain the outcomes seen in recent clinical trials. The mounting evidence that SGLT2 inhibitors reduce HF-related hospitalizations in patients with type 2 diabetes led to the publication of two pivotal trials, the Dapagliflozin and Prevention of Adverse Outcomes in Heart Failure (DAPA-HF) trial and the Cardiovascular and Renal Outcomes with Empagliflozin in Heart Failure (EMPEROR-Reduced) trial. Data from these publications demonstrate significant benefit of dapagliflozin and empagliflozin on a variety of CV and HF quality of life end points in patients with HFrEF independent of the presence of type 2 diabetes. Now, widespread application of the clinical findings from the DAPA-HF and EMPEROR-Reduced trials must follow with SGLT2 inhibitors incorporated into GDMT for HFrEF regardless of the presence or absence of diabetes. In this review, we examine key literature surrounding the CV outcome data for SGLT2 inhibitors with a specific focus on patients with HFrEF.
    Keywords:  Heart failure; SGLT2 inhibitors; cardiovascular outcomes; dapagliflozin; diabetes; empagliflozin; heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
  12. Front Physiol. 2021 ;12 646903
      Doxorubicin (DOX) cardiotoxicity is a life-threatening side effect that leads to a poor prognosis in patients receiving chemotherapy. We investigated the role of miR-22 in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy and the underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro. Specifically, we designed loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments to identify the role of miR-22 in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. Our data suggested that inhibiting miR-22 alleviated cardiac fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction induced by doxorubicin. In addition, inhibiting miR-22 mitigated mitochondrial dysfunction through the sirt1/PGC-1α pathway. Knocking out miR-22 enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis, as evidenced by increased PGC-1α, TFAM, and NRF-1 expression in vivo. Furthermore, knocking out miR-22 rescued mitophagy, which was confirmed by increased expression of PINK1 and parkin and by the colocalization of LC3 and mitochondria. These protective effects were abolished by overexpressing miR-22. In conclusion, miR-22 may represent a new target to alleviate cardiac dysfunction in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy and improve prognosis in patients receiving chemotherapy.
    Keywords:  doxorubicin; miR-22; mitochondrial dysfunction; mitophagy; oxidative stress
  13. Life Sci. 2021 Apr 14. pii: S0024-3205(21)00496-3. [Epub ahead of print] 119511
      Effective Ca2+ dependent mitochondrial energy supply is imperative for proper cardiac contractile activity, while disruption of Ca2+ homeostasis participates in the pathogenesis of multiple human diseases. This phenomenon is particularly prominent in cardiac ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) and heart failure, both of which require strict clinical intervention. The interface between endoplasmic reticula (ER) and mitochondria, designated the mitochondria-associated membrane (MAM), is now regarded as a crucial mediator of Ca2+ transportation. Thus, interventions targeting this physical and functional coupling between mitochondria and the ER are highly desirable. Increasing evidence supports the notion that restoration, and maintenance, of the physiological contact between these two organelles can improve mitochondrial function, while inhibiting cell death, thereby sufficiently ameliorating I/R injury and heart failure development. A better understanding regarding the underlying mechanism of MAM-mediated transport will pave the way for identification of novel treatment approaches for heart disease. Therefore, in this review, we summarize the crucial functions and potential mechanisms of MAMs in the pathogenesis of I/R and heart failure.
    Keywords:  Calcium transfer; Heart failure; Mitochondria; Mitochondria-associated membranes; Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury
  14. Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2021 Apr 22. 20(1): 83
      BACKGROUND: Controlled studies and observational studies have shown that sodium-glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors (SGLT-2i) are beneficial for the survival of patients with heart failure (HF). However, it is unclear whether SGLT-2i can provide benefit in patients with other cardiovascular diseases. Here, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the outcomes of cardiovascular, renal, and safety outcomes of SGLT-2i administration in patients with cardiovascular diseases.METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science databases, and databases for randomised controlled trials written in English from inception until November 1, 2020. Two reviewers independently identified randomised controlled trials comparing the effects of SGLT-2i in patients with cardiovascular disease with or without diabetes. Primary outcomes were cardiovascular outcomes and renal outcomes. Secondary outcomes were safety outcomes, including adverse endocrine outcomes and adverse infection outcomes. The effects of SGLT-2i were evaluated using RevMan5.3 software. The Cochrane risk of bias tool was used to assess study quality.
    RESULTS: We identified 10 randomised controlled trials (25,108 patients in the SGLT-2i group and 18,574 patients in the placebo group). Meta-analysis revealed that SGLT-2i treatment significantly reduced all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and hospitalisation for heart failure (HHF) in patients with cardiovascular disease (all-cause mortality relative risk [RR]: 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.91; P < 0.00001; I2 = 0%; cardiovascular mortality RR: 0.85; 95% CI 0.79-0.92; P < 0.0001; I2 = 26%; HHF RR: 0.69; 95% CI 0.64-0.81; P < 0.00001; I2 = 0%). In patients with HF, mortality and HHF after SGLT-2i treatment for HF with reduced ejection fraction were significantly reduced, whereas HF with preserved ejection fraction did not differ compared with placebo treatment. Moreover, SGLT-2i induced a lower incidence of renal damage and myocardial infarction than the placebo group; however, the risk of infection, amputation, volume depletion, and diabetic ketoacidosis was higher.
    CONCLUSIONS: SGLT-2i had significant clinical effects on cardiovascular outcomes and significantly influenced acute kidney injury. The effects of SGLT-2i on cardiovascular disease were independent of diabetic status. Sotagliflozin could have advantages over other SGLT-2i in lowering HHF.
    Keywords:  Cardiovascular disease; Meta‐analysis; Mortality; Sodium glucose cotransporter type 2 inhibitors