bims-glucam Biomed News
on Glutamine cancer metabolism
Issue of 2020‒11‒29
seventeen papers selected by
Sreeparna Banerjee
Middle East Technical University


  1. Nat Metab. 2020 Nov 23.
    Raho S, Capobianco L, Malivindi R, Vozza A, Piazzolla C, De Leonardis F, Gorgoglione R, Scarcia P, Pezzuto F, Agrimi G, Barile SN, Pisano I, Reshkin SJ, Greco MR, Cardone RA, Rago V, Li Y, Marobbio CMT, Sommergruber W, Riley CL, Lasorsa FM, Mills E, Vegliante MC, De Benedetto GE, Fratantonio D, Palmieri L, Dolce V, Fiermonte G.
      The oncogenic KRAS mutation has a critical role in the initiation of human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) since it rewires glutamine metabolism to increase reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) production, balancing cellular redox homeostasis with macromolecular synthesis1,2. Mitochondrial glutamine-derived aspartate must be transported into the cytosol to generate metabolic precursors for NADPH production2. The mitochondrial transporter responsible for this aspartate efflux has remained elusive. Here, we show that mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) catalyses this transport and promotes tumour growth. UCP2-silenced KRASmut cell lines display decreased glutaminolysis, lower NADPH/NADP+ and glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratios and higher reactive oxygen species levels compared to wild-type counterparts. UCP2 silencing reduces glutaminolysis also in KRASWT PDAC cells but does not affect their redox homeostasis or proliferation rates. In vitro and in vivo, UCP2 silencing strongly suppresses KRASmut PDAC cell growth. Collectively, these results demonstrate that UCP2 plays a vital role in PDAC, since its aspartate transport activity connects the mitochondrial and cytosolic reactions necessary for KRASmut rewired glutamine metabolism2, and thus it should be considered a key metabolic target for the treatment of this refractory tumour.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-020-00315-1
  2. Sci Rep. 2020 Nov 24. 10(1): 20435
    Ekici S, Risk BB, Neill SG, Shu HK, Fleischer CC.
      Gliomas are one of the most common types of brain tumors. Given low survival and high treatment resistance rates, particularly for high grade gliomas, there is a need for specific biomarkers that can be used to stratify patients for therapy and monitor treatment response. Recent work has demonstrated that metabolic reprogramming, often mediated by inflammation, can lead to an upregulation of glutamine as an energy source for cancer cells. As a result, glutamine pathways are an emerging pharmacologic target. The goal of this pilot study was to characterize changes in glutamine metabolism and inflammation in human glioma samples and explore the use of glutamine as a potential biomarker. 1H high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were acquired from ex vivo glioma tissue (n = 16, grades II-IV) to quantify metabolite concentrations. Tumor inflammatory markers were quantified using electrochemiluminescence assays. Glutamate, glutathione, lactate, and alanine, as well as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-8, increased significantly in samples from grade IV gliomas compared to grades II and III (p ≤ .05). Following dimension reduction of the inflammatory markers using probabilistic principal component analysis, we observed that glutamine, alanine, glutathione, and lactate were positively associated with the first inflammatory marker principal component. Our findings support the hypothesis that glutamine may be a key marker for glioma progression and indicate that inflammation is associated with changes in glutamine metabolism. These results motivate further in vivo investigation of glutamine as a biomarker for tumor progression and treatment response.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76982-7
  3. Pharmacol Ther. 2020 Nov 24. pii: S0163-7258(20)30279-5. [Epub ahead of print] 107748
    Aventaggiato M, Vernucci E, Barreca F, Russo MA, Tafani M.
      Mammalian cells use a specialized and complex machinery for the removal of altered proteins or dysfunctional organelles. Such machinery is part of a mechanism called autophagy. Moreover, when autophagy is specifically employed for the removal of dysfunctional mitochondria, it is called mitophagy. Autophagy and mitophagy have important physiological implications and roles associated with cellular differentiation, resistance to stresses such as starvation, metabolic control and adaptation to the changing microenvironment. Unfortunately, transformed cancer cells often exploit autophagy and mitophagy for sustaining their metabolic reprogramming and growth to a point that autophagy and mitophagy are recognized as promising targets for ongoing and future antitumoral therapies. Sirtuins are NAD+ dependent deacylases with a fundamental role in sensing and modulating cellular response to external stresses such as nutrients availability and therefore involved in aging, oxidative stress control, inflammation, differentiation and cancer. It is clear, therefore, that autophagy, mitophagy and sirtuins share many common aspects to a point that, recently, sirtuins have been linked to the control of autophagy and mitophagy. In the context of cancer, such a control is obtained by modulating transcription of autophagy and mitophagy genes, by post translational modification of proteins belonging to the autophagy and mitophagy machinery, by controlling ROS production or major metabolic pathways such as Krebs cycle or glutamine metabolism. The present review details current knowledge on the role of sirtuins, autophagy and mitophagy in cancer to then proceed to discuss how sirtuins can control autophagy and mitophagy in cancer cells. Finally, we discuss sirtuins role in the context of tumor progression and metastasis indicating glutamine metabolism as an example of how a concerted activation and/or inhibition of sirtuins in cancer cells can control autophagy and mitophagy by impinging on the metabolism of this fundamental amino acid.
    Keywords:  Autophagy; Cancer; Cancer stem cells; Glutamine metabolism; Mitophagy; Sirtuins
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharmthera.2020.107748
  4. Cancer Res. 2020 Nov 23. pii: canres.0622.2020. [Epub ahead of print]
    Mestre-Farrera A, Bruch-Oms M, Peña R, Rodríguez-Morató J, Alba-Castellón L, Comerma L, Quintela-Fandino M, Duñach M, Baulida J, Pozo ÓJ, García de Herreros A.
      Tumors are complex tissues composed of transformed epithelial cells as well as cancer-activated fibroblasts (CAF) that facilitate epithelial tumor cell invasion. We show here that CAF and other mesenchymal cells rely much more on glutamine than epithelial tumor cells; consequently, they are more sensitive to inhibition of glutaminase. Glutamine dependence drove CAF migration towards this amino acid when cultured in low glutamine conditions. CAF also invaded a Matrigel matrix following a glutamine concentration gradient and enhanced the invasion of tumor cells when both cells were co-cultured. Accordingly, glutamine directed invasion of xenografted tumors in immunocompromised mice. Stimulation of glutamine-driven epithelial tumor invasion by fibroblasts required previous CAF activation which involved the TGFb/Snail1 signaling axis. CAF migration towards Gln presented a polarized Akt2 distribution that was modulated by the Gln-dependent activity of TRAF6 and p62 in the migrating front, and depletion of these proteins prevented Akt2 polarization and Gln-driven CAF invasion. Our results demonstrate that glutamine deprivation promotes CAF migration and invasion, which in turn facilitates the movement of tumor epithelial cells towards nutrient-rich territories. These results provide a novel molecular mechanism for how metabolic stress enhances invasion and metastasis.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-0622
  5. Cancer Res. 2020 Nov 23. pii: canres.0617.2020. [Epub ahead of print]
    Guo W, Li K, Sun B, Xu D, Tong L, Yin H, Liao Y, Song H, Wang T, Jing B, Hu M, Liu S, Kuang Y, Ling J, Li Q, Wu Y, Wang Q, Yao F, Zhou BP, Lin SH, Deng J.
      Cancer cells need to generate large amounts of glutathione (GSH) to buffer oxidative stress during tumor development. A rate-limiting step for GSH biosynthesis is cystine uptake via a cystine/glutamate antiporter Xc-. Xc- is a sodium-independent antiporter passively driven by concentration gradients from extracellular cystine and intracellular glutamate across the cell membrane. Increased uptake of cystine via Xc- in cancer cells increases the level of extracellular glutamate, which would subsequently restrain cystine uptake via Xc-. Cancer cells must therefore evolve a mechanism to overcome this negative feedback regulation. In this study, we report that glutamate transporters, in particular SLC1A1, are tightly intertwined with cystine uptake and GSH biosynthesis in lung cancer cells. Dysregulated SLC1A1, a sodium-dependent glutamate carrier, actively recycled extracellular glutamate into cells, which enhanced the efficiency of cystine uptake via Xc- and GSH biosynthesis as measured by stable isotope-assisted metabolomics. Conversely, depletion of glutamate transporter SLC1A1 increased extracellular glutamate, which inhibited cystine uptake, blocked GSH synthesis, and induced oxidative stress-mediated cell death or growth inhibition. Moreover, glutamate transporters were frequently upregulated in tissue samples of non-small cell lung cancer patients. Taken together, active uptake of glutamate via SLC1A1 propels cystine uptake via Xc- for GSH biosynthesis in lung tumorigenesis.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-0617
  6. Br J Cancer. 2020 Nov 23.
    Bonifácio VDB, Pereira SA, Serpa J, Vicente JB.
      To enable survival in adverse conditions, cancer cells undergo global metabolic adaptations. The amino acid cysteine actively contributes to cancer metabolic remodelling on three different levels: first, in its free form, in redox control, as a component of the antioxidant glutathione or its involvement in protein s-cysteinylation, a reversible post-translational modification; second, as a substrate for the production of hydrogen sulphide (H2S), which feeds the mitochondrial electron transfer chain and mediates per-sulphidation of ATPase and glycolytic enzymes, thereby stimulating cellular bioenergetics; and, finally, as a carbon source for epigenetic regulation, biomass production and energy production. This review will provide a systematic portrayal of the role of cysteine in cancer biology as a source of carbon and sulphur atoms, the pivotal role of cysteine in different metabolic pathways and the importance of H2S as an energetic substrate and signalling molecule. The different pools of cysteine in the cell and within the body, and their putative use as prognostic cancer markers will be also addressed. Finally, we will discuss the pharmacological means and potential of targeting cysteine metabolism for the treatment of cancer.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41416-020-01156-1
  7. Cells. 2020 Nov 23. pii: E2525. [Epub ahead of print]9(11):
    Fernandes J, Miranda RL, de Lemos ERS, Guterres A.
      Mammarenaviruses are a diverse genus of emerging viruses that include several causative agents of severe viral hemorrhagic fevers with high mortality in humans. Although these viruses share many similarities, important differences with regard to pathogenicity, type of immune response, and molecular mechanisms during virus infection are different between and within New World and Old World viral infections. Viruses rely exclusively on the host cellular machinery to translate their genome, and therefore to replicate and propagate. miRNAs are the crucial factor in diverse biological processes such as antiviral defense, oncogenesis, and cell development. The viral infection can exert a profound impact on the cellular miRNA expression profile, and numerous RNA viruses have been reported to interact directly with cellular miRNAs and/or to use these miRNAs to augment their replication potential. Our present study indicates that mammarenavirus infection induces metabolic reprogramming of host cells, probably manipulating cellular microRNAs. A number of metabolic pathways, including valine, leucine, and isoleucine biosynthesis, d-Glutamine and d-glutamate metabolism, thiamine metabolism, and pools of several amino acids were impacted by the predicted miRNAs that would no longer regulate these pathways. A deeper understanding of mechanisms by which mammarenaviruses handle these signaling pathways is critical for understanding the virus/host interactions and potential diagnostic and therapeutic targets, through the inhibition of specific pathologic metabolic pathways.
    Keywords:  amino acid metabolism; cellular metabolism; mammarenaviruses; metabolism of cofactors and vitamins; microRNAs
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/cells9112525
  8. Life Sci. 2020 Nov 18. pii: S0024-3205(20)31549-6. [Epub ahead of print] 118796
    Yang W, Liu J, Hou L, Chen Q, Liu Y.
      AIMS: In tumor cells, shikonin treatment has been reported to inhibit glycolysis by suppressing the activity of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) and to induce apoptosis by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. However, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) shows variable sensitivity to shikonin treatment, and the mechanism for these differences remains unclear. We evaluated the effects of shikonin on metabolic and oxidative pathways in sensitive and refractory HCC cell lines to identify mechanisms of differential sensitivity.MAIN METHODS: Cell viability and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT assay, PI/Annexin V and JC-1 staining. Mitochondrial function was further evaluated by measurements of ROS and mitochondrial mass. Oxygen consumption rates, NAD+/NADH, ATP and lactate were measured as indicators of energy metabolism and glycolysis. Protein expression associated with glycolysis and apoptosis was evaluated by western blotting, RT-qPCR and immunofluorescence staining.
    KEY FINDINGS: The sensitivity to shikonin treatment was significantly higher for HepG2 cells than for HCCLM3 cells, with less dramatic effects in HCCLM3 cells on apoptosis, ROS, and oxidative phosphorylation. Shikonin up-regulated mitochondrial biogenesis to increase mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation in HepG2 cells, but displayed the opposite trend in HCCLM3 cells. Mechanistically, shikonin promoted nuclear expression of PKM2 and HIF1α in HCCLM3 cells, with upregulation of glycolysis-related gene transcription and glycolysis.
    SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that PKM2 rewires glucose metabolism, which explains the differential sensitivity to shikonin-induced apoptosis in HCC cells. Our findings elucidate mechanisms for differential responses to shikonin, provide potential biomarkers, and indicate a theoretical basis for targeting glycolytic enzymes in refractory HCC.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; Glycolysis; HIF1α; Mitochondrial biogenesis; PKM2; Shikonin
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2020.118796
  9. Clin Lung Cancer. 2020 Oct 16. pii: S1525-7304(20)30308-9. [Epub ahead of print]
    Riess JW, Frankel P, Shackelford D, Dunphy M, Badawi RD, Nardo L, Cherry SR, Lanza I, Reid J, Gonsalves WI, Kunos C, Gandara DR, Lara PN, Newman E, Paik PK.
      INTRODUCTION: There are currently no approved targeted therapies for lung squamous-cell carcinoma (LSCC) and KRAS-mutant lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). About 30% of LSCC and 25% of KRAS-mutant LUAD exhibit hyperactive NRF2 pathway activation through mutations in NFE2L2 (the gene encoding NRF2) or its negative regulator, KEAP1. Preclinical data demonstrate that these tumors are uniquely sensitive to dual inhibition of glycolysis and glutaminolysis via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and glutaminase inhibitors. This phase 1 study was designed to assess safety and preliminary activity of the mTOR inhibitor MLN0128 (sapanisertib) in combination with the glutaminase inhibitor CB-839 HCl.METHODS: Phase 1 dose finding will use the queue-based variation of the 3 + 3 dose escalation scheme with the primary endpoint of identifying the recommended expansion dose. To confirm the acceptable tolerability of the recommended expansion dose, patients will subsequently enroll onto 1 of 4 expansion cohorts (n = 14 per cohort): (1) LSCC harboring NFE2L2 or (2) KEAP1 mutations, or (3) LUAD harboring KRAS/(KEAP1 or NFE2L2) coalterations, or (4) LSCC wild type for NFE2L2 and KEAP1. The primary endpoint of the dose expansion is to determine the preliminary efficacy of MLN0128/CB-839 combination therapy.
    CONCLUSION: This phase 1 study will determine the recommended expansion dose and preliminary efficacy of MLN0128 and CB-839 in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer with a focus on subsets of LSCC and KRAS-mutant LUAD harboring NFE2L2 or KEAP1 mutations.
    Keywords:  Glutaminolysis; Glycolysis; KEAP1; NRF2; Squamous-cell lung cancer
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cllc.2020.10.006
  10. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Nov 23. pii: 202017152. [Epub ahead of print]
    Yi J, Zhu J, Wu J, Thompson CB, Jiang X.
      Ferroptosis, a form of regulated necrosis driven by iron-dependent peroxidation of phospholipids, is regulated by cellular metabolism, redox homeostasis, and various signaling pathways related to cancer. In this study, we found that activating mutation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) or loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) function, highly frequent events in human cancer, confers ferroptosis resistance in cancer cells, and that inhibition of the PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling axis sensitizes cancer cells to ferroptosis induction. Mechanistically, this resistance requires sustained activation of mTORC1 and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)C1-dependent induction of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), a central transcription factor regulating lipid metabolism. Furthermore, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), a transcriptional target of SREBP1, mediates the ferroptosis-suppressing activity of SREBP1 by producing monounsaturated fatty acids. Genetic or pharmacologic ablation of SREBP1 or SCD1 sensitized ferroptosis in cancer cells with PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathway mutation. Conversely, ectopic expression of SREPB1 or SCD1 restored ferroptosis resistance in these cells, even when mTORC1 was inhibited. In xenograft mouse models for PI3K-mutated breast cancer and PTEN-defective prostate cancer, the combination of mTORC1 inhibition with ferroptosis induction resulted in near-complete tumor regression. In conclusion, hyperactive mutation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling protects cancer cells from oxidative stress and ferroptotic death through SREBP1/SCD1-mediated lipogenesis, and combination of mTORC1 inhibition with ferroptosis induction shows therapeutic promise in preclinical models.
    Keywords:  SREBP1; cancer; ferroptosis; lipogenesis; mTOR
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2017152117
  11. Gene. 2020 Nov 19. pii: S0378-1119(20)30992-6. [Epub ahead of print] 145323
    Kumar Patra S.
      Gene expression is the key to cellular functions and homeostasis. Histone modifications regulate chromatin dynamics and gene expression. Neuronal cell functions largely depend on fluxes of neurotransmitters for activation of chromatin and gene expression. New studies by Lepack et al. and Farrelly et al. recently demonstrated how tissue transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) mediated histone glutamine modifications, either dopaminylation in the dopaminergic reward pathway or serotonylation in the context of cellular differentiation and signaling regulate gene expression and decipher striking differences from their known functions. This opens new avenues of research in the field of epigenetics in general and neuroepigenetics as special; and to find out the enzymes responsible for the reversible reaction of histone de-dopaminylation and de-serotonylation.
    Keywords:  Epigenetics; Glutamine modifications; Neurotransmission; Tissue transglutaminase 2; Ventral tegmental area; dopaminylation of H3Q5; serotonylation of H3K4me3Q5
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gene.2020.145323
  12. Front Oncol. 2020 ;10 1703
    Louie MC, Ton J, Brady ML, Le DT, Mar JN, Lerner CA, Gerencser AA, Mookerjee SA.
      Cancer growth is predicted to require substantial rates of substrate catabolism and ATP turnover to drive unrestricted biosynthesis and cell growth. While substrate limitation can dramatically alter cell behavior, the effects of substrate limitation on total cellular ATP production rate is poorly understood. Here, we show that MCF7 breast cancer cells, given different combinations of the common cell culture substrates glucose, glutamine, and pyruvate, display ATP production rates 1.6-fold higher than when cells are limited to each individual substrate. This increase occurred mainly through faster oxidative ATP production, with little to no increase in glycolytic ATP production. In comparison, non-transformed C2C12 myoblast cells show no change in ATP production rate when substrates are limited. In MCF7 cells, glutamine allows unexpected access to oxidative capacity that pyruvate, also a strictly oxidized substrate, does not. Pyruvate, when added with other exogenous substrates, increases substrate-driven oxidative ATP production, by increasing both ATP supply and demand. Overall, we find that MCF7 cells are highly flexible with respect to maintaining total cellular ATP production under different substrate-limited conditions, over an acute (within minutes) timeframe that is unlikely to result from more protracted (hours or more) transcription-driven changes to metabolic enzyme expression. The near-identical ATP production rates maintained by MCF7 and C2C12 cells given single substrates reveal a potential difficulty in using substrate limitation to selectively starve cancer cells of ATP. In contrast, the higher ATP production rate conferred by mixed substrates in MCF7 cells remains a potentially exploitable difference.
    Keywords:  ATP supply flexibility; Crabtree; bioenergetic capacity; glycolysis; oxidative phosphorylation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.01703
  13. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2020 Nov 21. pii: S0958-1669(20)30156-7. [Epub ahead of print]70 29-35
    Goncalves MD, Maddocks OD.
      Cancer cells acquire a diverse range of metabolic adaptations that support their enhanced rates of growth and proliferation. While these adaptations help tune metabolism to support higher anabolic output and bolster antioxidant defenses, they can also decrease metabolic flexibility and increase dependence on nutrient uptake versus de novo synthesis. Diet is the major source of nutrients that ultimately support tumor growth, yet the potential impact of diet is currently underutilized during the treatment of cancer. Here, we review several forms of dietary augmentation therapy including those that alter the content of food, such as energy or macronutrient restriction, and those that alter the timing of food consumption, like intermittent fasting regimens. We discuss how these dietary strategies can be combined with pharmacologic therapies to exaggerate the metabolic liabilities of different cancer types.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copbio.2020.10.007
  14. Nutrition. 2020 Oct 26. pii: S0899-9007(20)30325-7. [Epub ahead of print] 111042
    Suzuki R, Sato Y, Fukaya M, Suzuki D, Yoshizawa F, Sato Y.
      OBJECTIVES: Amino acids are not only the building blocks of proteins, but also can be metabolized to energy substances or function as signaling molecules. The aim of this study was to profile whether amino acid treatment (essential amino acids and alanine) affects the energy metabolism (glycolysis, mitochondrial respiration) of cultured hepatocytes.METHODS: AML12 hepatocytes were treated with 5 mM of each amino acid for 1 h and the energy metabolism was then measured by using an extracellular flux analyzer.
    RESULTS: The results showed that phenylalanine and lysine decreased the extracellular acidification rate (ECAR), an indirect indicator of glycolysis, whereas isoleucine and histidine increased the ECAR. Amino acids did not affect the oxygen consumption rate, an indirect indicator of mitochondrial respiration. The glycolysis stress test revealed that treatment of the hepatocytes with phenylalanine inhibited glycolysis when the concentration of the substrate for glycolysis is sufficient in cultured media. We also investigated the effect of metabolites derived from conversion of phenylalanine on glycolysis in hepatocytes and found that phenylpyruvate inhibited glycolysis, whereas tyrosine and phenylethylamine did not affect glycolysis.
    CONCLUSIONS: The findings form the present study complement basic knowledge of amino acid treatment on energy metabolism in cultured hepatocytes and indicate that phenylalanine and phenylpyruvate inhibit glycolysis.
    Keywords:  Amino acids; Energy metabolism; Glycolysis; Hepatocytes; Phenylalanine; Phenylpyruvate
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2020.111042
  15. Cancer Sci. 2020 Nov 27.
    Murakami S, Tanaka H, Nakayama T, Taniura N, Miyake T, Tani M, Kushima R, Yamamoto G, Sugihara H, Mukaisho KI.
      Metabolic programming of cancer cells is an essential step in transformation and tumor growth. We performed two-dimensional (2D) monolayer culture, and three-dimensional (3D) culture which had been named "tissueoid cell culture system", using four types of tongue cancer cell lines. We also performed a comprehensive metabolome analysis of three groups that included xenografts created by transplanting the cell lines into nude mice. In addition, we performed a functional analysis of the mitochondria, which plays a key role in cancer metabolism. Principal component analysis revealed the plots of the four cell lines to be much narrower in 2D culture than in 3D culture and xenograft groups. Moreover, compared to xenografts, the 2D culture had significantly lower levels of most metabolites. These results suggest that the unique characteristics of each cell disappeared in 2D culture, and a type of metabolism unique to monolayer culture took over. Conversely, ATP production, biomass synthesis, and maintenance of redox balance was conducted in 3D culture using sufficient nutrients, which closely resembled the metabolic activity in the xenografts. However, there were several differences between the metabolic activity in the 3D culture and xenografts. In vivo, the cancer tissue had blood flow with stromal cells present around the cancer cells. In the xenografts, we detected metabolized and degraded products in the liver and other organs of the host mice. Furthermore, the 3D system did not exhibit impairment of mitochondrial function in the cancer cells, suggesting that cancer cells produce energy simultaneously through mitochondria, as well as aerobic glycolysis.
    Keywords:  Cancer metabolism; mitochondrial function; three-dimensional; tissueoid cell culture system; tongue cancer
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/cas.14749
  16. Front Oncol. 2020 ;10 554272
    Wolfe K, Kamata R, Coutinho K, Inoue T, Sasaki AT.
      Despite advances in targeted therapeutics and understanding in molecular mechanisms, metastasis remains a substantial obstacle for cancer treatment. Acquired genetic mutations and transcriptional changes can promote the spread of primary tumor cells to distant tissues. Additionally, recent studies have uncovered that metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells is tightly associated with cancer metastasis. However, whether intracellular metabolism is spatially and temporally regulated for cancer cell migration and invasion is understudied. In this review, we highlight the emergence of a concept, termed "membraneless metabolic compartmentalization," as one of the critical mechanisms that determines the metastatic capacity of cancer cells. In particular, we focus on the compartmentalization of purine nucleotide metabolism (e.g., ATP and GTP) at the leading edge of migrating cancer cells through the uniquely phase-separated microdomains where dynamic exchange of nucleotide metabolic enzymes takes place. We will discuss how future insights may usher in a novel class of therapeutics specifically targeting the metabolic compartmentalization that drives tumor metastasis.
    Keywords:  GTP-metabolism; cancer; leading edge; liquid-liquid phase separation; membraneless metabolic compartmentalization; metabolon; metastasis; purine biosynthesis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.554272
  17. Cell Death Dis. 2020 Nov 26. 11(11): 1012
    Bouzidi A, Magnifico MC, Paiardini A, Macone A, Boumis G, Giardina G, Rinaldo S, Liberati FR, Lauro C, Limatola C, Lanzillotta C, Tramutola A, Perluigi M, Sgarbi G, Solaini G, Baracca A, Paone A, Cutruzzolà F.
      Nutrient utilization and reshaping of metabolism in cancer cells is a well-known driver of malignant transformation. Less clear is the influence of the local microenvironment on metastasis formation and choice of the final organ to invade. Here we show that the level of the amino acid serine in the cytosol affects the migratory properties of lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) cells. Inhibition of serine or glycine uptake from the extracellular milieu, as well as knockdown of the cytosolic one-carbon metabolism enzyme serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT1), abolishes migration. Using rescue experiments with a brain extracellular extract, and direct measurements, we demonstrate that cytosolic serine starvation controls cell movement by increasing reactive oxygen species formation and decreasing ATP levels, thereby promoting activation of the AMP sensor kinase (AMPK) by phosphorylation. Activation of AMPK induces remodeling of the cytoskeleton and finally controls cell motility. These results highlight that cytosolic serine metabolism plays a key role in controlling motility, suggesting that cells are able to dynamically exploit the compartmentalization of this metabolism to adapt their metabolic needs to different cell functions (movement vs. proliferation). We propose a model to explain the relevance of serine/glycine metabolism in the preferential colonization of the brain by LUAD cells and suggest that the inhibition of serine/glycine uptake and/or cytosolic SHMT1 might represent a successful strategy to limit the formation of brain metastasis from primary tumors, a major cause of death in these patients.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03215-0