bims-evares Biomed News
on Evaluation of research
Issue of 2021‒08‒15
33 papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. Front Psychiatry. 2021 ;12 714627
      Background: Citation analysis is a type of quantitative and bibliometric analytic method designed to rank papers based on their citation counts. Over the last few decades, the research on dyslexia has made some progress which helps us to assess this disease, but a citation analysis on dyslexia that reflects these advances is lacking. Methods: A retrospective bibliometric analysis was performed using the Web of Science Core Collection database. The 100 top-cited studies on dyslexia were retrieved after reviewing abstracts or full-texts to May 20th, 2021. Data from the 100 top-cited studies were subsequently extracted and analyzed. Results: The 100 top-cited studies on dyslexia were cited between 245 to 1,456 times, with a median citation count of 345. These studies were published in 50 different journals, with the "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America" having published the most (n = 10). The studies were published between 1973 and 2012 and the most prolific year in terms of number of publications was 2000. Eleven countries contributed to the 100 top-cited studies, and nearly 75% articles were either from the USA (n = 53) or United Kingdom (n = 21). Eighteen researchers published at least two different studies of the 100 top-cited list as the first author. Furthermore, 71 studies were published as an original research article, 28 studies were review articles, and one study was published as an editorial material. Finally, "Psychology" was the most frequent study category. Conclusions: This analysis provides a better understanding on dyslexia and may help doctors, researchers, and stakeholders to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of classic studies, new discoveries, and trends regarding this research field, thus promoting ideas for future investigation.
    Keywords:  bibliometric analysis; citation; citation analysis; dyslexia; top-cited
  2. Tzu Chi Med J. 2021 Jul-Sep;33(3):33(3): 307-313
      Objective: Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a novel index for assessing bone microarchitecture quality. No bibliometric reviews to date have yet explored the literature of TBS. Therefore, this study aimed to provide a bibliometric review on the trends of research publications on TBS indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded and the Social Sciences Citation Index from 2008 to 2019.Materials and Methods: Using the Science Citation Index Expanded and the Social Sciences Citation Index, articles designated as original articles or review articles were searched using the keyword "trabecular bone score." The retrieved articles were analyzed using Histcite 12.03.17 and VOSviewer v. 1.6.15 to identify top authors, journals, countries, and occurrence of keywords.
    Results: A total of 430 original and review articles on TBS published between 2008 and 2019 were identified. The number of articles increased steadily from 2008 to 2019, reaching 80 articles in 2019 alone. The United States of America, Switzerland, and France were the countries with the highest output of publications. The journal Osteoporosis International published the largest number of articles on TBS. Analysis of co-occurrence of author-supplied keywords revealed four clusters, with TBS, bone mineral density, and osteoporosis as the most prominent keywords.
    Conclusion: This bibliometric study on TBS published between 2008 and 2019 revealed the collaborative network of countries and the highly published journals and authors. Co-occurrence of keywords also revealed clusters of research hotspots, which could contribute to the understanding of the current state of TBS research and the identification of research gap.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric analysis; Bone mineral density; Osteoporosis; Research trends; Trabecular bone score
  3. Turk Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2021 Jun;59(2): 88-94
      Objective: The primary aim of the study was to perform sequential analyses together with a citation analysis on the characteristics of the studies published in the Turkish Archives of Otorhinolaryngology (TAO) in the periods of 2010-2014 and 2015-2019.Methods: The studies published in the indicated periods were reviewed for study type, study topic, language and country of origin. Then, the citation analysis of the articles was performed through the Google Scholar and Web of Science (WoS) databases for the indicated periods. The estimated annual impact factors (EIF) of TAO from 2017 to 2020 were calculated by dividing the total number of citations performed in the projected year to the total number of citable articles published in the preceding two years.
    Results: The total numbers of articles published from 2010 to 2014 and from 2015 to 2019 were 144 and 214, respectively. In 2010 to 2014, the most frequent study topic was head and neck with case reports ranking highest among study types. In 2015-2019, the most frequent study type had changed to original investigation and topic to general otorhinolaryngology. There was a remarkable increase in the total number of citations in 2015-2019 according to Google Scholar and WoS databases. Also, there was a remarkable increase in the EIF values for 2019 and 2020.
    Conclusion: Although the increase in the number of citations and impact factor values cannot be appreciated as a single indicator for the success of a journal, the results of the presented study showed a promising advancement in the scientific quality of the TAO, driven by the inclusion of the journal to national and international indexes and by changing the language of the journal to English, as well as the well-orchestrated editorial efforts.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; citation; medical journalism; otorhinolaryngology; publications
  4. Front Public Health. 2021 ;9 697633
      Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is an emerging exercise strategy and is considered to be a recipe for health promotion. This study aimed to systematically identify collaboration networks, track research trends, highlight current hotspots, and predict future frontiers in HIIT and its applications in health promotion since the start of the new century. Methods: Relevant original publications were obtained from the Science Citation Index Expanded of the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) database between 2001 and 2020. CiteSpace and VOSviewer software were used to perform bibliometric visualization and comparative analysis of involved indexes that included countries, institutions, journals, authors, references, and keywords. Results: A total of 572 papers were included, and the trend of annual publications showed a remarkable growth. The United States and the University of Exeter were the most productive country and institutions, respectively, with 107 and 18 publications, respectively. European Journal of Applied Physiology took the lead in the number of published articles, and Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise ranked first in the cocitation counts. Barker AR and Gibala MJ were considered as the most productive and the most highly-cited authors. Conclusions: "Health risks," "adolescent," and "aging" are the three noteworthy topics during the evolution of HIIT-health promotion (HIIT-HP) research. The current research hotspots of HIIT and its practices in the health promotion domain lies in "metabolic diseases," "cardiovascular diseases," "neurological diseases," and "musculoskeletal diseases." The authors summarize that "prevention and rehabilitation," "micro and molecular level," and "cognition and mental health" are becoming frontiers and focus on the health topics related to HIIT in the upcoming years, which are worthy of further exploration.
    Keywords:  CiteSpace; VOSviewer; bibliometric analysis; health promotion; high intensity interval training
  5. Front Psychiatry. 2021 ;12 683474
      Depression is one of the common mental illnesses. Because it is an important complication of diabetes, its association with changes in insulin levels and insulin resistance, the causative factors of diabetes, has attracted widespread attention. However, the association between insulin and depression has not been systematically studied through bibliometric and visual analysis. This study is based on 3131 publications of Web of Science to identify the current research status and research trends in this field. The results show that since 2010, the number of publications has been growing rapidly. Cooperative network analysis shows that the United States, the University of Toronto and Roger S Mcintyre are the most influential countries, research institutes and scholars, respectively. Insulin resistance, obesity, and metabolic syndrome are hot topics in this field. Analysis of keywords and references reveals that "sex hormones," is new research area that constantly emerging. As far as we know, this study is the first one to visualize the association between depression and insulin and predict potential future research trends through bibliometric and visual analysis.
    Keywords:  bibliometric analysis; citespace; depression; insulin; sex hormones
  6. Andrologia. 2021 Aug 07. e14206
      In the past two decades, thousands of documents in the field of prostatitis have been published. This bibliometric analysis aimed to assess the characteristics, hotspots and frontiers trend of global scientific output on prostatitis. With the trend of moderate growth, altogether 2,423 papers were reviewed. The leading role of the United States in global prostatitis research was obvious, while China had developed rapidly in recent years. Queen's University and JOURNAL OF UROLOGY were the most prolific affiliation and journal respectively. Nickel, J. C made the greatest contribution to the field of prostatitis. Five hotspots have been confirmed: (a) male infertility associated with prostatitis and the molecular mechanisms; (b) diagnosis and treatment of prostatitis; (c) inflammation, pain and bladder irritation symptoms; (d) relationship between chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer; (e) epidemiology, complications of prostatitis and improvement of acupuncture. This bibliometric analysis reveals that the international cooperation was becoming more and more close. Hotspot analysis shows that the molecular mechanism of prostatitis will be a hotspot in the future, mainly focussing on inflammatory immunity and oxidative stress.
    Keywords:  VOSviewer; bibliographic item co-occurrence matrix builder; bibliometric analysis; prostatitis; research trends
  7. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2021 Sep 01. 46(17): 1172-1179
      STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional.OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of manuscripts achieving 6-year citation rates higher than the mean in spine-specific literature.
    SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: An article's citation rate demonstrates its contribution to academia and its quality. Predictors of citation rates have not yet been studied in spine-specific medical literature.
    METHODS: Three leading spine-specific journals were identified by a weighted scoring system comparing various journal metrics. Research articles published in 2014 were evaluated from the following journals: Spine, European Spine Journal, and Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine. Article features analyzed included journal of origin, number of words in article title, author count, degree of first author, conflicts of interest, quantity of contributing academic institutions, country of origin, study topic, study design, level of evidence, sample size, reference count, and citation rate. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine predictors of above average citation rate at 6 years following publication.
    RESULTS: The final analysis included 1091 articles. Spine had a significantly higher citation rate than European Spine Journal (P = 0.0008); however, no significant differences were observed between Spine and Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine. Regression analysis demonstrated that studies originating in North America (OR:1.44, 95% CI:1.01-2.01, P = 0.04), those with 6 ≥ authors (OR:1.72, 95% CI:1.29-2.30, P < 0.001), sample size >100 (P < 0.001), prospective case series (OR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.24-5.76), and retrospective case series (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.07-3.73) were independent predictors of achieving above average 6-year citation rates.
    CONCLUSION: Spine, European Spine Journal, and Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine had the highest 6-year citation rates of the top 10 orthopedic spine journals, with Spine being significantly higher than European Spine Journal. Studies originating in North America, those with six or more authors, sample sizes > 100, and those that are retrospective or prospective case series are independent predictors of greater citation rates at 6 years in orthopedic spine-specific medical literature.Level of Evidence: 4.
  8. BMJ Support Palliat Care. 2021 Aug 09. pii: bmjspcare-2021-002982. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Despite the important benefits of a bibliometric approach on mapping a research field, relatively little efforts have previously been conducted to map and analyse the global trends of palliative care (PC)-related research. This bibliometric review aimed to provide an overall picture and systematic mapping of the state of research trends within the field of PC internationally.METHODS: Scopus and Web of Science databases were searched to retrieve original articles focusing on PC between 2002 and 2020. Searching was conducted on 5 May 2020, and was updated on 6 May 2021. All retrieved articles were assessed by title and abstract, and the bibliometric metadata of those that met the inclusion criteria were downloaded for analysis. The results were analysed by VOSviewer and Gephi software.
    RESULTS: A total of 19,199 articles met the inclusion criteria. Significant growth of the number of published articles was reported by around five-fold from 2002 to 2020. The USA and UK were the most productive countries in terms of the number of papers published and citations. Weak collaborations were observed between low-income or middle-income countries and high-income countries. Cancer-related PC research was the most common focus. Seven clusters of research were identified and included heart failure and cancer prognosis, nursing home, pain and symptoms management, PC knowledge and attitudes, quality improvement of services, PC ethics, and the ongoing assessment of PC services.
    CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to expand PC-related research to non-cancer diseases. More international research and cross-institutional cooperation is required to address more global PC issues and benefit from wider sharing of expertees, potentially leading to higher quality or more impactful studies. Setting up research agendas and priorities from funding bodies and institutions may also enhance cooperation among researchers.
    Keywords:  bibliometric; clustering analysis; global trend; mapping; palliative care
  9. Scientometrics. 2021 Aug 05. 1-38
      In this article, we show the results of a quantitative and qualitative analysis of open citations on a popular and highly cited retracted paper: "Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis and pervasive developmental disorder in children" by Wakefield et al., published in 1998. The main purpose of our study is to understand the behavior of the publications citing one retracted article and the characteristics of the citations the retracted article accumulated over time. Our analysis is based on a methodology which illustrates how we gathered the data, extracted the topics of the citing articles and visualized the results. The data and services used are all open and free to foster the reproducibility of the analysis. The outcomes concerned the analysis of the entities citing Wakefield et al.'s article and their related in-text citations. We observed a constant increasing number of citations in the last 20 years, accompanied with a constant increment in the percentage of those acknowledging its retraction. Citing articles have started either discussing or dealing with the retraction of Wakefield et al.'s article even before its full retraction happened in 2010. Articles in the social sciences domain citing the Wakefield et al.'s one were among those that have mostly discussed its retraction. In addition, when observing the in-text citations, we noticed that a large number of the citations received by Wakefield et al.'s article has focused on general discussions without recalling strictly medical details, especially after the full retraction. Medical studies did not hesitate in acknowledging the retraction of the Wakefield et al.'s article and often provided strong negative statements on it.
    Keywords:  Citation analysis; Retraction; Science of Science; Topic modeling
  10. J Rural Soc Sci. 2021 ;pii: 6. [Epub ahead of print]36(1):
      The Amish are an endogamous rural population experiencing rapid growth; consequently, they have attracted the attention of population health researchers and service providers. With approximately one quarter of all Amish studies publications now devoted to population health (n=246), the time is ripe to review research trends. Using bibliometric measures, we map the genealogy, influence, and configuration of Amish health publications. Amish population health research has (1) a health culture-focused core with clusters representing social science and health practice, (2) peripheral clusters addressing health conditions-mental, physical, and injury/safety-and (3) several clusters straddling both. We identify fruitful interdisciplinary studies and recommend researchers investigating health culture and conditions seek ways to integrate their research agendas. This article represents a pivot-point for Amish population health research, for it provides a first-ever bibliometric mapping, allowing researchers to more easily locate their work within the literature and identify opportunities for interdisciplinary collaborations.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric analysis; citation network analysis; ethnicity and population health; meta-review; religion and population health
  11. J Environ Manage. 2021 Aug 06. pii: S0301-4797(21)01537-1. [Epub ahead of print]298 113475
      Environmental communication (EC) is of great significance to the practice of environmental protection by human society, as it involves disseminating ecological and environmental information, communicating environmental risks, and increasing environmental awareness among the audience. In this study, knowledge mapping analysis was used to systematically review research in the field of EC. A scientometric analysis (1900-2020) was carried out on 2219 journal articles obtained from the Web of Science database to explore the basic characteristics, research hotspots, and research frontiers of EC research. The results revealed that: (1) Research on EC received widespread attention since the beginning of the 21st century, and 2010 was an important turning point in the study of EC. EC research shows the trend of interdisciplinary development. (2) Well-known universities in western countries and from around the world constitute the main body of current EC research. However, there is still a lack of international cooperation in the field of EC research. (3) Climate change, as a complex scientific issue, is not only a global environmental issue, but also the most concerned and hot issue in the field of EC. It has a strong political attribute and has become a major issue that cannot be ignored in politics. (4) According to the timeline analysis of research hotspots, EC research was innovatively divided into an initial stage, a development stage, and a rising stage. Combined the keyword bursts result with the research hotspots analysis, the research frontier of EC was divided into four periods. Finally, the shortcomings of this study are summarized and directions for future research of EC are proposed by considering the following four aspects: research perspective, research content, research paradigm and method, and research context.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; CiteSpace; Environmental communication; Knowledge map
  12. PLoS One. 2021 ;16(8): e0254988
      BACKGROUND: During uncertainties associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, effectively improving people's health literacy is more important than ever. Drawing knowledge maps of health literacy research through data mining and visualized measurement technology helps systematically present the research status and development trends in global academic circles.METHODS: This paper uses CiteSpace to carry out a metric analysis of 9,492 health literacy papers included in Web of Science through mapping knowledge domains. First, based on the production theory of scientific knowledge and the data mining of citations, the main bodies (country, institution and author) that produce health literacy knowledge as well as their mutual cooperation (collaboration network) are both clarified. Additionally, based on the quantitative framework of cocitation analysis, this paper introduces the interdisciplinary features, development trends and hot topics of the field. Finally, by using burst detection technology in the literature, it further reveals the research frontiers of health literacy.
    RESULTS: The results of the BC measures of the global health literacy research collaboration network show that the United States, Australia and the United Kingdom are the major forces in the current international collaboration network on health literacy. There are still relatively very few transnational collaborations between Eastern and Western research institutions. Collaborations in public environmental occupational health, health care science services, nursing and health policy services have been active in the past five years. Research topics in health literacy research evolve over time, mental health has been the most active research field in recent years.
    CONCLUSIONS: A systematic approach is needed to address the challenges of health literacy, and the network framework of cooperation on health literacy at regional, national and global levels should be strengthened to further promote the application of health literacy research. In the future, we anticipate that this research field will expand in two directions, namely, mental health literacy and eHealth literacy, both of which are closely linked to social development and issues. The results of this study provide references for future applied research in health literacy.
  13. Cien Saude Colet. 2021 Aug;pii: S1413-81232021000803199. [Epub ahead of print]26(8): 3199-3208
      The lack of knowledge in the biomedical literature regarding the validity of qualitative studies might be related to the lower number of qualitative studies that have been published. The criticisms range from a lack of theoretical depth to the superficial discussions of empirical findings. The aim of this study was to explore the bibliometric entities and the trends in the structure of qualitative research in the biomedical literature. A bibliometric analysis and mapping of the biomedical literature were used. The number of studies selected was 1,725. The heath themes with the most publications included Health Management (12%) and Women's Health (9.8%), while the authors of the studies had academic affiliation in 76 different countries. The sample sizes were between 11 and 20 participants (27.13%) and the Grounded Theory framework (9.04%) stood out. The improved structuring of a qualitative research extends the effective communication between health providers and researchers, and support in the management of clinical situations.
  14. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2021 Aug 12.
      Importance: Individuals with perceived experience and expertise are invited by editorial boards to provide commentary through editorials. Female representation among editorialists is not yet defined.Objective: To determine female representation as editorial authors in 3 high-impact general ophthalmology journals.
    Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study investigates the proportion of female authorship in editorials published between 2005 to 2009 and 2015 to 2019 in 3 journals: Ophthalmology, JAMA Ophthalmology, and American Journal of Ophthalmology. Data were collected from April to June 2020.
    Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportions of female first and senior (last or solo) authors between 2005 to 2009 compared with 2015 to 2019. Secondary outcome measures include representation by sex across degree types and subspecialties. Comparisons were made for all editorialists and ophthalmologist editorialists.
    Results: Of 814 editorial articles, there were 1179 (first and senior) authors identified. Women held 301 (25.5%) of these authorships, including 116 of 365 first authorships (32.9%) and 185 of 814 senior authorships (23.9%). Overall, female first and senior authorships grew by 68.0% between 2005 to 2009 and 2015 to 2019 (85 of 469 [18.1%] vs 216 of 710 [30.4%]; difference, 12.3%; 95% CI, 7.4-317.2; P < .001). Between 2005 to 2009 and 2015 to 2019, first and senior authorships by women increased (first: 33 of 133 [24.8%] vs 83 of 232 [35.8%]; difference, 11.0%; 95% CI, 1.4-320.6; P = .03; senior: 52 of 336 [15.5%] vs 133 of 478 [27.8%]; difference, 12.3%; 95% CI, 6.8-317.9; P < .001). JAMA Ophthalmology most substantially contributed to the increase in female first and senior authorships (13.8% and 16%), although the test for homogeneity among the 3 journals was not significant. The proportion of female ophthalmologist first authors was greater than the proportion of American Board of Ophthalmology-certified female ophthalmologists (81 of 281 [28.9%] vs 123 of 672 [18.3%]; difference, 10.6%; 95% CI, 5.3-315.9; P < .001).
    Conclusions and Relevance: The proportion of female senior authors increased by 68.0% between 2005 to 2009 and 2015 to 2019, but female authors represented only 25.5% of editorialists. Compared with male ophthalmologists, female ophthalmologists were more commonly first than senior authors. Additionally, female authors were more likely to be nonophthalmologists or to hold nonmedical, non-PhD degrees. While the swelling rank of female editorialists has paralleled the rising proportion of female ophthalmologists over time, parity by sex has yet to be attained. Greater awareness of disparities and strategies to mitigate them may help equalize representation.
  15. World J Surg. 2021 Aug 12.
      BACKGROUND: Presentation at academic conferences is an important marker of research productivity. However, not all accepted abstracts progress to full publication, and there is anecdotal evidence suggesting an imbalance in sex and ethnicity amongst presenters. There is a lack of data evaluating the outcome of prize presentation sessions at academic surgical conferences in the UK. This study aimed to analyse the outcomes and demographics from presentations at prize sessions at two prestigious UK surgical conferences.METHODS: This retrospective observational study compared data on all Moynihan (Association of Surgeons of Great Britain and Ireland) and Patey (Surgical Research Society) prize presentations from 2000 to 2020. The primary outcome was rate of publication. Secondary outcomes included demographic differences in sex and ethnicity, publication according to prize outcome, academic affiliation, time to publication, and journal impact factor.
    RESULTS: Some 442 accepted abstracts were identified over the 21-year period, with 71.0% from the Moynihan sessions and 79.3% from the Patey sessions leading to full publications, with a median time to publication of 448 days (IQR 179-859) in journals with relatively high impact factors (median 5.00; IQR 3.15-6.36). Of the 442 prize presenters, 85 (19.2%) were female. The majority of the presenters were White males (211, 47.7%), followed by Asian males (112, 25.3%). However, there was a continuously increasing overall trend of female presenters from 2000 to 2020 (P = 0.019).
    CONCLUSION: Publication rates from the two prize sessions were high, with presenters publishing in journals with high impact factors. There, however, was a disparity in sex and ethnicity amongst presenters.
  16. Educ Inf Technol (Dordr). 2021 Aug 06. 1-30
      Educational technologies have captured the attention of researchers, policy makers, and parents. Each year, considerable effort and money are invested into new technologies, hoping to find the next effective learning tool. However, technology changes rapidly and little attention is paid to the changes after they occur. This paper provides an overall picture of the changing trends in educational technology by analyzing the Horizon Reports' predictions of the most influential educational technologies from 2011 to 2021, identifying larger trends across these yearly predictions, and by using bibliometric analysis to evaluate the accuracy of the identified trends. The results suggest that mobile and analytics technologies trended consistently across the period, there was a trend towards maker technologies and games in the early part of the decade, and emerging technologies (e.g., VR, AI) are predicted to trend in the future. Overall, the specific technologies focused on by the HRs' predictions and by educational researchers' publications seem to coincide with the availability of consumer grade technologies, suggesting that the marketplace and technology industry is driving trends (cf., pedagogy or theory).
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; Elementary education; Horizon Reports; Secondary education; Technology trends
  17. Front Big Data. 2021 ;4 631073
      The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has had an unprecedented impact on humanity as well as research activities in life sciences and medicine. Between January and August 2020, the number of coronavirus-related scientific articles was roughly 50 times more than that of articles published in the entire year of 2019 in PubMed. It is necessary to better understand the dynamics of research on COVID-19, an emerging topic, and suggest ways to understand and improve the quality of research. We analyze the dynamics of coronavirus research before and after the outbreaks of SARS, MERS, and COVID-19 by examining all the published articles from the past 25 years in PubMed. We delineate research networks on coronaviruses as we identify experts' background in terms of topics of previous research, affiliations, and international co-authorships. Two distinct dynamics of coronavirus research were found: 1) in the cases of regional pandemics, SARS and MERS, the scope of cross-disciplinary research remained between neighboring research areas; 2) in the case of the global pandemic, COVID-19, research activities have spread beyond neighboring disciplines with little transnational collaboration. Thus, COVID-19 has transformed the structure of research on coronaviruses as an emerging issue. Knowledge on COVID-19 is distributed across the widest range of disciplines, transforming research networks well beyond the field of medicine but within national boundaries. Given the unprecedented scale of COVID-19 and the nationalization of responses, the most likely way forward is to accumulate local knowledge with the awareness of transdisciplinary research dynamics.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; PubMed; coronavirus research; researcher dynamics; scientometrics
  18. Br J Pain. 2021 Aug;15(3): 246-248
      Enlisting an author on a published paper, whose input was insufficient, is called honorary authorship. The aim of this study is to assess the proportion of honorary authorship in the field of pain medicine. Data were collected from seven high-impact journals. Corresponding authors were sent a survey regarding their awareness on authorship guidelines, the decision-making in authorship and specific contributions made to the surveyed article. We identified two types of honorary authorship: (1) self-perceived honorary authorship, which is measured by asking the corresponding author if honorary authorship was present according to their opinion and (2) International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE)-defined honorary authorship, which is honorary authorship based on the guidelines. In total, 1051 mails were sent and 231 responded, leading to a response rate of 22.0%. 81.3% of the respondents were familiar with the ICMJE authorship guidelines, while 59.6% were aware of the issue of honorary authorship. 13.3% of the respondents were employed at a department in which the senior member is automatically included on all manuscripts. The ICMJE-defined honorary authorship was 40%, while self-perceived honorary authorship was 13.5%. There seems to be a high awareness of the ICMJE guidelines among corresponding authors in the field of Pain Medicine. Despite this high awareness, a high proportion of journal articles had honorary authorship, suggesting that authorship guidelines fail to be applied in a significant proportion of the literature.
    Keywords:  Honorary authorship; anaesthesia; pain; survey
  19. S Afr Med J. 2021 Jun 30. 111(7): 649-654
      BACKGROUND: Research in human vaccines and immunisation plays a crucial role in shaping national, regional and global health policies aimed at controlling vaccine preventable diseases (VPDs). To our knowledge, the landscape of human vaccine and immunisation research in South Africa (SA) is not well characterised.OBJECTIVES: To characterise research in human vaccines and immunisation in SA.
    METHODS: We conducted a bibliometric study. Seven electronic databases (PubMed; Scopus; Web of Science; Cochrane; CINAHL; Africa-Wide Information; and MEDLINE (via EBSCOhost)) were searched for eligible studies published in English between 1 January 2007 and 31 March 2020. Selected primary studies needed to be on human vaccine and immunisation research conducted in SA. All types of reviews were excluded. For the included studies, outcomes of interest included publication journals, publication trends, types of studies and VPDs, targeted populations, as well as author affiliations.
    RESULTS: A total of 9 212 studies was retrieved. After screening for eligibility, 366 studies met the inclusion criteria. The key findings were as follows: (i) a total of 54 (14.8 %) articles on human vaccine and immunisation research in SA appeared in local journals, while 312 (85.2%) were in non-SA (international) journals; (ii) the number of publications on human vaccine and immunisation research in SA increased from 13 in 2007 to 47 in 2015; (iii) there were 189 (51.7%) operational studies and 177 (48.3%) clinical studies, with 88 (49.7%) of the latter being clinical trials; (iv) human vaccine and immunisation research in SA is conducted across all age groups, with a focus on children; and (v) authors of the identified research outputs and those mostly represented were from the universities of Cape Town and the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
    CONCLUSIONS: The landscape of human vaccine and immunisation research in SA is growing and adapting to the emerging trends in vaccinology, with a focus on the duo epidemic of HIV and TB, as well as Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI)-related vaccinations. This research contributes to locally relevant evidence that can be used to inform future vaccine and EPI-related research.
  20. J Emerg Med. 2021 Aug 04. pii: S0736-4679(21)00547-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Gender inequities in recognition, compensation, promotion, and leadership roles exist in emergency medicine. Formal recognition in the workplace and opportunities for advancement are vulnerable to bias.OBJECTIVE: To examine the gender distribution of national awards in emergency medicine, to analyze whether there is a gap, and to highlight notable trends.
    METHODS: Recipients of the major award categories between 2001 and 2020 were examined for the 3 main national emergency medicine organizations. The gender distribution of award winners by year was compared with the gender distribution of female faculty in emergency medicine departments using data from the Association of American Medical Colleges and a chi-squared analysis.
    RESULTS: The gender gap in award winners has decreased over time, but men are still disproportionately given national awards over women. In all 3 organizations, women represented a smaller proportion of award winners than men when compared with the national proportion of women in academic emergency medicine. Advocacy awards were the one category where women were more likely to be recognized. Women were notably least likely to receive clinical and leadership awards.
    CONCLUSIONS: The gender gap in emergency medicine awards has narrowed in the last 20 years but still exists. This discrepancy is an example of how bias can compound over time to generate gaps in recognition, career advancement, and promotion. The pipeline to award nominations should be addressed at the individual, departmental, awards committee, and organizational levels. © 2021 Elsevier Inc.
    Keywords:  American Association of Emergency Medicine (AAEM); American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP); Society of Academic Emergency Medicine (SAEM); awards; emergency medicine organizations; gender equity
  21. Disabil Health J. 2021 Jul 14. pii: S1936-6574(21)00138-2. [Epub ahead of print] 101172
      BACKGROUND: Person-centered language (PCL) is the recommended method of addressing patients by the American Medical Association Manual of Style in medical research, thus requiring published manuscripts to be free of non-PCL. Although individuals, communities, and organizations have the autonomy to use non-PCL, it is imperative for medical researchers to use PCL in an effort to reduce the transfer of stigmatization into clinical practice.OBJECTIVE: To determine current adherence to PCL related to individuals with limb or digit amputations in scientific journals.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis was performed by systematically searching PubMed from May 1, 2018 to April 30, 2020 for publications focused on amputations. Journals with less than 20 articles were excluded, and remaining publications were randomized, with the first 500 articles selected. Articles were screened for inclusion criteria, and data were extracted in masked, duplicate fashion, for predetermined non-PCL terms. A chi-squared test and logistic regression were used to quantify PCL adherence study characteristics.
    RESULTS: Of 500 articles, 81 were excluded, and 419 articles from 13 journals were examined-64.6% containing non-PCL. The most common non-PCL terms used were "amputee" in 148 articles and "limb loss" in 138 articles. PCL was significantly associated with article type, research funding, and journal requirements for PCL.
    CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that one-third of research articles were PCL-adherent, which we speculate may contribute to the stigma that individuals with amputations experience. Our findings suggest that PCL adherence is higher among surgery research and lower among engineering and prosthetic research.
    Keywords:  Amputation; Person-centered language; Stigma
  22. AAS Open Res. 2021 ;4 26
      Background: There are low levels of research productivity among Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) in Africa, a situation that is likely to compromise the development agenda of the continent if not addressed. We conducted a systematic literature review to determine the factors associated with research productivity in HEIs in Africa and the researchers' motives for research. Methods: We identified 838 papers related to research productivity in HEIs in Africa from various databases, from which we included 28 publications for review. The inclusion criteria were that (i) the paper's primary focus was on factors associated with research productivity; (ii) the setting was on the higher education institutions in Africa; (iii) the type of publication was peer-reviewed papers and book chapters based on primary or secondary data analysis; and (iv) the language was English or French. Essays, opinions, blogs, editorials, reviews, and commentaries were excluded. Results: Most of the studies operationalized research productivity as either journal publications or conference proceedings. Both institutional and individual factors are associated with the level of research productivity in HEIs in Africa. Institutional factors include the availability of research funding, level of institutional networking, and the degree of research collaborations, while individual factors include personal motivation, academic qualifications, and research self-efficacy. Conclusions: Deliberate efforts in HEIs in Africa that addressed both individual and institutional barriers to research productivity are promising. This study recommends that the leadership of HEIs in Africa prioritizes the funding of research to enable researchers to contribute to the development agenda of the continent. Moreover, HEIs should build institutional support to research through the provision of research enabling environments, policies and incentives; strengthening of researchers' capabilities through relevant training courses, mentorship and coaching; and embracing networking and collaboration opportunities.
    Keywords:  Africa; Research productivity; factors associated to research; higher education institutions; institutional factors; motivations
  23. J Med Radiat Sci. 2021 Aug 12.
      INTRODUCTION: Phase-contrast imaging (PCI) is a novel technology that can visualise variations in X-ray refraction (phase contrast) in addition to differences in X-ray attenuation (absorption contrast). Compared to radiography using conventional methods (i.e. absorption-based imaging), PCI techniques can potentially produce images with higher contrast-to-noise ratio and superior spatial resolution at the same or lower radiation doses. This has led PCI to be explored for implementation in medical imaging. While interest in this research field is increasing, the whole body of PCI research in medical imaging has been under-investigated. This paper provides an overview of PCI literature and then focusses on evaluating its development within the scope of medical imaging.METHODS: Bibliographic data between 1995 and 2018 were used to visualise collaboration networks between countries, institutions and authors. Social network analysis techniques were implemented to measure these networks in terms of centrality and cohesion. These techniques also assisted in the exploration of underlying research paradigms of clinical X-ray PCI investigations.
    RESULTS: Forty-one countries, 592 institutions and 2073 authors contributed 796 investigations towards clinical PCI research. The most influential contributors and network collaboration characteristics were identified. Italy was the most influential country, with the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility being the most influential institution. At an author level, F. Pfeiffer was found to be the most influential researcher. Among various PCI techniques, grating interferometry was the most investigated, while computed tomography was the most frequently examined modality.
    CONCLUSIONS: By gaining an understanding of collaborations and trends within clinical X-ray PCI research, the links between existing collaborators were identified, which can aid future collaborations between emerging and established collaborators. Moreover, exploring the paradigm of past investigations can shape future research - well-researched PCI techniques may be studied to bring X-ray PCI closer to clinical implementation, or the potential of seldom-investigated techniques may be explored.
    Keywords:  Clinical application; X-rays; phase-contrast imaging; social network
  24. Physiother Can. 2020 ;72(1): 71-80
      Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe the nature and extent of publications and to evaluate whether lead advisor role and experience, data collection tool, sample size, and research topic predict publication for research projects completed as part of a Canadian Master of Science in Physical Therapy (MScPT) programme. Method: We conducted a quantitative, cross-sectional, retrospective review of projects completed between 2003 and 2015 and confirmed publication status through citations of published work, a literature search, and a survey of advisors. We used descriptive statistics to describe the nature and extent of publications and logistic regression to analyze potential predictor variables. Results: Between 2003 and 2015, 44.5% of the 218 projects completed were associated with at least one peer-reviewed journal publication, and there was a seven-fold increase in annual publication rate. Projects led by a scientist or researcher ([OR] = 3.09; 95% CI: 1.15, 8.35), qualitative projects with 10 or more participants ([OR] 6.22; 95% CI: 1.96, 19.78), and quantitative projects with more than 50 participants ([OR] = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.14, 4.63) were associated with an increased likelihood of publication. Conclusions: MScPT research is published at a moderate rate, and annual publication rates increased between 2003 and 2015. Encouragement to obtain adequate sample sizes and additional support for clinician-led projects may enhance publication rates and, ultimately, bridge gaps in research-to-practice integration.
    Keywords:  application des connaissances; curriculum; evidence-based practice; knowledge translation; pratique fondée sur des données probantes; programme universitaire; students; étudiants
  25. PLoS One. 2021 ;16(8): e0254744
      The breakthrough potentials of research papers can be explained by their boundary-spanning qualities. Here, for the first time, we apply the structural variation analysis (SVA) model and its affiliated metrics to investigate the extent to which such qualities characterize a group of Nobel Prize winning papers. We find that these papers share remarkable boundary-spanning traits, marked by exceptional abilities to connect disparate and topically-diverse clusters of research papers. Further, their publications exert structural variations on a scale that significantly alters the betweenness centrality distributions in existing intellectual space. Overall, SVA not only provides a set of leading indicators for describing future Nobel Prize winning papers, but also broadens our understanding of similar prize-winning properties that may have been overlooked among other regular publications.
  26. Cir Esp. 2021 Aug 05. pii: S0009-739X(21)00208-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Publications are used widely as a measure of academic quality. Many investigators have difficulty publishing in this competitive field. After coming across a religious lecture on the "Fourteen Crutches for Mediocrity", our team adapted this approach to life to the science of publishing: (1) what is the problem of doing it?; (2) there are worse!; (3) everybody does it!; (4) why exaggerate?; (5) I will do it tomorrow!; (6) maybe if …; (7) it is not used anymore!; (8) be a cousin not a brother!; (9) I need to be thanked!; (10) don't eat your own head, let it be!; (11) I can't possibly accomplish it!; (12) I don't feel like doing it!; (13) I am fed up!; (14) I am not worthwhile! These crutches jeopardize good research and thoughtful learned publications.
    Keywords:  Becas; Bibliometrics; Bibliometría; Escritura médica; Investigación; Manuscripts; Manuscritos; Medical writing; Publicaciones; Publications; Research; Scholarship
  27. Postgrad Med J. 2021 Aug 09. pii: postgradmedj-2020-139615. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Despite changes in the discourse around gender distributions within academic leadership, women continue to be under-represented in academia. Our study aims to identify the extent of gender disparity in the academic leadership in the top 50 North American universities and to critically analyse the contributing factors through a comprehensive theoretical framework.METHODS: We adopted the theoretical framework of leadership continuum model. A retrospective analysis of the gender of the leadership ranks was conducted between December 2018 and March 2019 for the top 50 universities in North America (2019 Quacquarelli Symonds World University Ranking system). The leadership hierarchy was classified into six tiers.
    RESULTS: A total of 5806 faculty members from 45 US and five Canadian universities were included. Women were overall less likely to be in a senior leadership role than men (48.7% vs 51.3%; p value=0.05). Women accounted for fewer positions than men for resident/chancellor (23.8% vs 76.2%; p value<0.001), vice-president/vice-chancellor (36.3% vs 63.7%; p value<0.001), vice provost (42.7% vs 57.3%; p value=0.06), dean (38.5% vs 61.5%; p value<0.001) and associate dean (48.2% vs 51.8%; p-value=0.05). Women however were in a greater proportion in the assistant dean positions (63.8% vs 36.2%; p value<0.001).
    CONCLUSION: Leadership gender imbalance is trans-organisational and transnational within the top 50 universities of North America and progressively widens towards the top leadership pyramid. This correlates with the lack of women leadership progress and sustainability in later cycles of the leadership continuum model (beyond assistant dean).
    Keywords:  education and training; health policy; health services administration & management