bims-evares Biomed News
on Evaluation of research
Issue of 2021‒06‒20
forty-two papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. World Neurosurg. 2021 Jun 12. pii: S1878-8750(21)00858-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      INTRODUCTION: Citation rates are an important measure for the impact of publications. This study is the most comprehensive analysis of predictors for scientific neurosurgical research articles.METHODS: Scientific articles published in 13 neurosurgical journals in 2015 were selected. Data collected included: article subject, level of evidence (LOE), journal impact factor (IF), authorship, contributing centers, and study design. Citation counts were collected for each article in the Web of Science (WoS), Google Scholar (GS), and Scopus 2.5 and 5 years after publication. A generalized linear mixed effects model using the predictors of search engine, LOE, number of centers, number of authors, and IF was constructed to predict total citation count at 5 years.
    RESULTS: 2867 articles generated 39190 citations in WoS, 61682 in GS, and 43481 in Scopus. The median [interquartile range] number of citations per article was 10 [14] in WoS, 15 [20] in GS, and 11 [15] in Scopus. On average, for every 1 citation in WoS, Scopus and GS identified 1.11 and 1.58 citations, respectively. Significant predictors of citation count in all databases 5 years after publication included search engine, LOE, number of centers, number of authors, number of countries, journal IF, and the month of publication (p<0.05). The article subject (tumor, spine, etc.) did not significantly predict citation counts.
    CONCLUSIONS: In the most thorough analysis of citation predictors in the neurosurgical literature, search engine, LOE, number of centers, number of authors, number of countries, journal impact factor, and month of publication influenced citations 5 years after publication.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; Citation Rate; Collaboration; Level of Evidence; Neurosurgery; Publications
  2. J Phys Act Health. 2021 Jun 17. pii: jpah.2020-0744. [Epub ahead of print] 1-16
      BACKGROUND: To date, no citation analysis has been conducted in the physical activity field, which can contribute to assess the impact of this research field and identify knowledge gaps. Therefore, this study aimed to identify the 500 most cited physical activity publications and report their bibliometric characteristics.METHODS: The Web of Science database (all database indexes) was searched, and bibliometric characteristics were imported and calculated.
    RESULTS: A total of 520 publications were ranked as the top 500. The sum of the citations was 326,258, and the average citation density was 41.0 (45.1) citations per year. Original research articles constituted the major portion of included publications (53.7%; 170,774 citations). Papers reporting relationship of physical activity with health were the most prevalent type of publication included (43.7%; 141,027 citations). Journal impact factor had a weak but significant positive correlation with citation density (r = .12; P = .006). The United States was ranked first in terms of the contributions from institutions and authors contributing to the most cited physical activity papers.
    CONCLUSIONS: Top physical activity publications are well cited compared with other health behavior fields. Original research reporting on the associations between physical activity and health has a higher citation impact compared with other types of original research within the physical activity field. The physical activity research field continues to expand rapidly as newer publications attract more citations in a shorter time span compared with older publications.
    Keywords:  active lifestyle; activity behavior; exercise; lifestyle behavior; physical inactivity; publications
  3. Oral Radiol. 2021 Jun 18.
      OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to provide a bibliometric overview of the oral radiology journal output, contents, and leading trends, and also include a detailed authorship analysis by evaluating the top contributors, and their geographic distributions between 1985 and 2020 years.METHODS: The databases available on the Scopus and journal's Web Page were searched to identify the all published articles and reports with no restriction regarding publication year or study design. Seven hundred and seventy-seven articles were included and analyzed for the following bibliometric criteria: publication title, authorship, publication year, coauthors, institution of origin, country of origin, collaborating institution and countries, article category, study field, and number of citations based on the Scopus and Google Scholar.
    RESULTS: Original article is by far the largest group of study outcome that more than half of the articles were in this category and followed by the case reports (19.8%). The leading countries according to number of the articles were Japan by far (59.8%) followed by Turkey (10.8%) and South Korea (5.2%). The article by Arnheiter, Scarfe, and Farman has received the highest number of citations overall. As first and/or coauthor, Ariji E emerged as a most productive author with 35 publications and Osaka University was determined as the most prominent institutions by publishing the greatest number of articles. More than half of the articles were in the "Diagnosis of Orofacial Diseases" study field.
    CONCLUSION: This bibliometric analysis provides a comprehensive overall picture of the 35 years of research progress and publication trends in oral radiology.
    Keywords:  Author; Bibliometric study; Citations; Maxillofacial radiology; Oral radiology
  4. Urology. 2021 Jun 14. pii: S0090-4295(21)00487-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVE: To examine female author representation within publications in the field of urology from the United States from 2000-2019.METHODS: All 25,787 articles with a U.S. correspondence address published in the two largest U.S. headquartered general urology journals, Urology and Journal of Urology, were analyzed from 2000-2019. Gender was assigned to each first and last author based on the author's first name. First names were matched to a database of U.S. Social Security Administration data to determine gender.
    RESULTS: Overall female authorship, female senior authorship, and female first authorship exhibited a significant upward trend from 2000 to 2019 (p<0.001, p<0.001, p=0.002). As the number of female last authors increased, female last authors were significantly more likely to publish with female first authors, and significantly less likely publish with male first authors (p<0.001, p<0.001). Furthermore, we found a significant difference for female authors being less likely to get cited than male authors (p=0.02), despite the greater proportion of females that authored research articles with higher citation counts compared to males (p <0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS: Despite the significant progress in female representation within urological publications, female-authored publications continue to constitute a smaller proportion of the urological literature and are less likely to be cited. Our study provides the first evidence on the current status of female underrepresentation within academic urology and literature productivity at this watershed moment. As the number of female urologists evolves, these findings will be of significant impact in the advancement of female investigators in urology.
    Keywords:  disparity; gender; publication impact; urology publications
  5. F1000Res. 2021 ;10 213
      Background: Publication is one of the quantitative measures of countries' contribution to research and innovation. This paper attempts to understand the publication related information of the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa). Methods: Detailed analysis of publications on the basis of collaboration, research area, number of publications, percentage of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) spent on research, and citation is presented in the paper. An attempt is also made to understand the relations between each of the parameters and the overall performance of the country. Results: Times Higher Education global ranking is considered as a measure to validate the claims of this paper. This study shows that among the BRICS nations, China with the highest percentage of GDP spent on research has also the highest number of researchers and publication output whereas South Africa excels in terms of number of international collaborative publications and publications in high impact journals. This article has highlighted the distribution of publications as per the subject area with India leading in the area of Computer Science.  Discussion: Results showed a strong relationship between each of the parameters discussed on the research performance of a country.
    Keywords:  BRICS; Collaboration; Field Weighted Citation Impact; Scopus
  6. Ann Palliat Med. 2021 May 25. pii: apm-21-87. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Infectious disease caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) has become one of the most serious challenges due to its high morbidity and mortality and research on it has aroused great concern worldwide in the last decade. Thus, a bibliometric analysis of relevant publications is needed to identify the situation of current investigations and prioritize the future research areas.METHODS: The current study retrieved articles related to CRE published between 2010 and 2020 from the Web of Science core collection database. The search strategy syntax included "carbapenemresistant Enterobacteriaceae", "carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae", "carbapenemase producing Enterobacteriaceae" and "carbapenemase producing Klebsiella pneumoniae" which were searched in both Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) and titles. A bibliometric analysis was conducted using VOSviewer, Bibliographic Item Co-Occurrence Matrix Builder, gCLUTO and other machine learning tools. Key words, subject terms, contributions as well as collaborations were assessed. Moreover, hot off the press and future research trends were demonstrated.
    RESULTS: A total of 1,671 publications on CRE were finally included in the bibliometric analysis and 5 related theme clusters were identified which mainly focused on epidemiology, resistance mechanisms, antibiotics treatment and infection control. A total of 142 keywords occurred more than 5 times and the most frequent keyword was "carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae" with 247 occurrences and a total link strength of 559. The output on CRE has gradually increased during the last decade, and the USA has made the greatest contribution due to the 533 research papers. Agents that act against CRE, especially ceftazidimeavibactam (occurrences, 85; average publication year, 2018.26), and the early detection of CRE by genome sequencing techniques (occurrences, 97; average publication year, 2017.94) were emerging hot topics which would probably attract future research interest.
    CONCLUSIONS: The bibliometric analysis revealed that development of antibacterial agents, early etiological detection and genome sequencing techniques were the hotspots and would probably direct the future research directions which would also facilitate a better understanding of the epidemiology of drug-resistant bacteria and implementing the antibiotic stewardship program.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric analysis; carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE); carbapenemase; hotspot; trends
  7. JAMA Dermatol. 2021 Jun 16.
      Importance: According to the National Residency Matching Program's biennial Charting Outcomes in the Match (NRMP ChOM) reports, the mean number of research items of matched allopathic dermatology applicants has nearly tripled since 2007, rising from 5.7 to 14.7. Research items are self-reported by applicants and serve as an approximation of research output. Because the NRMP research items field is unverified and reported as an aggregate of several different research pursuits, it may not be an accurate representation of applicant research output.Objective: To determine if the rise in NRMP-reported data is associated with a rise in verifiable, indexed publications from matched allopathic dermatology applicants from 2007 to 2018.
    Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study including a bibliometric analysis on accepted applicant research output among 2234 matched allopathic dermatology applicants, with a total of 6229 publications, in dermatology residency programs for the years 2007, 2009, 2011, 2014, 2016, and 2018.
    Main Outcome and Measures: The primary outcomes were the mean number of peer-reviewed indexed publications and mean number of NRMP ChOM research items. Secondary outcomes assessed the quality of indexed publications by analyzing article type and journal of publication.
    Results: From 2007 to 2018, the mean number of indexed publications per matched dermatology applicant increased from 1.6 to 4.7 (203% increase). Indexed publications consistently compose a minority of NRMP ChOM research items (28.8% across the 6 years of the study). Nonindexed research items increased at more than double the rate of indexed publications. Bibliometric analysis showed that all other types of publications are increasing at a rate of 6 to 9 times that of basic science publications, dermatology-related publications increased at 5 times the rate of non-dermatology publications, and publications in lower-impact factor dermatology journals increased at 4 times the rate of publications in higher-impact factor dermatology journals.
    Conclusions and Relevance: This cross-sectional study provides data on the research output of matched dermatology applicants. Indexed publications compose a minority of NRMP research items. Medical student self-reports of research output may emphasize research quantity over quality.
  8. Altern Ther Health Med. 2021 Jun 18. pii: AT6506. [Epub ahead of print]
      Objective: Tai Chi and Qigong are mind-body practices deriving from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) which are used clinically as therapeutic interventions. The objective of this study was to identify patterns and research trends in reviews about Tai Chi and/or Qigong through bibliometric analysis.Methods: Based on a search of Scopus, authors, collaborations and source journal impact were analyzed, along with citation counts and alternative metrics.
    Results: In all, 205 documents were retrieved, 72% of which concerned the practice of Tai Chi. According to the type of practices, the average citation per year was 2.2 for Qigong studies, 3.2 for Tai Chi and 5.6 for Tai Chi and Qigong reviewed together. The most productive authors were Lee, Ernst and Pittle who shared a high number of papers. The strongest institutional connection was between universities in Korea and Exeter, UK. The source journals had good ranking positions both among journals belonging to the alternative medicine category and specialized clinical journals.
    Conclusion: The level of collaboration among universities, the increasing number of meta-analysis studies, and the prestige of the journals in which articles were published attest that Tai Chi and Qigong practices are creating new opportunities in the traditional medicine.
  9. Acta Orthop. 2021 Jun 18. 1-5
      Background and purpose - The main purpose of arthroplasty registries is to collect information on patients, techniques, and devices to monitor and improve the outcome of the specific procedure. This study analyses the role played by registries in the orthopedic research community and describes publication trends, characteristics, and patterns of this field of research.Patients and methods - A descriptive-bibliometric review was conducted. Scopus was the database used for the research. All articles published from 1991 to December 2020 containing keywords related to registries and arthroplasty were considered. In particular, the following dimensions were analyzed in detail: (i) papers/year; (ii) journals; (iii) countries; (iv) research growth rate; (v) collaboration among countries. VOSviewer software was used to perform the bibliometric analysis. Finally, the 50 most cited papers of the last 10 years were briefly analyzed.Results - 3,933 articles were identified. There has been growing interest in the topic since 2010. Acta Orthopaedica ranked first for the number of articles published. The country with the largest number of articles citing registries was the United States, followed by the United Kingdom and Sweden. The relative number of articles per 100,000 inhabitants is 0.60 for Europe and 0.38 for the United States. The literature in this research area has an average yearly growth rate of 28%.Interpretation - The publication rate in the field of arthroplasty registries is constantly growing with a noteworthy impact in the evolution of this research and clinical area. The growth rate is significantly higher than that of arthroplasty literature (28% vs. 10%) and the collaboration among countries is strong and increasing with time.
  10. Ann Med Surg (Lond). 2021 Jun;66 102441
      Background: Scientific research has an essential role in building up the basics of public health and clinical care. As a developing country, Syria has a limited contribution to scientific research. Besides, the current Syrian crisis has inflicted severe damage to the infrastructure of the country, which, in turn, negatively affected the scientific sphere. This study examines the scientific publishing in Syria from 2011 until 2020. It aims to define the real and deep reasons for the slow-down in publication to get over them, push Syria to keep track of the latest updates, and take its place in scientific research.Methods: We conducted a bibliometric analysis of articles published in (PubMed and Scopus) Databases from 1/1/2011 until 26/12/2020, using the following search terms (("Syrian Arab Republic") OR (Syria) OR (Syrian)) limiting the search to (Affiliation) fields.
    Results: Syrian medical, dental and pharmaceutical institutions published 1403 papers from 2011 until 2020. There were only 55 papers in 2011, and a peak with 180 papers in 2018. Besides, publications in the last 4 years were 1.135 times more than publications in the last 6 years.
    Conclusion: We noticed a peak in quantity of Syrian medical, dental and pharmaceutical publications in the last decade. Accordingly, we recommend enhancing research skills, paying more attention to the quality of researches, and holding research workshops and Evidence Based conferences to enhance the scientific endeavor.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric analysis; CME, Continuous Medical Education; Dentistry; EBM, Evidence-Based-Medicine; Medicine; Pharmacy; Syrian crisis
  11. Arch Pediatr. 2021 May 28. pii: S0929-693X(21)00094-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      INTRODUCTION: At the end of April 2020, three European pediatric societies published an alert on a new hyperinflammatory disorder linked to SARS-CoV-2. This disease has alternatively been called Kawasaki-like disease, pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection (PIMS-TS), and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). These alerts provide a clear starting point from which to study the early response of the medical and scientific community to a new disease in terms of scientific publications, and to compare the timeline of this response with levels of general public interest. To this aim, we conducted a bibliometric analysis of articles on this disease published between 1 April and 5 July 2020.METHOD: A literature search was performed using PubMed and in three preprint repositories. For each article, the name used for the disease in the title, the number of authors, the number of patients, the citations according to Google Scholar, the journal impact factor, and the Altmetric score were retrieved. Google search trends for the terms "Kawasaki" and "COVID," "COVID-19," and "coronavirus" were also retrieved, as was the number of Reuters news articles published on the topic. These data were compared longitudinally on a weekly basis. The quality of the reporting of the study was evaluated using the STROBE guidelines for observational studies with more than three patients and using the CARE guidelines for case reports of three or fewer patients.
    RESULTS: Eighty-six articles were included, among which ten were preprints (three of which were subsequently published) and 49 were clinical articles (57%). A total of 857 patients were described. The median number of authors per article was five (range, 1-45), the median number of patients was four (1-186), the median number of citations was one (0-170), the median Altmetric score was 12 (0-7242), and the median journal impact factor was 3.7 (1-74.7). For the clinical articles, the median percentage of STROBE or CARE checklist items satisfied was 70% (IQR, 56.75-79.25; range, 40-90). Guideline adherence was significantly higher for observational studies than for case reports (median percentage of checklist items satisfied, 78.5% vs 61.5%; P<0.001); however, guideline adherence did not differ significantly between peer-reviewed and preprint articles (median percentage of checklist items satisfied, 57% vs 72%; P=0.205). The only statistically significant difference between clinical articles and other types of articles was the number of authors (median, 7 vs 2; P=2.53E-9). Fifty-seven of the 86 articles were authored by researchers from just three countries (the USA, 31; France, 14; and the UK, 12). The names most frequently used in the title were Kawasaki-like disease (n=37), followed by MIS-C (n=27), PIM-TS (n=14), and other names involving the term "inflammatory" (n=12). Google searches for related terms peaked between weeks 18 and 21, following the initial alerts and decreased rapidly thereafter. The number of Reuters articles on the subject was correlated with Google search trends (ρ: 0.86, 95% CI [0.59; 0.96]; P=0.00016), but the number of medical articles published was not (ρ: -0.54, 95% CI [-0.87; 0.14]; P=0.11). The first small case series was published less than 2 weeks after the initial alert; however, if all articles had been deposited as preprints when they were submitted to journals, the cumulative number of reported cases would have been 300% higher in week 18 (3 vs 1), 400% higher in week 19 (44 vs 11), 70% higher in week 20 (124 vs 73), and 54% higher in week 21 (129 vs 84).
    CONCLUSION: In a period of 9 weeks after the initial alerts from European pediatric societies, 85 medical articles were published, involving 856 patients (one case report was published before the alerts), allowing rapid dissemination of research information. However, general public interest followed the news cycle rather than scientific releases. The quality of the reporting, as assessed by adherence to STROBE or CARE guidelines, was adequate with more than two-thirds of checklist items satisfied. Learned societies play an important role in the early dissemination of up-to-date peer-reviewed information. Preprint deposition should be encouraged to accelerate the dissemination of research information.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric; COVID-19; Kawasaki-like; Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C); Pediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection (PIMS-TS); Preprint; SARS-CoV-2
  12. J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev. 2021 Jun 10. 5(6): e20.00260
      INTRODUCTION: Total joint arthroplasty constitutes a major focus of publications within orthopaedics. Because research expands and investigators from around the world contribute, it is important to understand the dynamics of publication.METHODS: PubMed was queried for hip and knee arthroplasty-related articles published between 1988 and 2018 within seven orthopaedic journals. A bibliometric analysis was done. The manuscript region of origin was determined by the affiliated country of the last author and used to examine trends in publication.
    RESULTS: A total of 6,160 publications were included. Forty-eight countries from six continents were identified. The quantity of arthroplasty-related publications increased over the study period (n = 246 in 1988 and n = 1,247 in 2018, P < 0.01). Articles were primarily published by North America (51.9%), Europe (32.5%), and Asia (12.4%). Clinical trials accounted for 45.6% of all publications. Articles from Asia received fewer citations than those from North America, Europe, and Oceania (P < 0.001).
    DISCUSSION: The volume of publications was five times greater in 2018 than in 1988, yet international articles constitute a marginal proportion of annual publications. Most of the literature (84.4%) originated from North America and Europe. Balanced publication of international research may favor global communication of findings, increasing the spectrum of available evidence applicable worldwide.
  13. BMC Med Educ. 2021 Jun 16. 21(1): 349
      BACKGROUND: Analyzing the previous research literature in the field of clinical teaching has potential to show the trend and future direction of this field. This study aimed to visualize the co-authorship networks and scientific map of research outputs of clinical teaching and medical education by Social Network Analysis (SNA).METHODS: We Identified 1229 publications on clinical teaching through a systematic search strategy in the Scopus (Elsevier), Web of Science (Clarivate Analytics) and Medline (NCBI/NLM) through PubMed from the year 1980 to 2018.The Ravar PreMap, Netdraw, UCINet and VOSviewer software were used for data visualization and analysis.
    RESULTS: Based on the findings of study the network of clinical teaching was weak in term of cohesion and the density in the co-authorship networks of authors (clustering coefficient (CC): 0.749, density: 0.0238) and collaboration of countries (CC: 0.655, density: 0.176). In regard to centrality measures; the most influential authors in the co-authorship network was Rosenbaum ME, from the USA (0.048). More, the USA, the UK, Canada, Australia and the Netherlands have central role in collaboration countries network and has the vertex co-authorship with other that participated in publishing articles in clinical teaching. Analysis of background and affiliation of authors showed that co-authorship between clinical researchers in medicine filed is weak. Nineteen subject clusters were identified in the clinical teaching research network, seven of which were related to the expected competencies of clinical teaching and three related to clinical teaching skills.
    CONCLUSIONS: In order to improve the cohesion of the authorship network of clinical teaching, it is essential to improve research collaboration and co-authorship between new researchers and those who have better closeness or geodisk path with others, especially those with the clinical background. To reach to a dense and powerful topology in the knowledge network of this field encouraging policies to be made for international and national collaboration between clinicians and clinical teaching specialists. In addition, humanitarian and clinical reasoning need to be considered in clinical teaching as of new direction in the field from thematic aspects.
    Keywords:  Centrality; Density; Hospital teaching; Round teaching; Social network analysis
  14. Eur J Orthod. 2021 Jun 15. pii: cjab036. [Epub ahead of print]
      AIM: To assess the representation of female authors in senior and leading positions in orthodontic research publications, as well as the fraction of women participating in the publication reports, for over a decade. In addition, association of women representation in orthodontic research and characteristics such as journal of publication, year, study design/topic, and others, were sought.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic search was performed within three major orthodontic journals, namely the European Journal of Orthodontics (EJO), the American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJODO), and the Angle Orthodontist (ANGLE) to identify all types of research articles published within two distinct year cohorts, the 2008-10 and the 2018-20. The outcomes of interest pertained to proportion of women in senior (last) and leading (first) position, and fraction of overall participation in the author list.
    RESULTS: A total of 2539 articles were eligible for inclusion, with an overall number of contributing authors being 11 608, of which 34.4% were female. For seniority in authorship, 30.1% (312/1038) of the publications within 2018-20 were attributed to female authors, while 25.8% (388/1501) was identified in 2008-10. Publication timeline, geographic region, and thematic topic of publication were determined as significant predictors. For leading (first) authorship, the respective percentages were 44.7% (464/1038) within 2018-20, and 34.7% (521/1501) in 2008-10. Dissemination timeline, geographic region and journal of publication were identified by the multivariable analysis, as revealing evidence of association with female leading publication authorship. Overall, the median proportion of female authors within the author list was 33.0%.
    CONCLUSIONS: A gender gap related to Orthodontic research publications is persistent, with participation of women either as senior, or as leading authors, being suboptimal. Consistent efforts should be set in place, to facilitate more equal representation of women in research publishing, being supported by academia.
  15. Voluntas. 2021 Jun 09. 1-19
      The aim of this article is to assess the use of the term Social Economy, while being aware of its lack of concreteness, and to analyze the level of scientific production by means of a bibliometric analysis using WoS (JCR) and Scopus (SJR) as sources. Starting in 2004 and related to the Charter of Principles of the Social Economy, the material development of articles began. The most receptive countries are Spain, the USA, China, the UK and Canada. In terms of the most productive journals, Voluntas in JCR and CIRIEC-Spain and REVESCO in SJR stand out. Scientific production on this issue is linked to university institutions, namely the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the University of Valencia and the University of Quebec. The most prevalent subject are Economics and Business in the case of JCR and Social Sciences in SJR. The most recognized term is that of cooperatives and the most prevalent keyword trends being related to sustainable development, climate change, urbanization, management and China.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric analysis; Scopus; Social economy; Third sector; WoS
  16. World Neurosurg. 2021 Jun 13. pii: S1878-8750(21)00855-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Previous research in neurosurgery has examined academic productivity for US medical graduates and residents. However, associations between scholarly output and international medical education, residency training, and fellowship training are scarcely documented.METHODS: 1671 US academic neurosurgeons were identified in 2020 using publicly available data along with their countries of medical school, residency, and fellowship training. H-index, number of publications, and number of times publications were cited were compiled from Scopus. Demographic, subspeciality, and academic productivity variables were compared between training locations using univariate analysis and multivariable linear regression.
    RESULTS: Currently 16% of the neurosurgery faculty workforce completed at least one component of their training abroad. Canada was the most represented international country in the cohort. Academic productivity for neurosurgeons with international medical school and/or international residency did not significantly differ from that of US-trained neurosurgeons. Neurosurgeons with one or more US fellowship or one or more international fellowship did not have higher academic productivity than those without a fellowship. However, dual fellowship training in both domestic and international programs was associated with higher mean h-index (β = 6.00, 95% CI: 1.01 to 10.98, p = 0.02), higher citation number (β =2092.0, 95% CI: 460.1 to 3724.0, p = 0.01), and a trend towards higher publication number (β = 36.82, 95% CI: -0.21 to 73.85, p = 0.051).
    CONCLUSIONS: Neurosurgeon scholarly output was not significantly affected by international training in medical school or residency. Dual fellowship training in both a domestic and international program was associated with higher academic productivity.
    Keywords:  International training; academic neurosurgery; bibliometrics; citation number; h-index; publication number
  17. Front Nutr. 2021 ;8 655533
      Background: The global incidence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is continuously increasing, making it a potential worldwide public health concern. Research on dietary factors related to MetS has attracted considerable attention in the recent decades. However, the research hotspots, knowledge structure, and theme trends for the dietary factors associated with MetS remain unknown, and have not yet been systematically mapped. This study aimed to review the research status of diet as a risk factor for MetS through bibliometric methods. Bibliometric analysis was conducted using the Web of Science database. Research hotspots were identified using biclustering analysis with the gCLUTO software, and knowledge structure was explored via social network analysis using the Ucinet software. Theme trends were investigated using evolutionary analysis with the SciMAT software. In total, 1,305 papers were analyzed. The research output on the dietary factors associated with MetS increased steadily. The research scope was gradually expanding and diverse. Overall, eight research hot spots, four key dietary nodes, and four motor themes on the dietary factors associated with MetS were identified. Fatty acids, dietary fiber, and polyphenols have been the focus of research in this field over the years. Evolutionary analysis showed that fish oil and vitamin C were well-developed research foci recently. Prebiotics was recognized as an emerging theme with certain developmental potential. These findings provide a better understanding of the research status of the dietary factors associated with MetS and a reference for future investigations.
    Keywords:  bibliometric analysis; biclustering analysis; diet; evolutionary analysis; knowledge mapping; metabolic syndrome; social network analysis
  18. Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2021 Apr;37(2): 192-195
      Abstract: Objective To conduct bibliometric analysis of forensic genetics literatures published by Chinese mainland scholars in SCIE journals from 1989 to 2019, to show the research achievements of the past three decades and predict future research fields and directions. Methods Microsoft Office Excel 2019 was utilized to analyze the general situation, research institutions, authors, funds, author keywords, etc. of the literatures. The status of research in forensic genetics in Chinese mainland was visualized by PlotDB, Gephi 0.9.2 software and literature interpretation. Results During the last three decades, 1 126 forensic genetics literatures were published by scholars from Chinese mainland on SCIE journals, mostly articles. The quantity and quality of the literatures were both on the increase. The number of literatures published in Forensic Science International-Genetics was the highest, and 60.83% of the literatures were funded, mainly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (498 literatures). The current research hotspots were STR, SNP, InDel polymorphisms, linkage genetic markers, mtDNA genetic markers, epigenetic markers, RNA genetic markers, chip technology and omics research method. Conclusion The forensic genetics in China has developed rapidly along with the promotion of forensic science in universities. The SCIE literatures on forensic genetics published by Chinese mainland scholars increased rapidly with the funding from the National Natural Science Foundation of China and Ministry of Science and Technology of the People's Republic of China, which positively contributes to the development of basic research and the improvement of overall level in forensic genetics in China.
    Keywords:  forensic genetics; bibliometrics; co-occurrence analysis; document subject; short tandem repeat (STR); single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP
  19. J Bus Ethics. 2021 Jun 10. 1-22
      The attention being paid to ethics education in accounting has been increasing, especially after the corporate accounting scandals at the turn of the century. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the existing research in the field of ethics education in accounting. To synthesize past research, a bibliometric analysis that references 134 primary studies is performed and three bibliometric methods are applied. First, we visualize the historical evolution of ethics education in accounting research through historiography. Second, we use bibliographic coupling to identify clusters of ethics education in accounting research before, during, and after major corporate scandals. Third, we perform a co-word analysis to connect the identified patterns into a map of a contextual space. The results reveal, in each decade, not only an increasing academic focus on this field of research, but also an increasing number of different research clusters. While the clusters Factors affecting moral judgement, Perception of ethics, and Lack of ethics topics in the last research period develop further from the respective clusters in the previous periods, Accounting beyond technical skills, Integration of ethics in accounting education, Use of developed ethics frameworks, and Professional values on the contrary develop anew in the last decade, as a consequence of a growing demand for teaching ethics. Overall, the paper presents the development patterns of ethics education in accounting research and sets up a research agenda that encourages future research.
    Keywords:  Accounting ethics education; Bibliographic coupling; Citation analysis; Co-word analysis; Historiography
  20. Front Psychiatry. 2021 ;12 620489
      Substance-related disorders are a group of medical conditions that affect a person's brain and behavior and lead to an inability to control the use of legal or illegal drug(s) or medication. Substance-related disorder is a serious public health and society problem worldwide. Genetic factors have been proven to have an important role. Researchers have carried out a lot of work in this field, and a large number of research results have been published in academic journals around the world. However, there are few overviews of research progress, presentation, and development trends in this field. In this study, a total of 636 articles related to genetic factors of substance-related disorders were retrieved from the Web of Science (WoS) database from 1997 to 2018, and the scientific literatures were analyzed by bibliometrics. The study found that the United States (US) has maintained a leading position in the field of research, with many core institutions and plenty of high-quality research results. Alcohol use disorder is still the most concerning issue in this field. Over the past 20 years, new techniques such as genome-wide association study (GWAS) based on high-throughput sequencing technology have replaced family studies, twin studies, and retrospective studies in this field. We believe that it is urgent to study the genetic factors of substance-related disorders, which can greatly deepen the understanding of the pathogenesis of substance-related disorders and may provide potential targets for precise treatment of such diseases.
    Keywords:  bibliometric; genetics; quantitative analysis; research frontiers; substance-related disorder
  21. J Med Internet Res. 2021 Jun 17. 23(6): e29549
    Keywords:  bibliometric analysis; bibliometrics; machine learning; mental health; social media
  22. Front Cardiovasc Med. 2021 ;8 672913
      Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a serious threat to global public health due to its high prevalence and disability rate. Meanwhile, cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has attracted increasing attention for its positive effects on the cardiovascular system. There is overwhelming evidence that CR for patients with CVD is effective in reducing cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. To learn more about the development of CR, 5,567 papers about CR and related research were retrieved in the Web of Science Core Collection from 2001 to 2020. Then, these publications were scientometrically analyzed based on CiteSpace in terms of spatiotemporal distribution, author distribution, subject categories, topic distribution, and references. The results can be elaborated from three aspects. Firstly, the number of annual publications related to CR has increased year by year in general over the past two decades. Secondly, a co-occurrence analysis of the output countries and authors shows that a few developed countries such as the United States, Canada, and the UK are the most active in carrying out CR and where regional academic communities represented by Sherry Grace and Ross Arena were formed. Thirdly, an analysis of the subject categories and topic distribution of the papers reveals that CR is a typical interdiscipline with a wide range of disciplines involved, including clinical medicine, basic medicine, public health management, and sports science. The research topics cover the participants and implementers, components, and the objectives and requirements of CR. The current research hotspots are the three core modalities of CR, namely patient education, exercise training and mental support, as well as mobile health (mHealth) dependent on computer science. In conclusion, this work has provided some useful information for acquiring knowledge about CR, including identifying potential collaborators for researchers interested in CR, and discovering research trends and hot topics in CR, which can offer some guidance for more extensive and in-depth CR-related studies in the future.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; CiteSpace; cardiac rehabilitation; cardiovascular disorders; mapping knowledge domains
  23. J Alzheimers Dis. 2021 Jun 07.
      BACKGROUND: The study of emotion recognition could be crucial for detecting alterations in certain cognitive areas or as an early sign of neurological disorders.OBJECTIVE: The main objective of the study is to characterize research development on emotion recognition, identifying the intellectual structure that supports this area of knowledge, and the main lines of research attracting investigators' interest.
    METHODS: We identified publications on emotion recognition and dementia included in the Web of Science Core Collection, analyzing the scientific output and main disciplines involved in generating knowledge in the area. A co-citation analysis and an analysis of the bibliographic coupling between the retrieved documents elucidated the thematic orientations of the research and the reference works that constitute the foundation for development in the field.
    RESULTS: A total of 345 documents, with 24,282 bibliographic references between them, were included. This is an emerging research area, attracting the interest of investigators in Neurosciences, Psychology, Clinical Neurology, and Psychiatry, among other disciplines. Four prominent topic areas were identified, linked to frontotemporal dementia, autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's and Huntington disease. Many recent papers focus on the detection of mild cognitive impairment.
    CONCLUSION: Impaired emotion recognition may be a key sign facilitating the diagnosis and early treatment of different neurodegenerative diseases as well as for triggering the necessary provision of social and family support, explaining the growing research interest in this area.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer’s disease; bibliometrics; dementia; emotions; facial recognition; knowledge discovery
  24. Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue. 2021 May;33(5): 587-592
      OBJECTIVE: To identify the distribution of research hotspots and frontiers of multidrug-resistant bacteria in intensive care units in China through the method of visualization, and to predict future research directions, analyze the research development process, so as to provide reference basis for further research in this field.METHODS: Studies related to multidrug-resistant bacteria in intensive care units published in China from 2000 to 2019 by CNKI were reviewed. According to the keywords by CiteSpace 5.6.R2, the co-occurring network was generated to analyze the distribution of research hotspots in this field. Meanwhile, the mutation map of keywords was used to forecast the future research directions to a certain extent.
    RESULTS: A total of 1 324 articles were finally included in the quantitative analysis. From 2000 to 2019, the number of publications in the field of multi-drug resistant bacteria in intensive care units showed a gradual increase, of which the number of publications increased rapidly from 2008 to 2014 (the number of publications increased from 34 to 124 articles). In the initial stage of research, conceptual keywords appeared, such as intensive care unit, infection, pathogenic bacteria and drug resistance among others. A dense keywords group appeared from 2008 to 2014, which covered several aspects, such as nosocomial infection, Acinetobacter baumannii, pathogenic bacteria, drug resistance, pulsed field gel electrophoresis and nursing etc., suggesting that research in this field has entered a period of vigorous development. High-frequency keywords, such as risk factors, pathogens, antibiotics, nosocomial infections, drug resistance genes and homology appeared from 2015 to 2019, thus representing the hotspots in recent years.
    CONCLUSIONS: The overall research on multidrug-resistant bacteria in intensive care units in China has gradually improved. The current studies focus on homology analysis and multidrug-resistant bacteria infections, among other topics. Further explorations at the genetic level will be conducted to fill the research vacancy in this field and to provide molecular biological basis for reducing the occurrence of multidrug-resistant bacteria in the future.
  25. Eur J Cardiovasc Nurs. 2021 Mar 14. pii: zvab025. [Epub ahead of print]
      INTRODUCTION : Gender equity has become a major concern in many professional fields. The rate of women as authors has to be interpreted according to the rate of women in the related professions. In this perspective, studying nurses' population should be of particular interest since, worldwide, nurses are mostly women. Then, our aim was to study gender disparity in nurses' publications.METHODS : We selected the three main journals dedicated to nurse publications: International Journal of Nursing Studies, Journal of Nursing Scholarship, and European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing. We included 20 recent consecutive papers from each journal. For each paper, the number of authors, their gender, and rank were recorded. Primary endpoint: overall rate of women as authors. Secondary endpoints: rate of women as first, last, second, and third authors.
    RESULTS : Sixty papers including 322 authors were analysed. Overall rate of women authors: 74%. Overall rate of women as first author: 82%. Overall rate of women as last author: 72%. Overall rate of women as second and third authors: respectively, 80% and 70%.
    CONCLUSION : Almost three-quarters of the authors in these main scientific journals of nursing studies were female. This rate is lower than the gender rate in the nursing profession.
    Keywords:  Authorship; Gender equity; Nurses
  26. Ann Surg. 2021 Jun 16.
      OBJECTIVES: A courtesy author is an individual who has not met authorship criteria but is listed as an author. This practice is common and often seen as victimless. Because publications are used for funding and promotion decisions, it is critical to understand biases in this practice.METHODS: An anonymous survey was conducted from March to October 2020 of first and senior authors of publications from 2014 to 2015 in 8 surgical journals. Authors were surveyed about demographic data, practice setting, and courtesy author practices.
    RESULTS THREE HUNDRED FORTYONE: authors responded (16% response rate). 75% were from academic practice settings. 14% reported adding courtesy authors 5 or more times in the past year. Courtesy authors were more often male (80%, P = 0.023), older (75%), and of higher academic rank (65%) than first/senior authors. All author groups were >75% white. When a reason was reported, 46% added a courtesy author due to avoid retaliation; 64% to avoid awkwardness. 26% expected reciprocal authorship offers. 92% of respondents acknowledge understanding International Committee of Medical Journal Editors authorship criteria. Women were less common among those added from goodwill than those added from fear (P = 0.039.) When courtesy authors were of a lower rank than first/senior authors, they were nearly twice as likely to be female (P = 0.0056) or non-white (P = 0.0184.).
    CONCLUSION: Courtesy authors were more often male, older, and higher rank than first/senior authors. Fear of career consequences was a major motivator for including courtesy authors. Understanding the motivations and pressures leading to courtesy authorship will help to correct this practice.
  27. Cureus. 2021 May 10. 13(5): e14930
      Objectives The National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is the world's largest funding source for research, offers various types of competitive grants depending on the duration, research type, and budget. The Research Project Grant (RPG) is the oldest mechanism for grant allocation that is used by the NIH. In this study, we explored the gender trends of NIH RPGs and R01 grants over the last two decades. Methods By utilizing the NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool (RePORT), data for gender were extracted, and the percentage of women as RPGs Investigators, R01-equivalent grant including R01 type 1 and type 2 grant awardees, from 1998 to 2019 were tabulated. The absolute change was calculated. Results From 1998 to 2019, the percentage of female RPG awardees has increased. However, the success rates for female RPG applicants have decreased during the same period. The funding and success rates for new R01 awards have been similar for both men and women, but women have been less successful at the renewal of R01-equivalent awards. Conclusion Gender disparity exists in awardees of higher RPGs, including the R01 award. This highlights the need for further actions to ensure gender parity in grant allocations at the NIH.
    Keywords:  academic productivity; female researcher; gender; gender disparity; nih funding; nih funding gender disparity; r01 grant; r01-equivalent grant; research career
  28. Front Surg. 2021 ;8 631912
      Introduction: Although the past decade has seen a substantial increase in African neurosurgeons' academic productivity, productivity remains low compared to their colleagues from other regions. Aspiring neurosurgeons can contribute to the academic neurosurgery workforce by taking care of less technical and time-consuming research tasks. Fortunately, global neurosurgery institutions have also made efforts to increase research exposure and scholarly output in academic global neurosurgery. The Association of Future African Neurosurgeons (AFAN) created a research incubator for aspiring academic global neurosurgeons in Africa to provide enrollees with mentorship, skills, and experience. This study assesses and reports the activities and results of the research incubator. Methods: Aspiring academic global neurosurgeons were enrolled in the AFAN Research Incubator Program (ARIP), whose primary objective was to provide enrollees with foundational skills in all aspects of the research cycle. ARIP enrollees participated in didactic and practical activities with the aim of publishing ≥1 article and presenting ≥1 abstracts at international conferences in one year. Results: Fifteen AFAN members aged 25.0 ± 3.0 years enrolled in ARIP: 7 (46.7%) medical students, 4 (26.7%) general practitioners, and 4 (26.7%) residents. Eleven (73.3%) were male, 6 (40.0%) were from Cameroon and 6 (40.0%) had no previous research experience. Two (13.3%) enrollees dropped out. ARIP enrollees published a total of 28 articles, and enrollees published a median of 1.0 (IQR = 2) first-author articles on neurosurgical system strengthening. Additionally, ARIP enrollees presented 20 abstracts with a median of one abstract (IQR = 3.0). Conclusion: South-South research collaborations like ARIP can contribute to improving global neurosurgery research capacity and output. These collaborations can set up the foundations for robust research in low- and middle-income countries.
    Keywords:  Africa; capacity building; global neurosurgery; neurosurgery; research
  29. Public Underst Sci. 2021 Jun 16. 9636625211019312
      Science amplifier platforms such as The Conversation have gained popularity in a changing media ecosystem in which the traditional roles of journalists are eroded, and scientists are urged to engage with society. The Conversation constitutes a blend of scientific communication, public science communication and science journalism, and a convergence of the professional worlds of science and journalism. In this study, we investigated the nature and impact of the Africa-focussed edition of this platform, The Conversation Africa. We analysed articles published over a 5-year period since its launch in 2015 (N = 5392). Contents from South Africa dominate the platform, but contributions from other African countries are increasing. Regarding the role of The Conversation Africa as an inter-media agenda setter, mainstream media more often republished stories related to politics or economics, while stories about social issues such as education, conservation and art were more often shared on social media.
    Keywords:  science and media; science communication; science journalism
  30. J Arthroplasty. 2021 May 28. pii: S0883-5403(21)00517-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: The use of national databases in lower extremity arthroplasty research has grown rapidly in recent years. We aimed to better characterize available databases by: (1) quantifying the number of these studies in the highest impact arthroplasty journals; (2) comparing respective sample sizes; and (3) contrasting their measured variables/outcomes.METHODS: An extensive literature search was conducted to identify all database studies in the top 12 highest impact factor journals that published arthroplasty research between January 1, 2018 and December 31, 2019. A total of 5070 publications were identified. These studies were sorted by both database utilized and journal published. Tables were constructed to compare/contrast databases by metrics and measured outcome parameters including coding, patient sample size, preoperative comorbidities, postoperative complications, and limitations/barriers to their use.
    RESULTS: Four hundred twenty-six database studies (8.4%, range 0.4%-29.7% per journal) were identified, of which 139 were from non-English-speaking arthroplasty databases. Among English-speaking arthroplasty databases, the 5 most common sources were National Surgical Quality Improvement Project (n = 72), Medicare (n = 62, 39 from Medicare Claims and 23 from PearlDiver), Nationwide Inpatient Sample (n = 35), PearlDiver non-Medicare private insurance (n = 18), and Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (n = 18). Metrics, outcome parameters, and features of commonly used registries were reviewed.
    CONCLUSION: Database studies constitute an important part of arthroplasty-specific orthopedic research. Their use will continue to grow in the future, and it would be beneficial for clinicians/researchers to be aware of and familiarize themselves with their features to understand which are most appropriate for their work.
    Keywords:  arthroplasty research; clinical orthopedic research; joint replacement registries; nationwide databases; state registries
  31. Nature. 2021 Jun;594(7863): 459-462
    Keywords:  Authorship; Careers; Research management
  32. J Med Internet Res. 2021 Jun 14. 23(6): e17137
      BACKGROUND: Interdisciplinary collaborations bring lots of benefits to researchers in multiple areas, including precision medicine.OBJECTIVE: This viewpoint aims at studying how cross-institution team science would affect the development of precision medicine.
    METHODS: Publications of organizations on the eHealth Catalogue of Activities were collected in 2015 and 2017. The significance of the correlation between coleadership and coauthorship among different organizations was calculated using the Pearson chi-square test of independence. Other nonparametric tests examined whether organizations with coleaders publish more and better papers than organizations without coleaders.
    RESULTS: A total of 374 publications from 69 organizations were analyzed in 2015, and 7064 papers from 87 organizations were analyzed in 2017. Organizations with coleadership published more papers (P<.001, 2015 and 2017), which received higher citations (Z=-13.547, P<.001, 2017), compared to those without coleadership. Organizations with coleaders tended to publish papers together (P<.001, 2015 and 2017).
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that organizations in the field of precision medicine could greatly benefit from institutional-level team science. As a result, stronger collaboration is recommended.
    Keywords:  precision medicine; team science
  33. Front Res Metr Anal. 2021 ;6 694307
    Keywords:  bibliographic metadata; bibliometric-enhanced information retrieval; data mining and knowledge discovery; information retrieval and extraction; knowledge graph (ontologies)
  34. BMJ Open. 2021 Jun 18. 11(6): e049339
      INTRODUCTION: A 2011 paper proposed a working taxonomy of implementation outcomes, their conceptual distinctions and a two-pronged research agenda on their role in implementation success. Since then, over 1100 papers citing the manuscript have been published. Our goal is to compare the field's progress to the originally proposed research agenda, and outline recommendations for the next 10 years. To accomplish this, we are conducting the proposed scoping review.METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Our approach is informed by Arksey and O'Malley's methodological framework for conducting scoping reviews. We will adhere to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews. We first aim to assess the degree to which each implementation outcome has been investigated in the literature, including healthcare settings, clinical populations and innovations represented. We next aim to describe the relationship between implementation strategies and outcomes. Our last aim is to identify studies that empirically assess relationships among implementation and/or service and client outcomes. We will use a forward citation tracing approach to identify all literature that cited the 2011 paper in the Web of Science (WOS) and will supplement this with citation alerts sent to the second author for a 6-month period coinciding with the WOS citation search. Our review will focus on empirical studies that are designed to assess at least one of the identified implementation outcomes in the 2011 taxonomy and are published in peer-reviewed journals. We will generate descriptive statistics from extracted data and organise results by these research aims.
    ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: No human research participants will be involved in this review. We plan to share findings through a variety of means including peer-reviewed journal publications, national conference presentations, invited workshops and webinars, email listservs affiliated with our institutions and professional associations, and academic social media.
    Keywords:  health services administration & management; organisation of health services; quality in health care
  35. J Clin Epidemiol. 2021 Jun 09. pii: S0895-4356(21)00178-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVES: This randomized controlled trial aimed to test whether women or men would be preferred with identical curriculum vitae (CV); and the impact of the career stage in the evaluators' choice.STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A simulated post-doctoral process was carried forward to be assessed for judgment. Level 1 and 2 Brazilian fellow researchers in the field of Dentistry were invited to act as external reviewers in a post-doctoral process and were randomly assigned to receive a CV from a woman or a man. They were required to rate the CV from 0 to 10 in scientific contribution, leadership potential, ability to work in groups, and international experience.
    RESULTS: For all categories of CVs evaluated, CVs from men received higher scores compared to the CVs from women. Robust variance Poisson regressions demonstrated that men were more likely to receive higher scores in all categories, despite applicants' career stage. For example, CVs from men were nearly three quarters more likely to be seen as having leadership potential than equivalent CVs from women.
    CONCLUSIONS: Gender bias is powerfully prevalent in academia in the dentistry field, despite researchers' career stage. Actions like implicit bias training must be urgently implemented to avoid (or at least decrease) that more women are harmed.
    Keywords:  gender bias; meta-research; randomized controlled trial
  36. Complement Ther Med. 2021 Jun 09. pii: S0965-2299(21)00089-3. [Epub ahead of print] 102748
      The objective of this bibliometric review was to identify the volume, breadth, and characteristics of clinical studies evaluating Tai Chi published between January 2010 and January 2020. Five English and four Chinese language databases were searched. Following independent screening, 1018 eligible publications representing 987 studies were identified, which was a three-fold increase from the previous decade. Most common were randomized controlled trials (548/987, 55.5 %), followed by systematic reviews (157/987, 15.9 %), non-randomized controlled clinical studies (152/987, 15.4 %), case series (127/987, 12.9 %) and case reports (3/987, 0.3 %) that were conducted in China (730/987, 74.0 %), followed by the United States of America (123/987, 12.5 %) and South Korea (20/987, 2.0 %). Study participants were mostly in the adult (55.2 %) and/or older adult (72.0 %) age groups. The top ten diseases/conditions were hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, knee osteoarthritis, heart failure, depression, osteoporosis/osteopenia, breast cancer, coronary heart disease and insomnia. A quarter of the studies enrolled healthy participants to evaluate the effects of Tai Chi on health promotion/preservation, balance/falls, and physiological/biomechanical outcomes. Yang style Tai Chi was the most popular, followed by Chen and Sun style. Tai Chi was mostly commonly delivered face-to-face by a Tai Chi instructor in group settings for 60 min, three times a week, for 12 weeks. Most studies (93.8 %) reported at least one outcome in favor of Tai Chi. Adverse events were underreported (7.2 %). Over half fell short of expected intervention reporting standards, signalling the need for Tai Chi extensions to existing guidelines.
    Keywords:  Complementary therapies; Exercise; Mind-body therapies; Physical therapy; Tai Chi
  37. PLoS Biol. 2021 Jun;19(6): e3001282
      Success and impact metrics in science are based on a system that perpetuates sexist and racist "rewards" by prioritizing citations and impact factors. These metrics are flawed and biased against already marginalized groups and fail to accurately capture the breadth of individuals' meaningful scientific impacts. We advocate shifting this outdated value system to advance science through principles of justice, equity, diversity, and inclusion. We outline pathways for a paradigm shift in scientific values based on multidimensional mentorship and promoting mentee well-being. These actions will require collective efforts supported by academic leaders and administrators to drive essential systemic change.
  38. Diabetes Care. 2021 Jun 15. pii: dci210015. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVE: Women are broadly underrepresented in scientific leadership positions and their accomplishments are not provided equal recognition compared with those of men, but the imbalance in the field of diabetes is unknown. Hence, we analyzed multiple aspects of historical and present-day female representation in the diabetes field.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We quantified gender representation at annual American Diabetes Association (ADA) meetings; editorial board service positions for ADA and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) journals; principal investigators for ADA, JDRF, and National Institutes of Health National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases P30 grant funding; and ADA, JDRF, and EASD award recipients.
    RESULTS: There are many women in the field of diabetes: registration for the ADA Scientific Sessions has been 43% female since 2016, and for over five decades, women made up 83% of ADA Presidents of Health Care and Education. Yet, only 9% of ADA Presidents of Medicine and Science have been women. Women were well represented on editorial boards for journals focused on diabetes education (Diabetes Spectrum, 89% female) and primary care (Clinical Diabetes, 49% female) but not for the more academically targeted Diabetes Care (34% female), Diabetes (21% female), and Diabetologia (30% female). Only one-third of ADA Pathway to Stop Diabetes and JDRF grants have been awarded to women, and females only lead 2 of 18 (11%) of the P30-supported Diabetes Research Centers. Finally, only 2-12% of major ADA, JDRF, and EASD awards were given to women, without significant change over time.
    CONCLUSIONS: Despite increasing recognition of gender imbalance in research and medicine, many disparities in the field of diabetes persist. We call for decreasing barriers for advancement of female investigators and creating environments that promote their retention and equitable recognition for their contributions to the field.
  39. Pediatrics. 2021 Jun 15. pii: e2020026666. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A diverse pediatric workforce reflecting the racial/ethnic representation of the US population is an important factor in eliminating health inequities. Studies reveal minimal improvements over time in the proportions of underrepresented in medicine (URiM) physicians; however, studies assessing trends in pediatric URiM trainee representation are limited. Our objective was to evaluate longitudinal trends in racial/ethnic representation among a cross-section of US pediatric trainees and to compare it to the US population.METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional study of graduate medical education census data on self-reported race/ethnicity of pediatric residents and subspecialty fellows from 2007 to 2019. To evaluate trends in URiM proportions over time , the Cochran-Armitage test was performed. Data on self-reported race/ethnicity of trainees were compared with the general population data over time by using US Census Bureau data.
    RESULTS: Trends in URiM proportions were unchanged in residents (16% in 2007 to 16.5% in 2019; P = .98) and, overall, decreased for fellows (14.2% in 2007 to 13.5% in 2019; P = .002). URiM fellow trends significantly decreased over time in neonatal-perinatal medicine (P < .001), infectious diseases (P < .001), and critical care (P = .006) but significantly increased in endocrinology (P = .002) and pulmonology (P = .009). Over time, the percentage of URiM pediatric trainee representation was considerably lower compared to the US population.
    CONCLUSIONS: The continued underrepresentation of URiM pediatric trainees may perpetuate persistent health inequities for minority pediatric populations. There is a critical need to recruit and retain pediatric URiM residents and subspecialty fellows.