bims-evares Biomed News
on Evaluation of research
Issue of 2021‒05‒23
thirty-six papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. J Cancer. 2021 ;12(12): 3660-3670
      Background: Tremendous progress has been made in the treatment of colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRCLM) in recent decades, and thousands of papers have been published. Therefore, we conducted a bibliometric analysis of articles related to CRCLM treatment to explore its evolution. Materials and Methods: The Clarivate Analytics Web of Science (WOS) Core Collection database was searched through June 2020 using terms related to CRCLM treatment. We analyzed the bibliographic information of the literature related to CRCLM treatment and explored the research topics to understand its evolution over time. Results: We identified 3436 records related to CRCLM treatment in the WOS database. The total number of times these documents were cited ranged 0-2352, and the years of publication spanned 1976-2020. The greatest numbers of articles were published in the United States, Japan, and France. Among institutions, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, MD Anderson Cancer Center, and Oslo University Hospital published the most articles. Regarding authors, Jarnagin WR, Adam R, Vauthey JN published the most articles. The research topics of these articles included systemic chemotherapy, molecular targeted therapy, the outcome of liver resection, prognosis prediction, hepatic artery infusion, radiofrequency ablation, and two-stage hepatectomy. Conclusion: Bibliometric analysis of studies related to CRCLM treatment can help doctors and researchers quickly understand the development trend in this field. These data emphasize the current management of patients with CRCLM, and they can potentially guide the direction of future research.
    Keywords:  bibliometric analysis; citation.; colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRCLM); management; therapy
  2. Scientometrics. 2021 May 07. 1-15
      The Covid-19 pandemic has been the highest disruptive event in the world recent history. Worldwide academic research on this topic has led to an explosion of scientific literature, never seen before. Bibliometrics provide methods to illustrate this exceptional phenomenon in academic publications. The objective of this paper is to analyze the Covid-19 research from a bibliometric perspective and to study the impact of the publication explosion on bibliometric indicators. The present study shows how an exceptional phenomenon has a disruptive impact on bibliometric indicators, such as the h-index and the Journal Impact Factor. The higher the specialization, the higher the possible impact of a disruptive phenomenon. In applied sciences, more important than the research or the discipline, the specific theme of the research is crucial for citations of articles and for their impact. The salience of the topic, the magnitude of the problem at study and the urgency to find solutions are drivers for citations. The study of the Covid-19 research illustrates the relativity of indicators and the need for context. The present study also confirms the plead for responsible metrics of the San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA).
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; Covid-19; Disruption; Ethics; H-index; Indicator; Journal impact factor; Urgency
  3. ScientificWorldJournal. 2021 ;2021 5548481
      Publication and authorship are important in academia for career advancement, obtaining grants, and improved patient care. There has been a recent interest in bibliometric changes over time, especially regarding the gender gap. The purpose of this study was to explore bibliometric changes in the musculoskeletal literature. Bibliometric variables (number of authors, institutions, countries, pages, references, corresponding author position, author gender, geographic region of origin, and editorial board makeup) were analyzed for 5 basic science and 12 clinically oriented musculoskeletal journals from 1985 through 2016. Statistical analyses comprised bivariate analyses, multifactorial ANOVAs, and logistic regression analyses. A p < 0.005 was considered significant. Nearly, all variables increased over time. Asia had the highest number of authors and corresponding author positions, Australia/New Zealand the highest number of institutions and references, North America the highest number of pages, and Europe the highest number of countries. Those with a female first author had more authors, institutions, countries, references, and pages. Likewise, those with a female corresponding author had more authors, institutions, countries, references, and pages. Single-authored manuscripts decreased over time. The percentage of female first authors rose from 10.8% in 1985-1987 to 23.7% in 2015-2016. There were more female 1st authors in the basic science journals compared to the clinical journals (33.2% vs. 12.7%). Single-authored manuscripts were more likely to be written by males (5.1 vs. 2.4%) and decreased over time. The many differences by geographic region of origin likely reflect different socio/cultural attitudes regarding academia and research, as well as the gender composition of the disciplines by geographic region. Overall, there has been an increase in the number of female 1st and corresponding authors, editorial board members, and chief editors, indicating a slow but progressive narrowing of the gender gap.
  4. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2021 ;35 20
      Background: Coronavirus primarily targets the human respiratory system, COVID-19 (Coronavirus disease 2019) triggered in China in the late 2019. In March 2020, WHO announced the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to analyze and visualize the scientific structure of the COVID-19 publications using co-citation and co-authorship. Methods: This is a scientometric study. Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) was searched for all documents regarding COVID-19, MERS-Cov, and SARS-Cov from the beginning to 2020. An Excel spreadsheet was applied to gather and analyze the data and the CiteSpace was used to visualize and analyze the data. Results: A total of 5159 records were retrieved in WoSCC. The structure of the network indicated that the network mean silhouette was low (0.1444), implying that the network clusters' identity is not identifiable with high confidence. The network modularity was 0.7309. The cluster analysis of the co-citation network on documents from 2003 to 2020 provided 188 clusters. The largest cluster entitled, "the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus" had 255 nodes. The coauthorship network illustrated that the most prolific countries, USA, China, and Saudi Arabia, have focused on a specific field and have formed separate clusters. Conclusion: The present study identified the important topics of research in the field of COVID-19 based on co-citation networks as well as the analysis of clusters of countries' collaborations. Despite the similarities in the production behavior in prolific countries, their thematic focus varies so that a country like China plays a role in "Quantitative Detection" cluster, while USA is the leading country in the "Biological Evaluation" cluster.
    Keywords:  CiteSpace; Co-citation; Coauthorship; Collaboration network; Covid-19; Scientometrics; Visualization analysis
  5. Anaesthesist. 2021 May 18.
      PURPOSE: Only few studies have analyzed the global distribution of anesthesia research. This study was designed to reveal the current global research status of anesthesiology.METHODS: Articles published between 1999 and 2018 in international journals in the field of anesthesiology were retrieved from the PubMed database. The top 20 ranked countries were identified. The gross domestic product (GDP) of each country was also retrieved to reveal the correlation between research outputs and the economy. The total outputs and outputs per 10 million inhabitants in each country were calculated and compared. To analyze the quality of publications among the top 10 ranked countries, the impact factor (IF), article influence score (AIS), and immediacy index (ImI) were calculated and analyzed. In addition, the keywords of publications were retrieved to conduct co-occurrence analysis in order to determine the research focus in anesthesiology.
    RESULTS: A total of 112,918 articles were published in 30 selected journals from 1999 to 2018. There was a positive correlation between research outputs and GDP of 10 countries (p < 0.001, r = 0.825). The USA ranked 1st with 21,703 articles, followed by the UK (8393 articles) and Germany (6504 articles). Canada had the highest number of publications per 10 million inhabitants in 2018. The UK had the highest average IF (4.70), average AIS (1.16), and average ImI (1.64) among the 10 countries. The research highlights in the field of anesthesiology included "mechanism and management of pain", "cardiac anesthesia", "pediatric anesthesia and airway management", "analgesia" and "anesthetic agents".
    CONCLUSION: Regarding quantity trend, the output of global production in anesthesiology increased continuously as the number of articles from the high-output countries showed an increasing trend; however, there was still a gap between developing and developed countries in research quality. High-quality research should be encouraged in developing countries.
    Keywords:  Clinical trial; Co-occurrence analysis; Impact factor; Research; Science citation index expanded
  6. J Neuroimaging. 2021 May 18.
      Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a noninvasive optical brain-imaging technique that detects changes in hemoglobin concentration in the cerebral cortex. fNIRS devices are safe, silent, portable, robust against motion artifacts, and have good temporal resolution. fNIRS is reliable and trustworthy, as well as an alternative and a complement to other brain-imaging modalities, such as electroencephalography or functional magnetic resonance imaging. Given these advantages, fNIRS has become a well-established tool for neuroscience research, used not only for healthy cortical activity but also as a biomarker during clinical assessment in individuals with schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, bipolar disease, epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease, vascular dementia, and cancer screening. Owing to its wide applicability, studies on fNIRS have increased exponentially over the last two decades. In this study, scientific publications indexed in the Web of Science databases were collected and a bibliometric-type methodology was developed. For this purpose, a comprehensive science mapping analysis, including top-ranked authors, journals, institutions, countries, and co-occurring keywords network, was conducted. From a total of 2310 eligible documents, 6028 authors and 531 journals published fNIRS-related papers, Fallgatter published the highest number of articles and was the most cited author. University of Tübingen in Germany has produced the most trending papers since 2000. USA was the most prolific country with the most active institutions, followed by China, Japan, Germany, and South Korea. The results also revealed global trends in emerging areas of research, such as neurodevelopment, aging, and cognitive and emotional assessment.
    Keywords:  bibliometric; functional near-infrared spectroscopy; neuroimaging
  7. Cad Saude Publica. 2021 ;pii: S0102-311X2021000505006. [Epub ahead of print]37(5): e00197820
      This study aimed to assess the percentage of articles with authors affiliated to Brazilian institutions in high-impact journals and SciELO journals and to evaluate trends in 5-year citations according to the author's affiliation and journal category. Bibliometric data were obtained using Scopus database from 1995 to 2019. Publications were selected from four journal categories: High-impact General Health (HGH), High-impact Public Health (HPH), SciELO General Health (SGH) and SciELO Public Health (SPH). The number of citations that were received five years after publication and the percentage of publications with any author affiliated to Brazil were calculated by each year. The same 146 journals were followed. There was a significant increase in percentage of articles with authors affiliated to Brazilian institutions in all sets of journals. Among HGH, there was an increasing from 0.3% to 1.5% between 1995-2019, for HPH from 1% to 3%, for SGH from 49.7% to 55.4%, and for SPH from 47.4% to 71.9%. There was a significant (p < 0.01) increase in the mean of 5-year citations in all groups and Brazilian affiliated articles increased more than average. For each 10 years, average HGH articles increased 11.9 citations and Brazilian affiliated articles 32.0 citations. The results suggest that the presence of Brazilian science is increasing, and the scientific impact has increased more than average.
  8. Eur Radiol. 2021 May 19.
      OBJECTIVES: To analyze the development of publication numbers of female authors in high-, medium-, and low-impact radiological journals.METHODS: In this bibliometric analysis, gender of the first (FA) and senior author (SA) was assigned to all original research articles and reviews, published in 10 high-, medium-, and low-impact radiological journals in 2007/8 and 2017/18. The adjusted event rate (AER) and adjusted odds ratio (AOR) were calculated using mixed logistic and multinomial logistic regression models to assess and compare female publications according to impact factor, journal, author position, and combination.
    RESULTS: The proportion of female FA and female SA in N = 6979 (2007/2008) and N = 7383 (2017/2018) articles increased to 29.1% and 16.1% in 2017/2018, respectively. While most female authorships were continuously observed in medium-impact journals, the strongest increase occurred for both female FA (AOR 2.0; p < .0001) and SA (AOR 2.1; p < .0001) in low-impact journals. Female SA published significantly more often in a low- (AOR 1.5) or medium- (AOR 1.8) than in a high-ranking journal. Among the high-ranking journals, female FA published most frequently in European Radiology (32.4%; 95% CI [29.3-35.8]; p < .0001), female SA in Investigative Radiology (15.9%; 95% CI [13.7-18.4]; p < .0001). Male same-sex authorships decreased (AOR 0.9), but remained at least twice as common as all-female or mixed authorships.
    CONCLUSION: The increase in female authorship is reflected in all impact areas. Female FA and SA increased most in low-ranking journals but are most common in medium-ranking journals. Female SA remain rare, especially in high impact journals.
    KEY POINTS: • Compared to the proportion of female radiologists worldwide, female senior authors are underrepresented in all impact areas, in particular in high-impact journals. • Among the included high-ranking radiological journals, female first authors and senior authors were strongest represented in European Radiology and Investigative Radiology, while across all impact areas they mostly published in medium-ranking journals. • Female author combinations were more frequent in low- and medium- than in high-ranking journals, whereas male author combinations remained more common than female senior author collaborations in all impact areas.
    Keywords:  Authorship; Bibliometrics; Female; Journal impact factor; Publishing/statistics
  9. J Pathol Inform. 2021 ;12 8
      Background: Recently, research data are increasingly shared through social media and other digital platforms. Traditionally, the influence of a scientific article has been assessed by the publishing journal's impact factor (IF) and its citation count. The Altmetric scoring system, a new bibliometric that integrates research "mentions" over digital media platforms, has emerged as a metric of online research distribution. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of the Altmetric Score with IF and citation number within the pathology literature.Methods: Citation count and Altmetric scores were obtained from the top 10 most-cited articles from the 15 pathology journals with the highest IF for 2013 and 2016. These variables were analyzed and correlated with each other, as well as the age of the publishing journal's Twitter account.
    Results: Three hundred articles were examined from the two cohorts. The total citation count of the articles decreased from 21,043 (2013) to 14,679 (2016), while the total Altmetric score increased from 830 (2013) to 4066 (2016). In 2013, Altmetric score weakly correlated with citation number (r = 0.284, P < 0.001) but not with journal IF (r = 0.024, P = 0.771). In 2016, there was strong correlation between citation count and Altmetric Score (r = 0.714, P < 0.0001) but not the IF (r = 0.0442, P = 0.591). Twitter was the single most important contributor to the Altmetric score; however, the age of the Twitter account was not associated with citation number nor Altmetric score.
    Conclusions: In the pathology literature studied, the Altmetric score correlates with article citation count, suggesting that the Altmetric score and conventional bibliometrics can be treated as complementary metrics. Given the trend towards increasing use of social media, additional investigation is warranted to evaluate the evolving role of social media metrics to assess the dissemination and impact of scientific findings in the field of pathology.
    Keywords:  Altmetric; Twitter; citations; pathology; social media
  10. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 646311
      Background: Ferroptosis is a newly proposed form of programmed cell death, and accumulating evidence suggests that it plays an essential role in the development of multiple diseases, especially cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Since officially named in 2012, research on ferroptosis has grown rapidly. There are previous reviews focused on the research progress of ferroptosis from a certain aspect, but no bibliometric studies summarizing this field as a whole. This study aimed to assess the scientific output and activity regarding ferroptosis research from a global perspective. Methods: Publications related to ferroptosis from 2012 to 2020 were identified and selected from the Web of Science Core Collection. Excel 2019 and GraphPad Prism 8.0 was used to analyze quantitative variables including number of publications and citations, H-index, and journal citation reports. VOS viewer and CiteSpace were used to perform co-authorship, co-citation, and co-occurrence analysis of countries/institutes/authors/keywords. Results: A total of 1,285 publications on ferroptosis research were identified. The literature on ferroptosis had been continuously growing since 2012, and the expansion might continue at a rapid pace in the following years. China contributed the greatest proportion (43.74%) of ferroptosis publications, and the United States ranked first in the number of citation frequency (20,980 times) and H-index (70). B. R. Stockwell, D. L. Tang, and R. Kang were key researchers. The journal Cell Death Disease published the highest number of articles, with 42 articles. All the keywords could be divided into two clusters: cluster 1 (pathway and mechanism) and cluster 2 (treatment and effect). In terms of potential hotspots, keywords with the strong bursts and still ongoing recently were "neurodegeneration" (2017-2020), "chemotherapy" (2017-2020), "NF-kappa B" (2017-2020), and "photodynamic therapy" (2018-2020). Conclusion: There will be a dramatically increasing number of publications on ferroptosis research based on the current global trends. China has made significant progress in ferroptosis research, but the United States is actually dominated in this field. More focus will be placed on neurodegeneration, chemotherapy, nuclear factor κB, and photodynamic therapy, which may be the next popular topics in ferroptosis research.
    Keywords:  CiteSpace; VOS viewer; WoSCC; bibliometric analysis; ferroptosis
  11. J Med Internet Res. 2021 May 13.
      BACKGROUND: As single-cell sequencing (SCS) technology has been gradually introduced, it is essential to characterize global collaboration networks and map the developmental directions over the past 20 years.OBJECTIVE: To illustrate the cooperation and explore the key topics and future directions regarding of SCS methods.
    METHODS: Bibliometric analyses were conducted by CiteSpace (version 5.3.R4) and VOSviewer software (version 1.6.9) using publications on SCS methods from the Web of Science Core Collection prior to November 2019.
    RESULTS: Ultimately, we identified 2489 records, which were published in 495 journals by 14,202 authors from 1970 institutes in 61 countries, and a significant increase emerged in 2014. The USA and developed countries in Europe contributed to most of the records included. Moreover, Harvard University, Stanford University, Karolinska Institutes, Peking University, and the University of Washington were the biggest nodes in every cluster of collaboration network, and Teichmann SA, Marioni JC, Regev A, and Tang FC were the top productive authors. In terms of keywords co-occurrence analysis, 'applications in immunology' was regarded developmental trends in the future.
    CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the global collaborations network was formed incompletely, and that developed countries contributed more to the rapidly growth of publications of SCS technology. Furthermore, the application of SCS in immunology might be the next research hotspot and developmental direction.
  12. Adv Med Educ Pract. 2021 ;12 481-489
      Introduction: Understanding the trend of student authorship is crucial in determining its correlation to scholarly impact for corresponding authors. Our objective is to investigate student authorship rates over time in articles published in JAMA Internal Medicine (IM), as well as to examine potential effects student authors have on scholarly impact scores of corresponding authors via H-index measures.Methods: Authorship data including student authors (SA), first student authors, and corresponding authors (CA) from prior JAMA IM publications between 2010 and 2018 were collected, with a total of 701 studies. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and independent sample t-tests were performed to assess for differences in the mean by publishing year and student authorship, respectively.
    Results: Of 4591 total authors, 683 (14.9%) were considered student authors. The percentage of student authorship increased from 46.3% to 58.0% between 2010 and 2018, respectively. No difference in average H-indices of CA between SA and non-SA groups (overall NSA Hi mean: 30.2, vs SA Hi mean: 32.1, p=0.371) was noted.
    Discussion: Student participation in research is not a disadvantage to scholarly impact for corresponding authors. Increased student authorship reflects a promising trend towards greater student participation in research within the field of medicine.
    Keywords:  H-index; academic productivity; authorship; medical student; student research
  13. Dig Dis Sci. 2021 May 18.
      BACKGROUND: Gender disparities remain in the field of gastroenterology (GI) despite the decreasing gender gap in the medical field overall. We sought to examine primary and last female authorship as a marker of academic opportunity and advancement to assess the proportion of women publishing in GI over 20 years (1997-2017).METHODS: In this observational study, we assessed the gender and nationality of primary and last authors of original research manuscripts in three GI journals (Gastroenterology, Gut, and American Journal of Gastroenterology) across a 20-year period in 5-year intervals (in 1997, 2002, 2007, and 2012). We used a validated gender-determining algorithm,, to classify gender. Our primary outcome was the proportion of female primary and last authors, with secondary measures assessing trends in gender and nationality.
    RESULTS: Through the gender database, we were able to identify the gender for 3,673 (95.9%) of primary author names and 3,504 (95.4%) of last author names in the 3,615 manuscripts evaluated. Overall, there was a significant increase in female primary authors over time, from 18.1% in 1997 to 42.6% in 2017, a 6.0% increase per 5-year period (95% CI 4.8-7.2%). A similar trend was found for female last authors, however, at a slower rate, from 8.3% in 1997 to 24.7% in 2017, a 3.5% increase per 5 years (95% CI 2.5-4.4%). These trends were noted cumulatively, and in each journal individually. Manuscripts with a female last author were more likely to demonstrate a female primary author.
    CONCLUSION: Female authorship in high-impact gastroenterology journals has increased over time. Last authorship has lagged primary authorship in female representation and has increased more slowly over time. Interventions to reduce gender disparity in GI research should focus on the transition from first to last authorship.
    Keywords:  Authorship; Discrimination; Gastroenterology; Gender
  14. Scientometrics. 2021 May 08. 1-6
      Logically, and by most common standards, academics would be pleased to be cited, considering it a form of recognition of their intellect. In return, especially those with high citation counts, such as Clarivate Analytics' Highly Cited Researchers, can benefit through peer recognition, rewards, funding, securing a better position, or expanding a collaborative network. Despite known and untold benefits, one issue has not been discussed: the right to refuse to be cited or the right to refuse a citation. Academics might not want to be cited by papers published in truly predatory journals, papers with false authors, or sting papers with falsified elements that employ underhanded ethical tactics. Currently, academics generally have the freedom to select where they publish their findings and choose studies they cite, so it is highly probable that requests to remove citations or refuse citations might never become formal publishing policy. Nonetheless, this academic discussion is worth having as valid and invalid literature increasingly gets mixed through citations, and as the grey zone between predatory/non-predatory and scholarly/unscholarly becomes increasingly difficult to distinguish.
    Keywords:  Author- and journal-based metrics; Citation boosting and manipulation; Predatory publishing
  15. J Clin Orthop Trauma. 2021 Jul;18 105-113
      Introduction: The aim of this study is to analyse the most cited articles in rotator cuff surgery and identify trends in topics by decade to see which areas may still need further investigation.Methods: Journal Citation Index was searched to find articles using the search terms pertaining to "rotator cuff repair". All articles were ranked according to most cited, and then further analysed to find most cited articles in each decade. Articles were grouped into topics to find themes for each decade.
    Results: All the most cited articles were published in 6 orthopaedic journals. Only 4 of the top 30 citations provided level I evidence. Each decade's most cited articles seemed to fit into a broad topic, with platelet-rich plasma and biologic augmentation being prominent in the last decade.
    Conclusion: There are still many unanswered questions in rotator cuff surgery, but this may be because success of certain treatment options are highly dependent on patient selection. Despite growing numbers of articles being published on rotator cuff repairs, the level of evidence remains low. Larger, collaborative projects may help in answering the common dilemmas that still face shoulder surgeons.
    Keywords:  Arthroscopic surgery; Most cited; Rotator cuff repair; Rotator cuff surgery; Shoulder trends
  16. Psychiatr Danub. 2021 05;33(Suppl 3): 136-142
      Societal importance and the quality of scientific research highly depend on the usefulness of the results of research for the societal and scientific community. The wish to allocate the funds to high-quali-ty research and to establish right criteria for scientific evaluation and academic career progression, make scientific criteria increasingly important to measure the quality of research and knowledge valorization. However, it is very difficult to apply the right criteria which can objectively assess scientific research. For many years, there has been a great interest in scientific ranking and evaluation of scientific journals, but also of sci-entific contribution of scientists. It is generally accepted that the IF (WoS) and the total number of citations of articles published in the journal, are the most relevant parameters of the journal's significance. However, the significance of a scientist and the value of their scientific production are much more complicated to evaluate and they cannot be directly reflected by the importance of the journals in which their articles are published. In this article, the authors describe and evaluate the most known scientific databases which are used in science. The majority of existing science metric systems, which evaluate the achievement of scientists are focused solely on the number of citations of their articles. For example, H-index, which is calculated as the lowest ranked ar-ticle which number of citations matches its ranking number, has considerable shortcoming because it does not take into account the individual contribution of each author and allows expanding author lists with authors whose contribution may be insignificant or none. Therefore, the authors propose Z-score, as a new science met-ric system, which takes into account the author's contribution to the scientific article and greatly remedy major discrepancies in evaluating scientific production of individual authors and institutions.
  17. World Neurosurg. 2021 May 18. pii: S1878-8750(21)00716-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Academic misrepresentation is not an unknown phenomenon with recent reports in neurosurgery detecting a 45% misrepresentation rate in prospective neurosurgical residents.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine current rates of academic misrepresentation by prospective neurosurgical residents at a single institution across two distinct application cycles.
    METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS) applications to one institution's neurosurgical residency program in the 2015 (n = 320) and 2020 (n = 355) application cycles. Reported academic works were verified through an extensive web search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and the individual journal websites. Misrepresentation was defined in our study as listing work that does not exist, self-promotion to primary authorship, self-promotion (excluding primary authorship), incorrectly listing online-only publications, and listing non-peer-reviewed work as peer-reviewed.
    RESULTS: In 2015, 253 (79.1%) applicants reported a total of 2097 citations and 305 (85.9%) applicants reported a total of 3018 citations in 2020 (p < 0.05). Median peer-reviewed articles per applicant rose significantly in 2020 (3.0 vs. 4.0, p < 0.001). Misrepresentation rates decreased dramatically in 2020 to 18.4% from a previously reported misrepresentation rate of 45% in 2012 (p < 0.0001). Increased United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) Step 2 scores were associated with a decreased likelihood of misrepresentation (OR = 0.97, p < 0.001).
    CONCLUSION: Misrepresentation rates within neurosurgical residency candidates have significantly decreased despite an increase in reported citations. A variety of steps including education, modifying reporting methods, and increased screening may help even further decrease misrepresentation.
    Keywords:  Academic Misrepresentation; Neurological Surgery
  18. J Cancer. 2021 ;12(12): 3539-3547
      Background: Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitors are frequently used anti-cancer agents in hormone receptor-positive breast cancers. This study assessed the course of research and development (R&D) for CDK4/6 inhibitors in terms of publications over the past two decades. Methods: The Web of Science (WOS) and PubMed databases were searched to identify publications related to research on CDK4/6 inhibitors since 2001. The VOS Viewer software was used to analyze co-occurring keywords to stratify the publication data and collaborations in research. Results: There were 1395 publications related to research on CDK4/6 inhibitors since 2001. Eight of the top 10 institutions originated from the USA and the other two were a Swiss Pharmaceutical Company and French Research Institute. Bardia A, the first author for some of the articles published in the USA, was the most prolific with 25 publications. The journal with the most publications was Cancer Res with 162 publications. Basic research comprised six of the 10 most frequently cited publications and the rest consisted of three reviews and a clinical trial. The most common keywords for publications since 2011 were "palbociclib", "abemaciclib", "ribociclib" and "double blind", indicating the successful development of CDK4/6 inhibitors as anticancer drugs. Conclusions: This study provides a comprehensive review of the CDK4/6 inhibitors R&D history. The data imply that drug development in this field is a decade-long process and clinical trials have been performed before clinical applications. Thereafter, research was conducted on the adverse effects and drug resistance associated with the inhibitors.
    Keywords:  CDK4/6 inhibitor; anti-cancer agents; basic research; clinical trial; publications
  19. Front Res Metr Anal. 2020 ;5 614016
      Bibliometric indicators such as the number of published articles and citations received are subject to a strong ambiguity. A high numerical value of bibliometric indicators may not measure the quality of scientific production, but only a high level of activity of a researcher. There may be cases of good researchers who do not produce a high number of articles, but have few research products of high quality. The sociology of science relies on the so-called "Matthew effect," which is inspired by Matthew's Gospel on Talents. "Those that have more will have more" seems to support the idea that those that publish more, merit to have higher bibliometric indicators, and to be recognized for their major results. But is this really the case? Can bibliometric indicators be considered a measure of the merit of scholars or they come from luck and chance? The answer is of fundamental importance to identify best practices in research assessment. In this work, using philosophical argumentation, we show how Christian theology, in particular St. Thomas Aquinas, can help us to clarify the concept of merit, overcoming the conceptual ambiguities and problems highlighted by the existing literature. By doing this, Christian theology, will allow us to introduce the evaluation framework in a broader perspective better suited to the interpretation of the complexity of research evaluation.
    Keywords:  Christian theology; St Thomas Aquinas; best-practices; bibliometrics; research assessment
  20. Nat Biotechnol. 2021 May 17.
      The scientific ecosystem relies on citation-based metrics that provide only imperfect, inconsistent and easily manipulated measures of research quality. Here we describe DELPHI (Dynamic Early-warning by Learning to Predict High Impact), a framework that provides an early-warning signal for 'impactful' research by autonomously learning high-dimensional relationships among features calculated across time from the scientific literature. We prototype this framework and deduce its performance and scaling properties on time-structured publication graphs from 1980 to 2019 drawn from 42 biotechnology-related journals, including over 7.8 million individual nodes, 201 million relationships and 3.8 billion calculated metrics. We demonstrate the framework's performance by correctly identifying 19/20 seminal biotechnologies from 1980 to 2014 via a blinded retrospective study and provide 50 research papers from 2018 that DELPHI predicts will be in the top 5% of time-rescaled node centrality in the future. We propose DELPHI as a tool to aid in the construction of diversified, impact-optimized funding portfolios.
  21. Surgery. 2021 May 18. pii: S0039-6060(21)00331-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Designing studies to assess critically novel procedures can be challenging; thus, the process to achieve robust evidence is frequently problematic. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate if literature on transanal total mesorectal excision is evolving according to the Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, and Long-term results framework.METHODS: Literature on transanal total mesorectal excision was searched according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement, and these variables were recorded: bibliometric data, design, corresponding author's nationality, number of patients enrolled, and Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, and Long-term results stages (stage 0, stage 1, stage 2, stage 3, and stage 4).
    RESULTS: Out of 447 articles retrieved, 247 were selected (76.5% single center and 23.5% multicenter collaborations), including 35 reviews, 15 meta-analyses, 24 other publications, and 173 articles classified according to Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, and Long-term results stages (19 stage 0, 27 stage 1, 111 stage 2, 7 stage 3, and 9 stage 4). Overall, impact factor produced was 634.10. Reviewing corresponding authors' nationalities, 32 countries were identified, and the most reported were the United States, China, and the United Kingdom; nearly all were from the Northern Hemisphere. Publication of stage 3 and 4 articles started in 2014, whereas stage 0 and 1 articles were stably published over time. The number of patients increased in correspondence with the Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment, and Long-term results stages (case series with >51 patients, respectively, 100.0% stage 3, 77.8% stage 4, and 33.3% stage 2, P = .005).
    CONCLUSION: The number of stage 3 and 4 articles is still low; however, the technical innovation of transanal total mesorectal excision is a non-stopping process with preclinical studies stably published over time.
  22. Sci Adv. 2021 May;pii: eabd1705. [Epub ahead of print]7(21):
      We use publicly available data to show that published papers in top psychology, economics, and general interest journals that fail to replicate are cited more than those that replicate. This difference in citation does not change after the publication of the failure to replicate. Only 12% of postreplication citations of nonreplicable findings acknowledge the replication failure. Existing evidence also shows that experts predict well which papers will be replicated. Given this prediction, why are nonreplicable papers accepted for publication in the first place? A possible answer is that the review team faces a trade-off. When the results are more "interesting," they apply lower standards regarding their reproducibility.
  23. Mar Pollut Bull. 2021 May 12. pii: S0025-326X(21)00480-X. [Epub ahead of print]168 112446
      Marine litter is claimed to be one of the most meaningful environmental crises of the century. Education that supports behavior change is a tool to tackle this problem. However, there is a lack of research linking educational initiatives and marine litter issues. A literature review was conducted through a bibliometric and content analysis to explore the state of knowledge regarding educational actions. The results revealed that 2019 was the year with the highest number of publications and that 83.4% of the documents were collaborative efforts. Concerning educational approaches, hands-on and technological activities are being explored to raise awareness and stimulate behavior change. Students and questionnaires represent, respectively, the most common audience and evaluating method. More integrative actions and respective long-term methodological triangulation evaluation were identified as necessary in future studies. This paper is expected to contribute to innovative knowledge in the area by identifying the main gaps in the literature.
    Keywords:  Behavior change; Bibliometric analysis; Content analysis; Education; Marine litter; Sustainable development
  24. Ir J Med Sci. 2021 May 19.
      BACKGROUND: Historically males have dominated the physician ranks, although in recent years, there has been an increase in the proportion of female doctors to redress this imbalance. With such attention being paid to gender equality in society, this study aimed to characterise the changing prevalence of female authorship of peer-reviewed published research with in the field of gastroenterology.AIMS: In order to quantitatively assess the growth of female gastroenterologists, we decided to examine the changing face of gender equality within the field of academic gastroenterology from 1971 to 2010.
    METHODS: All research published in the January and July issues of Gastroenterology from 1971 to 2010 was reviewed. The gender of the first author and last author (considered the senior author) of each study was recorded. Research was subsequently categorised by type: basic science research, clinical trials, and epidemiologic research. Data was analysed in 5-year time periods.
    RESULTS: Author gender could be identified from a total of 865 abstracts from 80 journal issues. In total, there were 120 (13.8%) female first authors and 91 (10.5%) female senior authors. Female first authorship has tripled since 1995, from 11% (1991-1995) to 32% (2006-2010). Female senior authorship has also tripled since 2000, from 7% (1996-2000) to 24% (2006-2010).
    DISCUSSION: Results demonstrated that there has been a significant increase in the prevalence of female authorship of published research in Gastroenterology since 1995. The increasing prevalence of females within the field of academic gastroenterology can therefore be extrapolated to demonstrate the growing numbers of female gastroenterologists in the entire field including clinical and academic gastroenterology.
    Keywords:  Female; Gastroenterology; Gender equality; Research
  25. Ther Innov Regul Sci. 2021 May 18.
      OBJECTIVES: Clinical trials provide one of the highest levels of evidence to support medical practice. Investigator initiated clinical trials (IICTs) answer relevant questions in clinical practice that may not be addressed by industry. For the first time, two European Countries are compared in terms of IICTs, respective funders and publications, envisaging to inspire others to use similar indicators to assess clinical research outcomes.METHODS: A retrospective systematic search of registered IICTs from 2004 to 2017, using four clinical trials registries was carried out in two European countries with similar population, GDP, HDI and medical schools but with different governmental models to fund clinical research. Each IICT was screened for sponsors, funders, type of intervention and associated publications, once completed.
    RESULTS: IICTs involving the Czech Republic and Portugal were n = 439 (42% with hospitals as sponsors) and n = 328 (47% with universities as sponsors), respectively. The Czech Republic and Portuguese funding agencies supported respectively 61 and 27 IICTs. Among these, trials with medicinal products represent 52% in Czech Republic and 4% in Portugal. In the first, a higher percentage of IICTs' publications in high impact factor journals with national investigators as authors was observed, when compared to Portugal (75% vs 15%).
    CONCLUSION: The better performance in clinical research by Czech Republic might be related to the existence of specific and periodic funding for clinical research, although further data are still needed to confirm this relationship. In upcoming years, the indicators used herein might be useful to tracking clinical research outcomes in these and other European countries.
    Keywords:  Clinical research; Clinical research outcome; Clinical trial; Clinical trials registry; Funding; Investigator initiated clinical trials
  26. Acad Radiol. 2021 May 15. pii: S1076-6332(21)00131-8. [Epub ahead of print]
      PURPOSE: To quantify the gap between radiology and other specialties regarding the amount of literature on healthcare disparities (HCD).METHODS: Four different searches were conducted to evaluate the amount of literature on HCD in radiology as compared to internal medicine and surgery. Initially, the Journal Citation Report was utilized to search for the five highest ranking journals in each field and a second search used impact factor. A combination of search terms "health" AND "disparities" was used. Two additional searches were performed with PubMed using the terms "health" AND "disparities AND "radiology" with the final term changed for each specialty. The second PubMed search added the term "medical education" for each specialty. Articles were limited to years 2017 to 2020.
    RESULTS: The initial search found 1817 articles discussing "health" and "disparities". 14.6% of these were radiology, 65.7% internal medicine, and 19.7% surgery. The subsequent search controlling for impact factor found 2176 articles. 12.2% were for radiology, 66.1% were for internal medicine, and 21.7% for surgery. The initial PubMed search found 6543 articles. 9.9% were for radiology, 32.4% for internal medicine, and 57.7% were for surgery. The addition of "medical education" decreased the articles to 807. Radiology had 9.9%, internal medicine was 44.2%, and surgery was 45.9 %.
    CONCLUSION: A gap in HCD literature exists for radiology as compared to surgery and internal medicine. However, radiology has demonstrated a recent significant push towards understanding HCD.  Radiology should continue to capitalize on its momentum and develop HCD curricula and research.
    Keywords:  Health care disparities; Radiology; Resident Education
  27. Innov Pharm. 2019 ;10(4):
      Objective: Critics of the promotion and tenure system contend that promotion and tenure may lead to a decline in research productivity ("dead wood phenomena") by those faculty. To assess this perception, we compiled the publications and grants at the time of application for promotion, and again through 2017 for the same faculty following promotion and/or tenure.Methods: Promotion documents at a school of pharmacy at a public Midwestern university were assessed. Mean publication rates and grant dollars per year per faculty member were compared to the same group of faculty (n=13) pre and post-promotion.
    Results: At the time of promotion to associate professor, mean numbers of total publications per year per faculty in the pharmacy practice department were 1.1, compared to 1.4 post-promotion. For pharmaceutical sciences department faculty, corresponding means were 5.0 and 4.1, respectively. At the time of promotion to full professor, mean numbers of total publications per year for pharmacy practice faculty were 7.0, compared to 7.2 post-promotion. For pharmaceutical sciences faculty, corresponding means were 3.5 and 4.7, respectively. For grant activity, both associate professors and full professors increased the mean total dollars per year from pre-promotion to post-promotion for both departments.
    Conclusion: Research productivity at this school of pharmacy continues to be either maintained or increased since promotion for the collective group of faculty. This evidence runs counter to the perception that promotion and tenure may lead to decreased scholarly productivity. The study provides a roadmap for other schools/colleges to quantify research productivity and make comparisons to national mean levels reported in the literature.
    Keywords:  Grants; Productivity; Promotion and Tenure; Publication Rates; Scholarship
  28. Front Pharmacol. 2021 ;12 645810
      Metformin, the first-line oral blood glucose-lowering agent to manage type 2 diabetes, has gained growing popularity on both clinical application and basic research since early 1980s. A thorough and systematic knowledge map of metformin is pertinent to evaluate the research frontier and determine knowledge gaps. To this end, 20, 526 publications were analyzed by bibliometrics and data visualization to demonstrate the current global research status, potential hotspots, and perspectives on future research directions. In addition, the metformin development along the historical line was illustrated over the last 40 years. In sum, this study provides a comprehensive analysis that delineates the evolution of the historical milestones of metformin development, and we discuss the future research directions based on objective data analysis from a wide spectrum of metformin research areas.
    Keywords:  Web of Science; bibliometrics analysis; development process; metformin; research frontier
  29. J Med Internet Res. 2021 May 17. 23(5): e25077
      BACKGROUND: Authorship teams in the health professions are typically composed of scholars who are acquainted with one another before a manuscript is written. Even if a scholar has identified a diverse group of collaborators outside their usual network, writing an article with a large number of co-authors poses significant logistical challenges.OBJECTIVE: This paper describes a novel method for establishing and facilitating large-scale manuscript collaborations via social media.
    METHODS: On September 11, 2020, I used the social media platform Twitter to invite people to collaborate on an article I had drafted. Anyone who wanted to collaborate was welcome, regardless of discipline, specialty, title, country of residence, or degree completion. During the 25 days that followed, I used Google Docs, Google Sheets, and Google Forms to manage all aspects of the collaboration.
    RESULTS: The collaboration resulted in the completion of 2 manuscripts in a 25-day period. The International Council of Medical Journal Editors authorship criteria were met by 40 collaborators for the first article ("Documenting Social Media Engagement as Scholarship: A New Model for Assessing Academic Accomplishment for the Health Professions") and 35 collaborators for the second article ("The Benefits of Using Social Media as a Health Professional in Academia"). The authorship teams for both articles were notably diverse, with 17%-18% (7/40 and 6/35, respectively) of authors identifying as a person of color and/or underrepresented minority, 37%-38% (15/40 and 13/35, respectively) identifying as LGBTQ+ (lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, gender non-conforming, queer and/or questioning), 73%-74% (29/40 and 26/35, respectively) using she/her pronouns, and 20%-23% (9/40 and 7/35, respectively) identifying as a person with a disability.
    CONCLUSIONS: Scholars in the health professions can use this paper in conjunction with the tools provided to replicate this process in carrying out their own large-scale manuscript collaborations.
    Keywords:  collaboration; crowdsourcing; health professions; literature; medicine; research; scholarship; social media
  30. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 May 18.
      Energy efficiency (EE) is an evolving research aspect for researchers, businesses, and policymakers for its undeniable role in meeting increasing energy demand, reducing CO2 emissions, and tackling climate change. This paper provides a review of the current state of EE research by mapping the research landscape in business and economics to understand the socioeconomic dimensions within these research areas. To identify key information, we examine the trends and characteristics of 2935 relevant scientific publications over a 30-year period from 1990 to 2019 in the Social Science Citation Index of the Web of Science database using bibliometric analysis with a R language package called 'bibliometrix'. Our analysis shows an increasing trend in publications from 2006 onwards; the period remarkably coincides with the implementation phase of the Kyoto protocol in 2005. Accordingly, we observe that EE research has a strong association with issues like CO2 emissions, climate change, sustainability, and the growing importance of these issues in recent years. Thus, our findings provide crucial understandings by incorporating a wide array of scientific outputs in response to calls for greater theoretical clarification of EE research. These findings provide insights into the current state of the art of, and identify crucial areas for future, research. Hence, our research assists in formulating environmentally sustainable policies to tackle the adverse effects of CO2 emissions and related climate change through providing critical grasps on the scholarly development related to EE.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric analysis; Carbon emissions; Climate change; Energy Policy; Energy efficiency; Energy sustainability
  31. Perspect Behav Sci. 2021 Mar;44(1): 41-67
      Nathan H. Azrin (1930-2013) contributed extensively to the fields of experimental and applied behavior analysis. His creative and prolific research programs covered a wide range of experimental and applied areas that resulted in 160 articles and several books published over a period of almost 6 decades. As a result, his career illustrates an unparalleled example of translational work in behavior analysis, which has had a major impact not only within our field, but across disciplines and outside academia. In the current article we present a summary of Azrin's wide ranging contributions in the areas of punishment, behavioral engineering, conditioned reinforcement and token economies, feeding disorders, toilet training, overcorrection, habit disorders, in-class behavior, job finding, marital therapy, and substance abuse. In addition, we use scientometric evidence to gain an insight on Azrin's general approach to treatment evaluation and programmatic research. The analysis of Azrin's approach to research, we believe, holds important lessons to behavior analysts today with an interest in the applied and translational sectors of our science.Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40614-020-00278-4.
    Keywords:  Azrin; scientometrics; sociology of scientific knowledge; translational research
  32. Digit Health. 2021 Jan-Dec;7:7 20552076211012138
      Background: Every two years, German-speaking dermatologic specialist groups gather in Berlin to share the latest developments at Germanýs largest dermatologic conference, the Annual Meeting of the Germany Society of Dermatology (DDG). Because this conference has a lasting effect on dermatologic practice and research, understanding what is moving the specialist groups means understanding what is driving dermatology in Germany.Methods: We used word network analysis to compile and visualize the information embedded in the contribution titles to the DDG Annual Meeting in 2019. We extracted words, contributing cities and inter-connections. The data was standardized, visualized using network graphs and analyzed using common network analysis parameters.
    Results: A total of 5509 words were extracted from 1150 contribution titles. The most frequently used words were "therapy", "patients", and "psoriasis". The highest number of contributions came from Hamburg, Berlin and Munich. High diversity in research topics was found, as well as a well-connected research network.
    Conclusions: Focus of the well-connected German-speaking dermatology community meeting 2019 was patient and therapy centered and lies especially on the diseases psoriasis and melanoma. Network graph analysis can provide helpful insights and help planning future congresses. It can facilitate the choice which contributors to include as imbalances become apparent. Moreover, it can help distributing the topics more evenly across the whole dermatologic spectrum.
    Keywords:  Digital health; digital; epidemiology; health informatics; network analysis; personalised medicine
  33. Int J Bioprint. 2021 ;7(2): 333
      This scientometric analysis of 393 original papers published from January 2000 to June 2019 describes the development and use of bioinks for 3D bioprinting. The main trends for bioink applications and the primary considerations guiding the selection and design of current bioink components (i.e., cell types, hydrogels, and additives) were reviewed. The cost, availability, practicality, and basic biological considerations (e.g., cytocompatibility and cell attachment) are the most popular parameters guiding bioink use and development. Today, extrusion bioprinting is the most widely used bioprinting technique. The most reported use of bioinks is the generic characterization of bioink formulations or bioprinting technologies (32%), followed by cartilage bioprinting applications (16%). Similarly, the cell-type choice is mostly generic, as cells are typically used as models to assess bioink formulations or new bioprinting methodologies rather than to fabricate specific tissues. The cell-binding motif arginine-glycine-aspartate is the most common bioink additive. Many articles reported the development of advanced functional bioinks for specific biomedical applications; however, most bioinks remain the basic compositions that meet the simple criteria: Manufacturability and essential biological performance. Alginate and gelatin methacryloyl are the most popular hydrogels that meet these criteria. Our analysis suggests that present-day bioinks still represent a stage of emergence of bioprinting technology.
    Keywords:  Bioinks; Bioprinting; Organ; Scientometrics; Tissue engineering