bims-evares Biomed News
on Evaluation of research
Issue of 2021‒04‒25
seventy-two papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. Int Orthop. 2021 Apr 18.
      BACKGROUND: Nonunion continues to be the most frequent and challenging complication to treat following fracture fixation. Herein, we carried out a bibliometric analysis aiming to identify the key researchers, centres and research trends developed during the past 30 years in this important clinical condition.METHODS: The Science Citation Index Expanded database and the Web of Science Core Collection were interrogated for manuscripts published between 1990 and 2019 in the topic domain, utilising title, abstract, author keywords and KeyWords Plus. Overall, such citation indicators were used as TCyear, Cyear and CPPyear to help analyse the identified manuscripts.
    RESULTS: Over the prespecified period, there was a steady increase in the number of articles published in fracture nonunion. In total, 12 languages were the primary languages in the documents, with English being the most prevalent. The CPP sharply increased to reach a plateau in three full years and up to a peak in ten full years. A total of 8976 nonunion-related articles in Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED) were published in 790 journals. The 8976 articles were published by 26,079 authors among 101 different countries. There is a slightly fluctuating steady increase of articles from 116 in 1991 to 201 in 2003, and thereafter, the number of articles sharply increased to reach a plateau in 2015. Seven possible main research foci in nonunion-related research were identified including: epidemiology, classification, aetiology, diagnosis/prediction, treatment modalities, functional outcomes and health economics.
    CONCLUSIONS: This bibliometric analysis revealed information on citation number, publication outputs, categories, journals, institutions, countries, research highlights and tendencies. The current research activity on fracture nonunion identified key opinion leaders and leading research institutions focusing on this important clinical condition. It is hoped that the informed included will aid to guide research work in the foreseeable future.
    Keywords:  Fracture; Front page; Nonunion; SCI-EXPANDED; Scientometrics
  2. Ann Thorac Surg. 2021 Apr 18. pii: S0003-4975(21)00704-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Combining clinical and research excellence has become an increasingly difficult endeavor for thoracic surgeons, with typical success rates for the NHLBI and NCI being 25.1% and 11.3% respectively. The Thoracic Surgery Foundation (TSF), which is an arm of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons, provides research awards and grants aimed at early career faculty to assist in securing federal peer reviewed funding. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of these awards.METHODS: Faculty awardees of the TSF research awards from 1995 to 2019 were included in the study. The scholarly work of awardees was assessed using SCOPUS , MEDLINE, and google scholar for publications, citations and h-index. NIH RePorter and federal RePorter was used to search for any grants awarded to these individuals. For publications and citations associated with a TSF grant, a four-year window from the time of the research award was utilized.
    RESULTS: Fifty-two research awards were given to early career faculty during this study period, 8 (15%) were awarded to MD PhDs. Six (12%) of awardees were female. Cardiac faculty were awarded 27 (52%) of awards and general thoracic faculty were awarded 25 (48%); of the cardiac faculty, 4 (17.4%) were congenital cardiac faculty. In the 4-year period following the TSF grant award, the mean number of published articles per awardee was 23 (interquartile range (IQR) 12-36) with a median citation count of 147 (IQR 32-327). The current median h-index was 26 (IQR 15-36) with 2,323 (IQR 1,173-4,568) median citations. Forty-eight percent of all awardees received at least 1 subsequent grant grant, with 40.4% being awarded from the NIH and25% having two or more NIH grants. Comparing academic position at the time of the award to current position, 54% of awardees had an advancement in their professional rank. On analyzing leadership positions, 42% of awardees were division chiefs, 21% were associate clinical directors, and 28% were clinical directors.
    CONCLUSIONS: Being a recipient of the TSF award may position an individual to excel in academic medicine, with a large portion of awardees improving their academic standing with time. The rate of successful NIH grant funding after being a TSF awardee is higher than typical institutional success rates.
    Keywords:  TSF grant; academic promotion; surgeon-scientists
  3. Arch Osteoporos. 2021 04 17. 16(1): 73
      We analyzed the overall knowledge structure, development trends, and research hotspots of 7684 publications related to hip fracture through the bibliometric method. Our results indicate this area has received more and more attention from researchers. Prevention of complications will be the focus of future studies.INTRODUCTION: Hip fracture is an international public health problem, with high morbidity, mortality, and associated health care costs. Research on hip fracture has been developed rapidly in recent years, but no bibliometric studies have been performed. We aimed to identify the publication changes in scientific output relating to hip fracture over the past two decades.
    METHODS: The scientific output relating to hip fracture from 2000 to 2019 was identified and selected from the Web of Science Core Collection. Excel 2019 was used to summarize the quantitative indicators including publication number, citations, H-index, journal's impact factors, and journal citation reports. VOS viewer and CiteSpace software tools were used for co-authorship, citation, co-citation, and co-occurrence analyses between countries, institutions, journals, authors, references, and keywords. Data were analyzed on November 13, 2020.
    RESULTS: A total of 7684 publications were extracted. The USA was the leading contributor in this field with the largest publications (1876, 24.41%), the most citations (75,423 times), and the highest H-index (124). The number of publications in the Western European region is 1.82 times higher than that of North America region, and 3.59 times that of Eastern Asia region. The most productive institutions on hip fracture were University of Maryland (160). Injury (506) had the highest number of publications, while Osteoporosis International (20,483 times) was the most co-cited journal. Magaziner J and Parker MJ were the key researchers. The keywords were stratified into five clusters: cluster 1 ("operative approaches study"), cluster 2 ("rehabilitation study"), cluster 3 ("osteoporosis study"), cluster 4 ("outcomes and complications study"), and cluster 5 ("epidemiology study"). For hotspots, "tranexamic acid" showed a relatively latest average appearing years of 2017.52, followed by "30-day-mortality," "readmission," and "length of stay."
    CONCLUSIONS: There will be an increasing number of publications on the hip fracture research based on the current global trends, and the USA stays ahead in this field. In terms of region, Western Europe had the greater impact than North America. It is recommended to pay attention to the promising hotspots, such as tranexamic acid, 30-day-mortality, readmission, and length of stay.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric analysis; CiteSpace; Hip fracture; Hotspots; VOS viewer
  4. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2021 Apr 23. 19(1): 130
      BACKGROUND: The number of research articles on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has been strikingly increasing. This study aimed to explore the general trends and hotspots of HRQoL.METHODS: Based on the Web of Science database, research on HRQoL published between 2000 and 2019 were identified. A bibliometric analysis was performed based on the number of articles, citations, published journals, authors' addresses, and keywords. Descriptive analysis, visualization of geographic distribution and keyword clustering analysis were applied to the collected data.
    RESULTS: The annual number of articles showed growth over the past twenty years, but the annual total citations and annual citations per article were both in decreasing trends. Articles about HRQoL were more likely to be published in journals of multi-subject categories. The HRQoL research was mainly distributed across North America and Europe throughout the twenty years and ushered in a vigorous development worldwide after 2015. Cooperation strength between domestic institutions was much greater than that of international institutions. HRQoL research had six concentrated clusters: HRQoL, Depression, Obesity, Disability, Oncology, Fatigue.
    CONCLUSION: This study provided an overall perspective of global research trends and hotspots in HRQoL, and a potential insight for future research. HRQoL research had experienced significant increasing development during 2000-2019, especially the HRQoL measurement instruments, however, there were significant regional disparities in scientific output in HRQoL.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric; Health-related quality of life; Keyword clustering; Scientific output
  5. World Neurosurg. 2021 Apr 16. pii: S1878-8750(21)00560-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: In recent years, there has been increasing research on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), leading to a large number of publications on this topic. To our knowledge, there is no study focused on the research trend in this field yet.METHODS: Using the Web of Science Core Collection database for all publications on AIS. The number of citations, authorship, year of publication, journal of publication, country and institution of origin and keywords were subjected to co-occurrence analysis using VOSviewer software. The top 100 most-cited publications on AIS were analyzed.
    RESULTS: Between 1985 and 2020, a total of 2266 publications related to AIS were identified. The frequency of publication on AIS has increased substantially over time. Among all countries, United States has contributed the most publications on AIS (n=671). The most productive institution has been Nanjing university (n=154). SPINE topped the list of journals and has published 569 AIS-related publications that received 19,862 total citations. The clinical description of AIS has been the most common research focus in the AIS literature.
    CONCLUSION: The scientific literature on AIS has rapidly expanded in recent years. This study represents the updated bibliometric analysis of scientific publications on AIS and provides research trend for the first time, which aiming to give us a unique insight into the development of AIS research focus and serve as a useful guide to clinicians and researchers in the field.
    Keywords:  AIS; Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; VOSviewer; bibliometric analysis; research trends
  6. Front Res Metr Anal. 2020 ;5 591090
      Scholarly organizations bring together experts to move forward specific areas of scientific endeavor. More than 5,000 scholarly societies exist world-wide yet little is known about the composition, evolution, and collaboration of experts within these organizations. This study presents general methods to study the evolution of a biomedical organization and its impact over time. Methods are illustrated in a case study that aims to capture the "Then and Now" science of the North American Vascular Biology Organization (NAVBO). Publications authored by the founding members who came together to create NAVBO in 1994 are compared with publications by those representing the society 25 years later. Google Scholar data was compiled for NAVBO members registered in 1994 (n = 70) and in 2019 (n = 465), some members being present in both data sets (n = 22). The 501 unique NAVBO members had more than 76,000 papers cited over 4,400,000 times. Several characteristics associated with the NAVBO members' output were revealed, including their high productivity, the high impact of their publications, and the predominant contribution of relatively small laboratories, as suggested by a low average number of authors per publication. To understand how NAVBO fostered scientific collaborations and exchanges of expertize, data was analyzed and visualized to show the evolution of member co-author networks. The UCSD Map of Science was used to communicate the evolution of scientific topics covered by NAVBO members helping to create a global picture of NAVBO's science "then and now." All workflows are available online in case other scholarly organizations would want to use them to map their own evolution and impact; and meta studies that communicate the inner workings of these important scholarly efforts can be conducted.
    Keywords:  bibliometrics; impact assessment; network science; research assessment; science maps; science of science; scientometrics
  7. Int J Ophthalmol. 2021 ;14(4): 589-599
      AIM: To evaluate the global trends in and explore hotspots of high myopia (HM) research.METHODS: This bibliometric analysis was used to reveal the publication trends in HM research field based on the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC). VOSviewer version 1.6.13 software was used to analyze the data and construct a knowledge map including the yearly publication number, journals, countries, international collaborations, authors, research hotspots, and intellectual base in HM.
    RESULTS: The search engine found 3544 peer-reviewed publications on HM between 2010 and 2019, and the yearly research output substantially elevated over the past decade. China is the top publishing country, and Sun Yat-sen University was the most active academic institution. Jonas JB is the top publishing scientist, and Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science (IOVS) was the most productive journal. The highest cited references mainly focused on epidemiology and management. The keywords formed 6 clusters: 1) refractive surgery; 2) etiology and clinical characteristics; 3) the mechanism of eye growth; 4) management for myopic maculopathy; 5) vitrectomy surgical treatment; 6) myopia-associated glaucoma-like optic neuropathy.
    CONCLUSION: The evaluation of development trends based on the data extracted from WoSCC can provide valuable information and guidance for ophthalmologists and public health researchers to improve management procedures in HM field.
    Keywords:  VOSviewer; bibliometric analysis; high myopia; pathological myopia
  8. Am J Emerg Med. 2021 Mar 06. pii: S0735-6757(21)00187-X. [Epub ahead of print]46 132-136
      INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to evaluate the qualitative and quantitative contribution of Emergency Medicine (EM) journals to scientific literature on COVID-19 and compare the journals in terms of publications.MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a comparison of top EM journals by hand-search in terms of COVID-19 publications and citations between January 1st and December 31st, 2020. Publications were also categorized according to research field, country and article types. Data were given as numbers and percentages.
    RESULTS: Among 18 EM journals, Resuscitation ranked in the first place and American Journal of Emergency Medicine ranked in the last place according to Impact Factor. In these journals, 512 (12.2%) articles related to COVID-19 were published. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine and Internal and Emergency Medicine published the greatest amount of publications related to COVID-19 (n = 71). The American Journal of Emergency Medicine was also the leading journal in terms of "Total Citations to COVID-19 Articles" (n = 1192). Western Journal of Emergency Medicine published the greatest proportion of COVID-19 articles (Total COVID-19 Articles/Total Articles = 0.3). World Journal of Emergency Surgery ranked in the first place in terms of citations per COVID-19 articles (n = 33.2). The most common studied field was Effects of COVID-19 on the Health System (n = 222). The US was the most productive country with 188 COVID-19 publications and 1411 citations to these publications, followed by Italy.
    CONCLUSION: The contribution of EM journals to COVID-19 literature is controversial. "Effects of COVID-19 on the Health System" is the most studied field. "Clinical Properties, Ethical Issues and Treatment Methods" are neglected fields in EM journals.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Emergency medicine journals; Publications
  9. Orthop J Sports Med. 2021 Apr;9(4): 2325967121994909
      Background: Meniscal injuries are among the most common orthopaedic injuries, with a significant volume of published literature.Purpose: To perform a comprehensive bibliometric analysis that appropriately evaluates the 50 most cited articles in meniscal research.
    Study Design: Cross-sectional study.
    Methods: We performed a keyword search of the ISI Web of Knowledge database and then pared the results down to the 50 most cited articles using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data extracted included title, first author, citation count, year of publication, topic, journal, article type, country of origin, and level of evidence. Correlation coefficients were calculated between publication date and citation density and between publication date and raw citation count.
    Results: The 50 most cited articles were published from 1975 to 2013. The mean number of citations was 258.24 (range, 163-926; median, 225). The majority of articles were published in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (19%), the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (12%), and Arthritis & Rheumatology (14%). Most articles focused on either the anatomy and biomechanics of meniscal injury or on prevention and physical rehabilitation (12 papers each).
    Conclusion: The most popular fields of meniscal research involved anatomy/biomechanics and prevention/rehabilitation, and both are areas that will likely increase the probability of an article's being highly cited in the future. This study provided a quality selection of the most cited articles on meniscal injury and may provide a foundation for both beginner and senior clinician readers for further discussion and research.
    Keywords:  bibliometric; citation; meniscal tear; meniscus
  10. Front Res Metr Anal. 2020 ;5 601442
      Domain analysis by means of scientific collaboration enables evidencing aspects that are involved in the establishment of relationships between researchers and institutions, such as the influence of institutional management models for the development of collaborative networks. This article aims to analyze the domain through the scientific collaboration network of the National Institute of the Atlantic Forest (INMA), a research unit currently affiliated to the Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI), formerly known as the Professor Mello Leitão Museum of Biology (MBML), in order to acknowledge the institutional research identity in its historical journey as a public institution. It is thus analyzed how co-authorship constitutes this network and what research profile it reveals. Co-authorship analysis is adopted as a methodology, as well as the analysis of administrative documents with the survey and categorization of employees, regarding their types of ties to the institution, combined with searches in the Scopus database for the corroboration of institutional affiliations. A corpus of 138 articles published by 41 researchers from 1993 to 2019 is consolidated in this base, which represents 44% of the Institute's total research collaborators (93 collaborators). Of these 41, 92.5% have temporary links, such as scholarship holders and/or volunteers, with the remaining being public workers. It is recognized that the citation impact of the scientific production of scholarship holders, consigned to the Institute, is less than the citation impact of the volunteers' and public workers' production. It is evidenced that eight of the ten publications with the greatest impact and thematic prominence correspond to the field of zoology, with emphasis on the fields of herpetology and primatology. Macro-level collaborative relations are more intense with the United States, in both areas mentioned, covering 16% of the total corpus of articles in cooperation with that country. Zoology, besides its greater impact, accounts for more than half of the corpus production (65.9%).On the other hand, botany is responsible for 30.4% of the corpus, with its dispersed international cooperation in a broad variety of countries. Individual authorship articles are 57% consigned to botany. In summary, the accomplished analysis will contribute to the development of institutional domain analysis methodologies that present scientific collaboration as a basic procedure.
    Keywords:  Brazil; National Institute of the Atlantic Forest; co-authorship analysis; domain analysis; institutional identity; professor Mello Leitão Museum of Biology; scientific collaboration
  11. Sci Total Environ. 2021 Mar 31. pii: S0048-9697(21)01908-2. [Epub ahead of print]783 146838
      Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) have attracted extensive attention due to their low density, adjustable structure, functionalization, and good stability. This paper systematically and comprehensively describes to qualitatively and quantitatively the progress, trends, and hotspots of COFs in the environmental and energy fields from the perspective of bibliometrics. Herein, based on the Web of Science database, a total of 2589 articles from 2005 to October 6, 2020, were collected. Thereafter, co-occurrence, co-citation analysis, and cluster analysis were conducted using CiteSpace and VOSviewer software. The results indicated that COFs research shows the characteristics of rapid growth. The active countries were mainly USA, Germany, Japan, China, and India. More than half of the top 20 active institutions were from China. The research hotspots in this field were systematically elaborated, including synthesis, adsorption, catalysis, membrane, sensor, and energy storage. Research has shown that various COFs are reasonably designed, synthesized, and used in different applications. For example, when COFs are used for photocatalysis, groups containing photocatalytic active sites are integrated into COFs to improve photocatalytic activity. Finally, some challenges were proposed, that are beneficial to the rapid and balanced development of the COFs field. For instance, the preparation methods still need to be further improved for mass production and there is an imbalance in environmental applications such as fewer sensor and membrane applications. We believe that this study provides a comprehensive and systematic overview of the environmental and energy applications of COFs for future investigations.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric analysis; Covalent organic frameworks (COFs); Covalent triazine frameworks (CTFs); Design synthesis; Energy storage; Environmental application
  12. J Nanopart Res. 2021 ;23(4): 92
      This paper presents a foresight perspective of nanotechnology in South Africa based on a 20-year period scientometric analysis of the country's nanotechnology publications on the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection. Firstly, publication trends are reported; then, possible socio-economic relevant sectors arising from this information are determined. Lastly, indicators that can be used in foresight exercises to evaluate the potential nanotechnology research areas in South Africa are examined. The 20-year review is also compared with the recent past year, 2019, to identify any changing trends. South Africa's nanotechnology publications per year grew exponentially from 68 papers in 2000 to 1672 in 2019, an increase of 2459%. The total share of nanotech publications increased from 1.4% in 2000 to 6.6% in 2019, thus a 0.52% increase per year. Compared with Brazil, Russia, India and China, the BRICS countries, South Africa has the lowest nanotechnology productivity with an activity index of 0.68. Over the last 5 years, South Africa nanotech publications had a Hirsch-index of 94 and an average citations rate of 12.76 per paper. Universities are the most prominent publishers, and there are very few publications from the private sector, which can negatively impact the commercialisation of nanotechnology research. The top 10 most prolific researchers, author or co-author over 20% of the nanotechnology papers are reported. A mixture of old and new top researchers' names suggests succession planning in the system as the years progress. The emergence of computer science as one of the top 20 subjects publishing in nanotech in 2019 and a high level of researcher collaboration suggests possible convergence of nanotech, information technology and artificial intelligence in South Africa. The strategic socio-economic-focused nanotechnology research areas identified for South Africa include material science, photoluminance and optics, medicine, catalysis, electronics, energy, biotech, magnetism, sensors, water and communicable diseases. The top collaborating countries, top researchers, top institutions and nanotechnology economic hubs are reported for each strategic research area. The level of innovation was evaluated using the nanotechnology value chain, and there is a meagre 3.5% of papers reporting on nano-enabled products.
    Keywords:  Innovation; Nanotechnology; Nanotechnology value chain; Scientometrics; Tech-mining; Technology foresight
  13. Front Res Metr Anal. 2020 ;5 612442
      Collaboration has become an essential paradigm in sustainable development research and in strategies for meeting the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This study uses bibliometric methods and network analysis to examine research output and collaboration supporting the SDGs and explores means to detect and analyze research collaboration beyond the traditional definition of multiple, one-time co-authorship. We employed two additional lenses of collaboration: repeat collaboration and collaboration time point to quantify and visualize co-authorship data sourced from Microsoft Academic Graph. Our results show an increased collaboration rate over time at the author and institutional levels; however they also indicate that the majority of collaborations in SDG-related research only happened once. We also found out that on average, repeat collaboration happens more frequently, but after a longer duration, at the institutional level than at the author level. For this reason, we further analyzed institutions and identified core institutions that could help influence more consistent collaboration and sustain or grow the SDG-related research network. Our results have implications for understanding sustainable partnerships in research related to SDGs and other global challenges.
    Keywords:  CADRE; bibliometric analysis; co-authorship networks; collaboration; millennium development goals; research evaluation; sustainable development goals
  14. Neurol Sci. 2021 Apr 20.
      BACKGROUND: Although headache is one of the most common neurologic conditions with a high disease burden, primary data on headache research from Southeast Asia (SEA) was hypothesized to be inadequate. This study aimed to evaluate research productivity among the different countries in SEA and to determine the association between specific bibliometric indices and socioeconomic factors.METHODS: A systematic search was conducted until June 10, 2020 in Scopus, PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Index Medicus for South-East Asia Region to include all primary headache studies on migraine, tension-type headache, and trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia, with at least one author affiliated with a SEA country. Bibliometric indices, such as the number of publications and PlumX metrics, were obtained and correlated with the country-specific socioeconomic factors.
    RESULTS: We identified 153 articles. Most of the publications (n = 43, 28.1%) were epidemiologic studies and case reports/series (n = 25, 16.3%). Migraine was the most studied primary headache subtype. Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand were the major contributors to primary headache research in SEA. Only the percent gross domestic product for research and development correlated significantly with research productivity.
    CONCLUSION: Despite the high global burden of disease, research productivity on primary headache was low in SEA. The move towards a knowledge-based economy may drive research productivity in SEA.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric indices; Headache; Research productivity; Southeast Asia
  15. Future Oncol. 2021 Apr 21.
      Aim: To provide a historical and global picture of research concerning lung nodules, compare the contributions of major countries and explore research trends over the past 10 years. Methods: A bibliometric analysis of publications from Scopus (1970-2020) and Web of Science (2011-2020). Results: Publications about pulmonary nodules showed an enormous growth trend from 1970 to 2020. There is a high level of collaboration among the 20 most productive countries and regions, with the USA located at the center of the collaboration network. The keywords 'deep learning', 'artificial intelligence' and 'machine learning' are current hotspots. Conclusions: Abundant research has focused on pulmonary nodules. Deep learning is emerging as a promising tool for lung cancer diagnosis and management.
    Keywords:  bibliometric analysis; lung cancer; pulmonary nodule; worldwide trends
  16. Front Res Metr Anal. 2020 ;5 551147
      Smart grid (SG) offers great advantages in renewable energy integration and has become a popular trend of modern power development recently; meanwhile China is the second most prolific country using SG. Hence the purpose of this study is to get access to the research status, development, and trends of SG in China based on the 3,558 published papers obtained from the WOS core library and application of the bibliometric method and visualization analysis software VOSviewer and alluvial diagrams. The results consequently demonstrate some valuable insights. Firstly, the volume of publications in China's SG is on the rise, and the cooperation between countries and institutions is getting closer. Besides, the research hotspots have obvious interdisciplinary characteristics. Taking into consideration the impact of the information and communication field on SG, the major current research hotspots include wireless sensor network (WSN), internet of things (IoT), smart meter, big data, and security. Taking into consideration the impact of SG on traditional power systems, the main hotspots cover demand response, micro-grid, distributed generation, and electric vehicle (EV). Furthermore, China's SG research shows a trend from a single theme to diversified development. The research themes during 2010-2018 have deepened with most studies focusing on the traditional power system. The findings of this paper provide some enlightenment on China's SG research, which can present scholars with an overview of the macro perspective, help them understand the latest development of the SG field in China and offer useful guidance for future research in this subject as well.
    Keywords:  China; VOSviewer; alluvial diagram; bibliometrics; co-authorship; co-occurrence; smart grid (SG)
  17. Nurs Outlook. 2021 Apr 01. pii: S0029-6554(21)00030-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVE: To analyze the bibliometric patterns of meta-approaches use in nursing research literature.METHODS: Descriptive, exploratory and historical bibliometrics analyses were used. The papers were harvested from the Web of Science Core Collection.
    FINDINGS: The search resulted in 2065 publications. The trends in using most individual meta approaches show that the use of meta-analysis is increasing exponentially, the use of meta-synthesis is increasing linearly, while the use of meta-ethnography is constant in last 6 years. Most productive countries were United States of America, United Kingdom and Peoples Republic of China. Most publications were published in the Journal of Advanced Nursing, International Journal of Nursing Studies, and Journal of Clinical Nursing. Twenty-seven percent of all publications were funded. Thirty-four meta approaches were identified.
    DISCUSSION: The study revealed that the trend in the literature production is positive. Research community use of meta-approaches in nursing exhibit considerable growth. Regional concentration of literature production was observed.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; Knowledge synthesis; Meta-approaches; Nursing
  18. Front Res Metr Anal. 2019 ;4 2
    Keywords:  academic search; citation content analysis; computational linguistics; natural language processing; scientific papers; scientometrics; text mining
  19. Front Res Metr Anal. 2020 ;5 569268
      The disciplinary profiles of the mean citation rates across 22 research areas were analyzed for 107 countries/territories that published at least 3,000 papers that exceeded the entrance thresholds for the Essential Science Indicators (ESI; Clarivate Analytics) during the period from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2019. The matrix of pairwise differences between any two profiles was analyzed with a non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) algorithm, which recovered a two-dimensional geometric space describing these differences. These two dimensions, Dim1 and Dim2, described 5,671 pairwise differences between countries' disciplinary profiles with a sufficient accuracy (stress = 0.098). A significant correlation (r = 0.81, N = 107, p < 0.0001) was found between Dim1 and the Indicator of a Nation's Scientific Impact (INSI), which was computed as a composite of the average and the top citation rates. The scientific impact ranking of countries derived from the pairwise differences between disciplinary profiles seems to be more accurate and realistic compared with more traditional citation indices.
    Keywords:  Essential Science Indicators; bibliometrics; disciplinary profiles; multidimensional scaling; scientific impact
  20. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Apr 20.
      Cadmium pollution turns out to be a global environmental problem. This study conducted a quantitative and qualitative bibliometric analysis based on 9188 research items from the Web of Science Core Collection published in the last 20 years (2000-2020), presenting an in-depth statistical investigation of global freshwater cadmium research progress and developing trend. Our results demonstrated that the researchers from China, the USA, and India contribute the most to this field. The primary sources of cadmium are mining, industry, wastewater, sedimentation, and agricultural activities. In developing countries, cadmium exposure occurs mainly through the air, freshwater, and food. Fish and vegetables are the main food sources of cadmium for humans because of their high accumulation capability. Source evaluation, detection, and remediation represent the main technologies used to clean up cadmium-contaminated sites. To mitigate the risk of cadmium contamination in freshwater, biomarker-based cadmium monitoring methods and integrated policies/strategies to reduce cadmium exposure merit further concern.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric analysis; Cadmium; Freshwater; Pollution; Review
  21. Can J Ophthalmol. 2021 Apr 14. pii: S0008-4182(21)00123-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVE: H-index has historically functioned as a metric of academic success for acquisition of research grants, awards, and faculty appointments. Our objective was to characterize the landscape of Canadian academic ophthalmology on the basis of research productivity and impact-as measured by H-index-with gender, subspecialty, and faculty appointment.DESIGN: Cross-sectional study based on data abstracted from publicly available databases.
    PARTICIPANTS: Academic ophthalmologists from all schools in Canada with an ophthalmology residency program.
    METHODS: Academic ophthalmologists and their faculty appointments were identified from university websites. Gender was determined from available provincial College of Physicians and Surgeons or Ophthalmology Society databases. H-indices were collected from Scopus and Web of Science. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistics were used to analyze the relationship of H-index with gender, faculty appointment, and subspecialty.
    RESULTS: We included data from 696 academic ophthalmologists. The mean H-indices for lecturers and assistant, associate, and full professors were 4.0 (±5.6), 5.6 (±5.0), 8.8 (±6.3), and 15 (±12), respectively. H-index had a significant positive correlation with faculty appointment (0.521, 95% confidence interval 0.469-0.579, p = 1.77e-41). The mean H-index was 6.7 (±8.2) for women and 8.1(±8.4) for men (p = 0.0635). Women comprised 27% of faculty positions, and men were more likely to have a higher faculty appointment than women (p = 0.0073). The top subspecialties for underrepresentation of women were surgical retina, medical retina, and oculoplastics.
    CONCLUSIONS: Faculty appointments are associated with research productivity, as measured by H-index. There are significant gender disparities in faculty appointments and subspecialty representation. Future directions include exploring other contributory factors to success in academic ophthalmology.
  22. Front Res Metr Anal. 2020 ;5 577131
      A Sleeping Beauty is a publication that is apparently unrecognized by citation for some period of time before experiencing a burst of recognition. Various reasons, including resistance to new ideas, have been attributed to such delayed recognition. We study this phenomenon in the special case of co-citations, which represent new ideas generated through the combination of existing ones. Using relatively stringent selection criteria derived from the work of others, we analyze a very large dataset of over 940 million unique co-cited article pairs, and identify 1,196 cases of delayed co-citations. We further classify these 1,196 cases with respect to amplitude, rate of citation, and disciplinary origin.
    Keywords:  bibliometrics; co-citation; delayed recognition; graph database; sleeping beauty
  23. Front Res Metr Anal. 2020 ;5 600382
      Subject categories of scholarly papers generally refer to the knowledge domain(s) to which the papers belong, examples being computer science or physics. Subject category classification is a prerequisite for bibliometric studies, organizing scientific publications for domain knowledge extraction, and facilitating faceted searches for digital library search engines. Unfortunately, many academic papers do not have such information as part of their metadata. Most existing methods for solving this task focus on unsupervised learning that often relies on citation networks. However, a complete list of papers citing the current paper may not be readily available. In particular, new papers that have few or no citations cannot be classified using such methods. Here, we propose a deep attentive neural network (DANN) that classifies scholarly papers using only their abstracts. The network is trained using nine million abstracts from Web of Science (WoS). We also use the WoS schema that covers 104 subject categories. The proposed network consists of two bi-directional recurrent neural networks followed by an attention layer. We compare our model against baselines by varying the architecture and text representation. Our best model achieves micro- F 1 measure of 0.76 with F 1 of individual subject categories ranging from 0.50 to 0.95. The results showed the importance of retraining word embedding models to maximize the vocabulary overlap and the effectiveness of the attention mechanism. The combination of word vectors with TFIDF outperforms character and sentence level embedding models. We discuss imbalanced samples and overlapping categories and suggest possible strategies for mitigation. We also determine the subject category distribution in CiteSeerX by classifying a random sample of one million academic papers.
    Keywords:  citeseerx; digital library; neural networks; scientific papers; subject category classification; text classification; text mining
  24. Front Res Metr Anal. 2020 ;5 593494
      This paper presents a large-scale document-level comparison of two major bibliographic data sources: Scopus and Dimensions. The focus is on the differences in their coverage of documents at two levels of aggregation: by country and by institution. The main goal is to analyze whether Dimensions offers as good new opportunities for bibliometric analysis at the country and institutional levels as it does at the global level. Differences in the completeness and accuracy of citation links are also studied. The results allow a profile of Dimensions to be drawn in terms of its coverage by country and institution. Dimensions' coverage is more than 25% greater than Scopus which is consistent with previous studies. However, the main finding of this study is the lack of affiliation data in a large fraction of Dimensions documents. We found that close to half of all documents in Dimensions are not associated with any country of affiliation while the proportion of documents without this data in Scopus is much lower. This situation mainly affects the possibilities that Dimensions can offer as instruments for carrying out bibliometric analyses at the country and institutional level. Both of these aspects are highly pragmatic considerations for information retrieval and the design of policies for the use of scientific databases in research evaluation.
    Keywords:  Dimensions; Scopus; bibliographic data sources; database coverage; research evaluation; scientometrics, bibliometrics
  25. Front Res Metr Anal. 2020 ;5 575862
      This study analyzes how characteristics in the careers of star researchers affect the outcomes of research and development (R&D), based on a case study in a Japanese semiconductor company. By analyzing the collaboration network of patent coinventors in the company, we observe that long-term exposition and collaboration with other high-achieving researchers play a significant role in determining a successful career, that is, in terms of productivity and impact. Also, a deeper exploration of the characteristics of a selected group of star researchers in a company's R&D division helped to identify that it takes 10-15 years to generate remarkable achievements in the form of filing patents that are widely cited at a later stage. This period is followed by low productivity, thereby revealing productivity peaks such as those observed in the artistic and scientific careers but at different times. Industry researchers tend to follow a more fixed pattern. Additionally, we analyzed the influence of having star researchers in coinventor teams. Our results suggest that staying aligned in one research direction, long-term exposure to a diverse group of researchers, and early mentorship helped the researchers in our study to attain their achievements.
    Keywords:  creativity; hot streaks; patents; productivity; semiconductor; star researcher
  26. Front Res Metr Anal. 2020 ;5 594891
    Keywords:  citations per publication; h-index; performance metrics; science impact; scientific productivity
  27. Arch Iran Med. 2021 Mar 01. 24(3): 253-259
      Neurotrauma (NT) is one of the common causes of mortality and morbidity. Investigating the role of people who had an impact on the development of knowledge of NT is reasonable. Our aim is to investigate the role of Bizhan Aarabi, professor of Neurosurgery, on the knowledge development in NT. Accordingly, we searched the Scopus database for Bizhan Aarabi on August 8, 2020 and selected papers with at least 10 citations, investigating his impact on NT and details of his publications. He has published 168 papers including original articles, reviews, conference papers, letters, and editorials according to the Scopus databases. There are 112 papers with 10 or more citations. Thirty-eight out of 112 papers (33.9%) were in the first and the highest rank journal: 29 in Neurosurgery and 9 in the Journal of Neurotrauma. Twenty-four papers have the level of evidence (LOE) of "1". Bizhan Arabi developed knowledge in NT especially in the cervical spine/spinal cord trauma and brain injury and his publications are references for spine/neurosurgeons.
    Keywords:  Brain injuries; Iran; Neurosurgery; Spinal cord injuries; Traumatic
  28. Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2021 Apr 22.
      BACKGROUNDS: Academic plastic surgery has utilized different methods to promote early involvement of trainees in research. Further analysis is needed to characterize the effects of this early emphasis and their impact on long-term academic contributions to the field.METHODS: In October 2020, a cross-sectional study of 949 faculty from US academic plastic surgery programs was conducted using publicly available websites. Training research output for each surgeon was compared to post-training research output and other metrics measuring sustained career scholarship.
    RESULTS: Increased training publications (P< 0.0001) and citations (P< 0.0001) were associated with fewer years in practice. 727 surgeons (80.0%) had ≥ 1 research article, and this group proceeded to attain significantly higher mean post-training publications per year (3.04 ± 0.14 vs. 1.45 ± 0.13, P< 0.0001) and citations per year (72.12 ± 5.04 vs. 28.39 ± 3.49, P< 0.0001) compared to the 182 (20.0%) surgeons with no training publications. For individuals, total training publications were positively correlated with post-training publications per year (P< 0.0001), a relationship also observed for citations (P< 0.0001). When controlling for years in practice, increased training publications and/or citations were significantly associated with attaining academic professor track (versus clinical professor track) position, endowed professor status, journal board position, and NIH funding (P< 0.05 for all).
    CONCLUSIONS: There is a trend of increasing research productivity during plastic surgery training, and increased training output is predictive of attaining multiple measures of career academic achievement. Academic plastic surgery should continue to underscore research participation as a valuable part of the training process.
    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE V: This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .
    Keywords:  Career outcomes; Plastic surgery training; Research output; Research productivity
  29. Rev Esc Enferm USP. 2021 ;pii: S0080-62342021000100408. [Epub ahead of print]55 e03670
      OBJECTIVE: To assess the distribution of citations of nursing authors in Spanish in Google Scholar as well as to compare the possible differences between this source and Web of Science and Scopus.METHOD: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study based on the citation systems offered by Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus.
    RESULTS: Nursing researchers present a verified mean h-index of 7.82 in Academic Google. 74% of researchers belong to the academic field, compared to 26%, who are in health services. Most of them live in Spain (83%), followed by Colombia (12%), Mexico (4%), and Chile (1%). In Spain, the community with the largest number of researchers is Andalusia (41.5%), followed by Valencia (14.6%), and Madrid (7.3%).
    CONCLUSION: The Google Scholar citation system requires adjustments in its algorithm for selecting works and citations, and it should also allow some system of confirmation by authors. Nursing can have relatively low h-index values compared to other courses due to short research development.
  30. Front Res Metr Anal. 2020 ;5 596624
      On the behest of the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the White House, six institutions, including ours, have created an open research dataset called COVID-19 Research Dataset (CORD-19) to facilitate the development of question-answering systems that can assist researchers in finding relevant research on COVID-19. As of May 27, 2020, CORD-19 includes more than 100,000 open access publications from major publishers and PubMed as well as preprint articles deposited into medRxiv, bioRxiv, and arXiv. Recent years, however, have also seen question-answering and other machine learning systems exhibit harmful behaviors to humans due to biases in the training data. It is imperative and only ethical for modern scientists to be vigilant in inspecting and be prepared to mitigate the potential biases when working with any datasets. This article describes a framework to examine biases in scientific document collections like CORD-19 by comparing their properties with those derived from the citation behaviors of the entire scientific community. In total, three expanded sets are created for the analyses: 1) the enclosure set CORD-19E composed of CORD-19 articles and their references and citations, mirroring the methodology used in the renowned "A Century of Physics" analysis; 2) the full closure graph CORD-19C that recursively includes references starting with CORD-19; and 3) the inflection closure CORD-19I, that is, a much smaller subset of CORD-19C but already appropriate for statistical analysis based on the theory of the scale-free nature of the citation network. Taken together, all these expanded datasets show much smoother trends when used to analyze global COVID-19 research. The results suggest that while CORD-19 exhibits a strong tilt toward recent and topically focused articles, the knowledge being explored to attack the pandemic encompasses a much longer time span and is very interdisciplinary. A question-answering system with such expanded scope of knowledge may perform better in understanding the literature and answering related questions. However, while CORD-19 appears to have topical coverage biases compared to the expanded sets, the collaboration patterns, especially in terms of team sizes and geographical distributions, are captured very well already in CORD-19 as the raw statistics and trends agree with those from larger datasets.
    Keywords:  CORD-19; Microsoft Academic Services; citation analysis; closure graph; data biases; scientometrics
  31. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Apr 04.
      Interests and concerns on environmental issues have attracted much attention over the past few decades. This is in harmony with the growing understanding of environmental impacts associated with human activities and their role in degrading ecosystems. In line with these concerns, considerable advances in science and technology to assess, mitigate, or lessen these adverse impacts have emerged (i.e., environmental impact assessment (EIA) methodologies). The involvement of EIA in sustainable development has become a prevalent topic in research in either developed and developing countries. The present work investigated the research status, development trends, and hotspots of EIA in a region with massive environmental challenges; the Arab world. Bibliometric analysis and visualization mapping were utilized with an objective of revealing and evaluating the developments in knowledge on EIA from the Arab world. A sum of 595 documents was the productivity of the Arab world on EIA (2.1% of total global productivity). Most of the studies were performed by scholars in Egypt (143 documents; 24.0%), followed by Saudi Arabia (96 documents; 16.1%), and Tunisia (68 documents; 11.4%). France, the USA, and the UK were, respectively, the most collaborated countries with the Arab world on EIA. Most of the publications on EIA were in prestigious journals in relation to environmental sciences. King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia and University of Kuwait were the most productive institutions (24 documents/institution). Topics in relation to assessing different environmental impacts on the quality and quantity of water will continue to be vital themes of research. While, the utilization of remote sensing, geographic information systems, risk assessment, life cycle assessment, bioaccumulation, and biomarkers techniques in assessing environmental impacts will continue to be dominant as efficient tools in conducting EIA related research. The outcomes displayed, in general, a rapidly and steadily rising interests on EIA. However, the development of regional experience, increasing of funds and advancing of competencies will further promote research activities on EIA.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric analysis; Biomarkers; Ecosystems; Environmental degradation; Environmental impact assessment; Sustainability; The Arab world; Visualization mapping
  32. Surgery. 2021 Apr 17. pii: S0039-6060(21)00232-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: General surgery was once the gateway into a career in surgery. Over time, surgical subspecialties developed separate residency programs, and recently, integrated programs have emerged. It is unknown what impact the presence of surgical subspecialties and integrated programs have had on general surgery. Our objective was to evaluate match trends and quantify competitiveness of the general surgery, integrated programs, and surgical subspecialties matches.METHODS: National Residency Matching Program match data and applicant characteristics from 2010 through 2020 were analyzed for US senior allopathic applicants. Integrated programs were defined as plastic and vascular surgery, and surgical subspecialties were defined as otolaryngology, orthopedic surgery, and neurosurgery. Trends were evaluated using linear regression, programs were compared on 10 metrics by Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, and a logistic regression was used to rank each specialty match.
    RESULTS: The number of US senior applicants per position to integrated programs decreased and approached that of general surgery and surgical subspecialties, but the median number of applicants per position to general surgery was lower than to surgical subspecialties or integrated programs (1.21 interquartile range). Our logistic regression showed United States Medical Licensing Examination scores, research experience, Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Society membership, and graduation from a top medical school to be the most important factors in the match, and our weighted rank score found general surgery (2.85) to be less competitive than surgical subspecialties (1.92) or integrated programs (1.17).
    CONCLUSION: Throughout the last decade, integrated programs and surgical subspecialties have matched more competitive applicants based on the most significant predictors of the match. Moving forward, it is important that general surgery strives to attract the best and brightest out of medical school.
  33. Biomed Res Int. 2021 ;2021 6680764
      Introduction: In recent years, several controversial reports of the correlation between altmetric score and citations have been published (range: -0.2 to 0.8). We conducted a meta-analysis to provide an in-depth statistical analysis of the correlation between altmetric score and number of citations in the field of health sciences.Methods: Three online databases (Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed) were systematically searched, without language restrictions, from the earliest publication date available through February 29, 2020, using the keywords "altmetric," "citation," and "correlation." Grey literature was also searched via WorldCat, Open Grey, and Google Scholar (first 100 hits only). All studies in the field of health sciences that reported on this correlation were included. Effect sizes were calculated using Fisher's z transformation of correlations. Subgroup analyses based on citation source and sampling methods were performed.
    Results: From 27 included articles, 8 articles comprise several independent studies. The total sample size was 9,943 articles comprised of 35 studies. The overall pooled effect size was 0.19 (95% confidence interval 0.13 to 0.26). Bivariate partial prediction of interaction between effect size, citation source, and sampling method showed a greater effect size with Web of Science compared with Scopus and Dimensions. Egger's regression showed a marginally nonsignificant publication bias (p = 0.055), and trim-and-fill analysis estimated one missing study in this meta-analysis.
    Conclusion: In health sciences, currently altmetric score has a positive but weak correlation with number of citations (pooled correlation = 0.19, 95% C.I 0.12 to 0.25). We emphasize on future examinations to assess changes of correlation pattern between altmetric score and citations over time.
  34. J Arthroplasty. 2021 Mar 17. pii: S0883-5403(21)00266-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: The relationship between industry payments and academic influence, as measured by the Hirsch index (h-index) and number of publications, among adult reconstruction surgeons is not well characterized. The aims of the present study are to determine the relationship between an adult reconstruction surgeons' academic influence and their relevant industry payments and National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding.METHODS: Adult reconstruction surgeons were identified through the websites for the orthopedic surgery residency programs in the United States during the 2019-2020 academic year. Academic influence was approximated by each physician's h-index and total number of publications. Industry payment data were obtained through the Open Payments Database, and NIH funding was determined through the NIH website. Mann-Whitney U testing and Spearman correlations were performed to examine relevant associations.
    RESULTS: Surgeons who received industry research payments had a higher mean h-index (16.1 vs 10.2, P < .001) and mean number of publications (79.1 vs 35.9, P < .001) than physicians who received no industry research payments. Surgeons receiving NIH funding had a higher mean h-index (48.1 vs 10.4, P < .001) and mean number of publications (294.5 vs 36.8, P < .001) than surgeons who did not receive NIH funding. There was no association between the average h-index (P = .668) and number of publications (P = .387) among adult reconstruction surgeons receiving industry nonresearch funding.
    CONCLUSION: h-index and total publications do not seem to be associated with industry nonresearch payments in the field of total joint arthroplasty. Altogether, these data suggest that industry bias may not play a strong role in total joint arthroplasty.
    Keywords:  Sunshine Act; disclosures; industry funding; open payments database; total joint arthroplasty
  35. Front Res Metr Anal. 2020 ;5 5
      In recent years, the science of science policy has been facilitated by the greater availability of and access to digital data associated with the science, technology, and innovation enterprise. Historically, most of the studies from which such data are derived have been econometric or "scientometric" in nature, focusing on the development of quantitative data, models, and metrics of the scientific process as well as outputs and outcomes. Broader definitions of research impact, however, necessitate the use of qualitative case-study methods. For many years, U.S. federal science agencies such as the National Institutes of Health have demonstrated the impact of the research they support through tracing studies that document critical events in the development of successful technologies. A significant disadvantage and barrier of such studies is the labor-intensive nature of a case study approach. Currently, however, the same data infrastructures that have been developed to support scientometrics may also facilitate historical tracing studies. In this paper, we describe one approach we used to discover long-term, downstream outcomes of research supported in the late 1970's and early 1980's by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, a component of the National Institutes of Health.
    Keywords:  basic research; citation networks; government funding; knowledge diffusion; research evaluation; research outcomes; science of science
  36. Front Psychol. 2021 ;12 641465
      This article presents a scientometric study regarding entrepreneurship and its relationship with wellbeing. The study presents a systematic review and measures impact and relational character to identify the relevance of countries, research organizations, and authors in the field of entrepreneurial wellbeing. The study poses the following research questions: What is the nature of the evolution of scientific knowledge in the entrepreneurial wellbeing field? What is the nature of the concentration in terms of geographical distribution and co-authorship level of knowledge production in the entrepreneurial wellbeing field? What are the knowledge trends in knowledge production for entrepreneurial wellbeing literature? The contribution of this research is two-fold. First, in terms of methodology, it contributes study into the use of a more robust approach to search for the scientometric trends about entrepreneurship wellbeing in addition to the PRISMA review tools and the PICOS eligibility criteria. Secondly, the study presents research updates in the search for results for the last 2 years of knowledge production. This upgrade is particularly important in a research field that presents exponential growth, where 2019 and 2020 presented almost double the amount of knowledge production compared to 2017 and 2018.
    Keywords:  entrepreneurship; happiness; job-satisfaction; mental-health; satisfaction
  37. Front Res Metr Anal. 2020 ;5 607286
      As scientists worldwide search for answers to the overwhelmingly unknown behind the deadly pandemic, the literature concerning COVID-19 has been growing exponentially. Keeping abreast of the body of literature at such a rapidly advancing pace poses significant challenges not only to active researchers but also to society as a whole. Although numerous data resources have been made openly available, the analytic and synthetic process that is essential in effectively navigating through the vast amount of information with heightened levels of uncertainty remains a significant bottleneck. We introduce a generic method that facilitates the data collection and sense-making process when dealing with a rapidly growing landscape of a research domain such as COVID-19 at multiple levels of granularity. The method integrates the analysis of structural and temporal patterns in scholarly publications with the delineation of thematic concentrations and the types of uncertainties that may offer additional insights into the complexity of the unknown. We demonstrate the application of the method in a study of the COVID-19 literature.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; CiteSpace; Microsoft Academic Services; citation context analysis; epistemic uncertainty; scientometrics; visual analytics
  38. Gac Med Mex. 2020 ;156(6): 607-623
      This symposium describes the main characteristics of six Mexican scientific journals indexed in Journal Citation Reports: Archives of Medical Research, Revista de Investigación Clínica-Clinical and Translational Investigation, Gaceta Médica de México, Salud Pública de México, Cirugía y Cirujanos and Salud Mental. Particular emphasis is given to their historical and organizational aspects, as well as to their main achievements recognized by the national and international scientific community.En este simposio se describen las principales características de seis revistas científicas mexicanas reconocidas por el. Journal Citation Reports: Archives of Medical Research, Revista de Investigación Clínica-Clinical and Translational Investigation, Gaceta Médica de México, Salud Pública de México, Cirugía y Cirujanos y Salud Mental. Se hace énfasis en sus aspectos históricos y organizacionales, así como en sus logros principales ante la comunidad científica nacional e internacional.
    Keywords:  Archives of Medical Research; Cirugía y Cirujanos; Gaceta Médica de México; Medical journals; Revista de Investigación Clínica-Clinical and Translational Investigation; Revistas médicas; Salud Mental; Salud Pública de México
  39. Health Res Policy Syst. 2021 Apr 21. 19(1): 67
      BACKGROUND: Health and medical research funding agencies are increasingly interested in measuring the impact of funded research. We present a research impact case study for the first four years of an Australian National Health and Medical Research Council funded Centre of Research Excellence in Cardiovascular Outcomes Improvement (2016-2020). The primary aim of this paper was to explore the application of a research impact matrix to assess the impact of cardiovascular outcomes improvement research.METHODS: We applied a research impact matrix developed from a systematic review of existing methodological frameworks used to measure research impact. This impact matrix was used as a bespoke tool to identify and understand various research impacts over different time frames. Data sources included a review of existing internal documentation from the research centre and publicly available information sources, informal iterative discussions with 10 centre investigators, and confirmation of information from centre grant and scholarship recipients.
    RESULTS: By July 2019, the impact on the short-term research domain category included over 41 direct publications, which were cited over 87 times (median journal impact factor of 2.84). There were over 61 conference presentations, seven PhD candidacies, five new academic collaborations, and six new database linkages conducted. The impact on the mid-term research domain category involved contributions towards the development of a national cardiac registry, cardiovascular guidelines, application for a Medicare Benefits Schedule reimbursement item number, introduction of patient-reported outcome measures into several databases, and the establishment of nine new industry collaborations. Evidence of long-term impacts were described as the development and use of contemporary management for aortic stenosis, a cardiovascular risk prediction model and prevention targets in several data registries, and the establishment of cost-effectiveness for stenting compared to surgery.
    CONCLUSIONS: We considered the research impact matrix a feasible tool to identify evidence of academic and policy impact in the short- to midterm; however, we experienced challenges in capturing long-term impacts. Cost containment and broader economic impacts represented another difficult area of impact to measure.
    Keywords:  Cardiovascular outcomes; Dissemination; Evaluation; Health research; Impact matrix; Implementation science; Knowledge translation; Research impact; Research output; Research translation
  40. Cien Saude Colet. 2021 Apr;pii: S1413-81232021000401391. [Epub ahead of print]26(4): 1391-1399
      This study emphasizes the relationship between biological disasters and public health through the systematization of the articles produced by institutions of the State of Paraná in the last few decades. These were selected using key words defined in Codar and Cobrade in the Journal Portals of the Capes, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Redulac, Spell, SciELO, Medline and Bireme databases. As a result, 318 articles were located from 1970 onwards, with a peak in 2012. Within the areas of knowledge published on the subject, 29% of the articles are linked to health sciences, followed by 28% related to agrarian sciences. In the analysis of the language most used, although the English language was universal, Portuguese was predominant in most articles (84%). With respect to disaster phases, more than 90% of the publications are on disaster risk management, with a small amount of works on the biological disaster per se. Finally, in the comparison of the key words of the articles over the ensuing years, the key word most mentioned is leishmaniasis, with the bulk of mentions between 2001 and 2010. This study showed that the areas are integrated, although there is a difficulty in correlation between issues such as disasters and the spread of diseases.
  41. BMC Geriatr. 2021 04 21. 21(1): 266
      BACKGROUND: Population aging will be one of humanity's major challenges in the decades to come. In addition to focusing on the pathologies causing the greatest mortality and morbidity in this population, such as dementia, health research in elderly people must consider a myriad of other interlinked factors, such as geriatric syndromes, social aspects, and factors related to preserving quality of life and promoting healthy aging. This study aims to identify the main subject areas attracting research attention with regard to very old (≥ 80 years) populations.METHODS: Documents assigned with the medical subject heading "Aged, 80 and over" were retrieved from MEDLINE and the Web of Science. This dataset was used to determine publication output by disease, geographic region, country, and discipline. A co-word analysis was undertaken to identify thematic research clusters.
    RESULTS: Since the mid-2000s, there has been a boom in scientific output focusing specifically on very old populations, especially in Europe (43.7% of the documents) but also in North America (30.5%) and Asia (26%); other regions made only nominal contributions (0.5 to 4.4%). The USA produced the most research, while the most growth over the study period occurred in Japan, Spain, and China. Four broad thematic clusters were identified: a) geriatric diseases, health services for the aged, and social and psychological issues of aging; b) cardiovascular diseases; c) neoplasms, and d) bacterial infections & anti-bacterial agents.
    CONCLUSIONS: Scientific research in very old populations covers a wide variety of interrelated topics. In quantitative terms, the top subject areas have to do with cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (including aortic valve stenosis and stroke), dementia, and neoplasms. However, other degenerative pathologies, geriatric syndromes, and different social and psychosocial aspects also attract considerable interest. It is necessary to promote more equal participation in global research on pathologies and topics related to very elderly populations, as the highest rates of population aging and the largest numbers of elderly people in the next decades will be in low- and middle-income countries.
    Keywords:  Cardiovascular diseases; Cerebrovascular diseases; Dementias; Elderly; Geriatric syndromes; Health research topics; Neoplasms; Oldest old; Psychosocial aspects of aging; Research output
  42. J Am Coll Surg. 2021 Apr 14. pii: S1072-7515(21)00262-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Female authorship opportunities have lagged behind those of their male counterparts, with gender disparities most prominent in surgical specialties. Our objective was to determine trends of female first, last, and first or last authorships across time and surgical specialties and whether female first or last authorship was associated with journal impact factor.STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review of EMBASE (OvidSP®), MEDLINE (OvidSP®), and Cochrane (Wiley®) from inception till December 22,2017 was performed to identify all RCTs evaluating MIS versus classical surgical techniques. The primary outcome was female first, last and first or last authorship, with gender determined via an online search strategy and verified via Secondary outcome was journal impact factor, recorded from Clarivate Analytics® InCites.
    RESULTS: 9,321 articles were identified. 489 met our inclusion/exclusion criteria. Sixty-eight (13.9%) first and 60 (12.3%) last female authors were identified. A positive linear trend for female first (R2=0.35, Cochran-Armitage test for trend, p<0.001), last (R2=0.30,p<0.001), and first or last authorships (R2=0.40, p<0.001) over time was identified. This trend was observed across surgical specialties, except for orthopedics. The highest calculated percentages of female first, last, and first or last authorships by the year 2017 were seen in obstetrics and gynecology (33.8%, 32.0%, and 43.8%, respectively), all significantly lower than the corresponding percentage of the female obstetrics and gynecology workforce in 2017(57.0%). Neither female first nor last authorship positions were associated with journal impact factor.
    CONCLUSION: A significant increase in female first and last authorship in RCTs of MIS techniques over the last three decades has been observed, but continued efforts to bridge this gender gap are sorely needed.
    Keywords:  Bias; Endoscopy; Female; Laparoscopy; Operative; Surgical Procedures
  43. Nature. 2021 Apr;592(7855): 507
    Keywords:  Publishing; Research management
  44. Pain Med. 2021 Feb 05. pii: pnab041. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVE: We quantified the representation of female program directors (PDs) and assessed their respective demographics, academic metrics, and program-related characteristics in chronic pain and acute pain medicine fellowship programs accredited by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME).METHODS: We identified chronic and acute pain PDs on the ACGME website on November 15, 2020. We abstracted data from public databases and performed comparisons of demographics, academic metrics, and program-related characteristics between female and male PDs.
    RESULTS: We identified 111 chronic pain programs and 35 acute pain programs. Overall, there were 35 (31.5%) chronic pain programs with a female PD and 76 (68.5%) chronic pain programs with a male PD. Female chronic pain PDs published fewer peer-reviewed articles (4.0 publications, interquartile range [IQR] = 2.0-12.0) compared with male chronic pain PDs (9.0 publications, IQR = 4.0-27.0; P = 0.050), although there was no difference in the H-index score (3.0 vs 4.0 publications, respectively; P = 0.062) or senior academic rank status (57.1% vs 50.0%, respectively; P = 0.543). There were 10 (28.6%) acute pain programs with a female PD and 25 (71.4%) acute pain programs with a male PD. Similar to the chronic pain cohort, there was no difference in senior academic rank status based on gender in acute pain PDs (50.0% vs 24.0%, respectively; P = 0.227).
    CONCLUSION: Our study highlights gender differences in the PD role in ACGME-accredited chronic and acute pain fellowships. Female PDs remain underrepresented and have fewer peer-reviewed publications. Senior academic rank status was similar across genders, contradicting the current evidence in academic medicine.
  45. Hand Clin. 2021 May;pii: S0749-0712(21)00001-9. [Epub ahead of print]37(2): 189-196
      This article reviews the impact of the most cited works on distal radius fractures. Judged by the most cited works in this field, distal radius fracture research has followed other paradigm shifts in the history of science. Landmark papers showed that restoring premorbid anatomy led to better outcomes, and a plurality of fixation strategies emerged. A breakthrough in technology came with volar plating, and the new paradigm emerged: precise anatomic reduction is achieved typically with volar plates, unless fragment-specific approaches are needed. This paradigm is being challenged as the association among malunion, arthritis, and function continues to be understood. The best treatment of distal radius fractures in the elderly has also evolved through time.
    Keywords:  Citation analysis; Distal radius fractures; Surgery evolution
  46. PLoS Biol. 2021 Apr 19. 19(4): e3001162
      Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are biased and difficult to reproduce due to methodological flaws and poor reporting. There is increasing attention for responsible research practices and implementation of reporting guidelines, but whether these efforts have improved the methodological quality of RCTs (e.g., lower risk of bias) is unknown. We, therefore, mapped risk-of-bias trends over time in RCT publications in relation to journal and author characteristics. Meta-information of 176,620 RCTs published between 1966 and 2018 was extracted. The risk-of-bias probability (random sequence generation, allocation concealment, blinding of patients/personnel, and blinding of outcome assessment) was assessed using a risk-of-bias machine learning tool. This tool was simultaneously validated using 63,327 human risk-of-bias assessments obtained from 17,394 RCTs evaluated in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (CDSR). Moreover, RCT registration and CONSORT Statement reporting were assessed using automated searches. Publication characteristics included the number of authors, journal impact factor (JIF), and medical discipline. The annual number of published RCTs substantially increased over 4 decades, accompanied by increases in authors (5.2 to 7.8) and institutions (2.9 to 4.8). The risk of bias remained present in most RCTs but decreased over time for allocation concealment (63% to 51%), random sequence generation (57% to 36%), and blinding of outcome assessment (58% to 52%). Trial registration (37% to 47%) and the use of the CONSORT Statement (1% to 20%) also rapidly increased. In journals with a higher impact factor (>10), the risk of bias was consistently lower with higher levels of RCT registration and the use of the CONSORT Statement. Automated risk-of-bias predictions had accuracies above 70% for allocation concealment (70.7%), random sequence generation (72.1%), and blinding of patients/personnel (79.8%), but not for blinding of outcome assessment (62.7%). In conclusion, the likelihood of bias in RCTs has generally decreased over the last decades. This optimistic trend may be driven by increased knowledge augmented by mandatory trial registration and more stringent reporting guidelines and journal requirements. Nevertheless, relatively high probabilities of bias remain, particularly in journals with lower impact factors. This emphasizes that further improvement of RCT registration, conduct, and reporting is still urgently needed.
  47. Front Res Metr Anal. 2021 ;6 630124
      Our work analyzes the artificial intelligence and machine learning (AI/ML) research portfolios of six large research funding organizations from the United States [National Institutes of Health (NIH) and National Science Foundation (NSF)]; Europe [European Commission (EC) and European Research Council (ERC)]; China [National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC)]; and Japan [Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS)]. The data for this analysis is based on 127,000 research clusters (RCs) that are derived from 1.4 billion citation links between 104.8 million documents from four databases (Dimensions, Microsoft Academic Graph, Web of Science, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure). Of these RCs, 600 large clusters are associated with AI/ML topics, and 161 of these AI/ML RCs are expected to experience extreme growth between May 2020 and May 2023. Funding acknowledgments (in the corpus of the 104.9 million documents) are used to characterize the overall AI/ML research portfolios of each organization. NNSFC is the largest funder of AI/ML research and disproportionately funds computer vision. The EC, RC, and JSPS focus more efforts on natural language processing and robotics. The NSF and ERC are more focused on fundamental advancement of AI/ML rather than on applications. They are more likely to participate in the RCs that are expected to have extreme growth. NIH funds the largest relative share of general AI/ML research papers (meaning in areas other than computer vision, natural language processing, and robotics). We briefly describe how insights such as these could be applied to portfolio management decision-making.
    Keywords:  artificial intelligence; forecasting; machine learning; map of science; research analysis; research funding agencies; research portfolio analysis
  48. Ethn Dis. 2021 ;31(2): 273-282
      Objective: To identify which mentoring domains influence publication productivity among early career researchers and trainees and whether publication productivity differs between underrepresented minority (URM) and well-represented groups (WRGs). The mentoring aspects that promote publication productivity remain unclear. Advancing health equity requires a diverse workforce, yet URM trainees are less likely to publish and URM investigators are less likely to obtain federal research grants, relative to WRG counterparts.Methods: A mentoring-focused online follow-up survey was administered to respondents of the NRMN Annual Survey who self-identified as mentees. Publications were identified from a public database and validated with participant CV data. Bivariate and multivariate analyses tested the associations of publication productivity with mentoring domains.
    Results: URM investigators and trainees had fewer publications (M = 7.3) than their WRG counterparts (M = 13.8). Controlling for career stage and social characteristics, those who worked on funded projects, and received grant-writing or research mentorship, had a higher probability of any publications. Controlling for URM status, gender, and career stage, mentorship on grant-writing and funding was positively associated with publication count (IRR=1.72). Holding career stage, gender, and mentoring experiences constant, WRG investigators and trainees had more publications than their URM counterparts (IRR=1.66).
    Conclusions: Grant-writing mentorship is particularly important for publication productivity. Future research should investigate whether grant-writing mentorship differentially impacts URM and WRG investigators and should investigate how and why grant-writing mentorship fosters increased publication productivity.
    Keywords:  Early Career Investigators; Mentoring; Publication Productivity; Underrepresented Minorities; Workforce Development
  49. Int Endod J. 2021 Apr 19.
      AIM: To record the prevalence of a priori power calculations in the manuscripts published in three endodontic journals between 2018 and 2020 and detect further associations with a number of study characteristics including journal, publication year, study design, geographic region, number of centres and authors, whether the primary outcome pertained to a statistically significant effect and whether Confidence Intervals (CIs) were reported.METHODOLOGY: The contents of the three leading endodontic journals with the highest impact factor (International Endodontic Journal, IEJ; Journal of Endodontics, JOE; and Australian Endodontic Journal, AEJ) were assessed from January 2018 to December 2020. The proportion of articles reporting a priori power calculations were recorded, and relevant associations as described above were assessed. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression were used to identify significant predictors, while interaction and linear trend effects were also considered.
    RESULTS: A total of 716 original research articles were included. The vast majority were published in the JOE (417/716; 58.2%), followed by the IEJ (225/716; 31.4%) and the AEJ (74/716; 10.4%). Overall, a priori power considerations were reported in 243 out of 716 articles (33.9%). The IEJ presented 1.61 times higher odds for including a priori power considerations compared to JOE (adjusted Odds Ratio, OR=1.61; 95%CI: 1.11, 2.34), while for the AEJ, the corresponding odds were 41% lower in comparison to JOE (adjusted OR= 0.59; 95%CI: 0.31, 1.14). For each additional year indicating more recent publication, the odds for adopting appropriate reporting practices for power considerations were increased by 64% (adjusted OR= 1.64; 95CIs: 1.32, 2.04). There was strong evidence that interventional research was associated with 10.54 times higher odds for a priori considerations compared to observational study design (adjusted OR= 10.54; 95%CIs: 5.50, 20.19).
    CONCLUSIONS: The high prevalence of failure to include a priori power considerations was indicative of suboptimal reporting in endodontic research, in the three endodontic journals analysed. Although the condition improved over time, efforts to incorporate a correct determination of the required sample size at the design stage for any future study should be endorsed by journal editors, authors and the scientific community.
    Keywords:  endodontic research; power calculation; sample size; statistical power
  50. Arch Osteoporos. 2021 Apr 20. 16(1): 74
      Our purpose was to investigate the co-authorship network of Iranian researchers in the field of osteoporosis. We used 1328 documents retrieved from databases of PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science in the analysis. The network had 183 authors in 13 clusters, low cohesion, and slow information flow between its members.PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the pattern and characteristics of cooperation between Iranian researchers in the field of osteoporosis through the co-authorship social network analysis.
    METHODS: All papers on osteoporosis with at least one Iranian author were retrieved from medical databases of PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science from 2009 to 2019. After the removal of duplicates, the title and abstract of the papers were reviewed by two independent reviewers, and screening was performed according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data were entered into the BibExecl software, and the different spelling forms in the author names were manually merged. The authors' co-occurrence matrix was then developed and entered into the UCINET software and the cohesion indexes (density, diameter, and average distance) and centrality indexes (degree, betweenness, closeness, and eigenvector) for the co-authorship network were estimated. The institutions and countries of the authors of the entered papers were also used in the network analysis and their socio-graphs were drawn.
    RESULTS: We used 1328 documents in the analysis. The co-authorship network was constructed only for authors with at least 5 papers. The network had 183 nodes (authors) in 13 clusters. Its density was 0.063 and its number of components was 2. The large component encompassed 95.6% and the small component 4.4% of authors. The average distance in the main component of the network was 3 and its diameter was 6. Larijani B was ranked first in the network in terms of degree, betweenness, closeness, and eigenvector centrality. In terms of the contribution of organizations in osteoporosis publications, Tehran University of Medical Sciences (with 35.5% of papers published in WoS database), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (14.7%), and Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (9.3%) retained in the first to third place, respectively. In papers published on the WoS, most Iranian authors have collaborated with authors from the USA, Belgium, Canada, and the UK respectively.
    CONCLUSION: The co-authorship network had low cohesion with slow information flow between its members. The collaboration with young researchers by the network's active, efficient, and broker authors will lead to the maintenance and development of the network.
    Keywords:  Co-authorship; Iran; Osteoporosis; Social network analysis
  51. Front Res Metr Anal. 2020 ;5 595370
      The present study examines the intellectual structure of research on coronavirus, as revealed from an author co-citation analysis using citation data retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection and mapped to the PubMed database. Four major dimensions are identified: I) outbreaks, II) viral structure and function, III) vaccine and therapeutic development, and IV) coronaviruses found in a range of animals. The "outbreaks" dimension is by far the most prominent, dominated by reports on the three recent major outbreaks: COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome, and Middle East respiratory syndrome. The focus of research on major outbreaks is on public health and clinical research, with focus on disease characterization, diagnosis, transmission, and clinical course. Notably, certain clinically important areas, such as mental health during outbreaks and viral surveillance, among others, did not stand out as identifiable specialties or topics in the coronavirus research landscape. Results from this study should contribute to the understanding of the coronavirus research landscape and to the identification of strengths and weaknesses of current research on COVID-19.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; author co-citation analysis; bibliometrics; coronavirus; intellectual structure
  52. Nature. 2020 Sep 29.
    Keywords:  Careers; Ethics; Publishing
  53. Front Res Metr Anal. 2019 ;4 6
      The ability to objectively assess academic performance is critical to rewarding academic merit, charting academic policy, and promoting science. Quintessential to performing these functions is first the ability to collect valid and current data through increasingly automated online interfaces. Moreover, it is crucial to remove disciplinary and other biases from these data, presenting them in ways that support insightful analysis at various levels. Existing systems are lacking in some of these respects. Here we present Scholar Plot (SP), an interface that harvests bibliographic and research funding data from online sources. SP addresses systematic biases in the collected data through nominal and normalized metrics. Eventually, SP combines synergistically these metrics in a plot form for expert appraisal, and an iconic form for broader consumption. SP's plot and iconic forms are scalable, representing equally well individual scholars and their academic units, thus contributing to consistent ranking practices across the university organizational structure. In order to appreciate the design principles underlying SP, in particular the informativeness of nominal vs. normalized metrics, we also present the results of an evaluation survey taken by senior faculty (n = 28) with significant promotion and tenure assessment experience.
    Keywords:  information visualization; research career evaluation; science of science; scientometrics; university evaluation
  54. J Curr Glaucoma Pract. 2020 Sep-Dec;14(3):14(3): 98-105
      Ophthalmic literature has been subjected to scientometrics in the past both for specific disease pathologies, such as, age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy, and specific journals to add insight to the evolving trends. This short scientometric review looks at the distribution pattern and subject domain knowledge of worldwide glaucoma research with data extracted from Web of Science (WoS, Clarivate Analytics) for the past 74 years. How to cite this article: Ichhpujani P, Kalra G, Kaur R, et al. Evolution of Glaucoma Research: A Scientometric Review. J Curr Glaucoma Pract 2020;14(3):98-105.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; Citation; Collaboration; Glaucoma; Scientometric analysis
  55. PLoS One. 2021 ;16(4): e0250414
      The 57 countries of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation are suffering from an increasing burden from mental health disorders. We investigated their research outputs during 2008-17 in the Web of Science in order to compare them with the burden from different mental health disorders and in different countries. The papers were identified with a complex filter based on title words and journals. Their addresses were parsed to give fractional country counts, show international collaboration, and also reveal country concentration on individual disorders and types of research. We found 17,920 papers in the decade, with output quadrupling. Foreign contributions accounted for 15% of addresses; they were from Europe (7%), Canada + USA (5%) and elsewhere (3%). They were much greater for Qatar and Uganda (> 60%), but less than 10% for Iran and Turkey. Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder were over-researched, but suicide and self-harm were seriously neglected, relative to their mental health disorder burdens. Although OIC research has been expanding rapidly, some countries have published little on this subject, perhaps because of stigma. Turkey collaborates relatively little internationally and as a result its papers received few citations. Among the large OIC countries, it has almost the highest relative mental health disorders burden, which is also growing rapidly.
  56. Int J Paleopathol. 2021 Apr 01. pii: S1879-9817(21)00015-2. [Epub ahead of print]33 94-102
      OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to provide a quantitative estimation of the representation of diseases defined as rare today in the bioarchaeological literature and to outline the reasons for this.MATERIALS: A 45-year bibliometric study of publications in seven bioarchaeological journals, along with two journals and editorial groups of broader scientific focus.
    METHODS: Analyses of distribution patterns of the search hits and diachronic trends for achondroplasia, autosomal-dominant osteopetrosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, and osteopoikilosis, compared to those for tuberculosis as control measure of coverage.
    RESULTS: Studies of ancient rare diseases (ARD) are mostly published as case reports in specialized journals and their number did not benefit from the introduction of biomolecular studies. The higher frequency of cases of achondroplasia suggests that not all rare diseases are equally under-represented.
    CONCLUSIONS: Rare diseases are still largely under-represented in bioarchaeological literature. Their marginality likely results from a combination of taphonomic, methodological and public visibility factors.
    SIGNIFICANCE: This article is the first attempt to provide a quantitative assessment of the under-representation of ARD and to outline the factors behind it.
    LIMITATIONS: Rare diseases are an etiologically heterogeneous group. The number of surveyed journals and articles, as well as targeted diseases might be limiting factors.
    SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH: Increasing collection and dissemination of data on ARD; opening a wide-ranging debate on their definition; implementation of biomolecular studies.
    Keywords:  Achondroplasia; Bibliometric analysis; Osteogenesis imperfecta; Osteopetrosis; Osteopoikilosis; Tuberculosis
  57. Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 19. 11(1): 8447
      Despite unprecedented scientific productivity, Earth is undergoing a sixth mass extinction. The disconnect between scientific output and species conservation may be related to scientists studying the wrong species. Given fishes have a high extinction rate, we assessed the paradox between scientific productivity and science needed for conservation by comparing scientific output created for critically endangered fishes and game fishes. We searched 197,866 articles (1964-2018) in 112 journals for articles on 460 critically endangered fishes, 297 game fishes, and 35 fishes classified as critically endangered and game fish-our analysis included freshwater and marine species. Only 3% of the articles in the final database were on critically endangered fishes; 82% of critically endangered fishes had zero articles. The difference between the number of articles on game fishes and critically endangered fishes increased temporally with more articles on game fishes during the extinction crisis. Countries with 10 or more critically endangered fishes averaged only 17 articles from 1964 to 2018. Countries with the most critically endangered fishes are most in need of science. More scientific knowledge is needed on critically endangered fishes to meet the challenges of conserving fishes during the sixth mass extinction.
  58. Account Res. 2021 Apr 21.
      Publications of expressions of concern and retractions should be timely, accurate and comprehensive. We assessed these characteristics for 292 publications by a research group about which we submitted concerns about publication integrity to 77 journals and 29 publishers between March 2013 and February 2020. By October 2020, 115 publications were corrected (3), had expressions of concern (18), or were retracted (94). The median (95% CI) time from submission of concerns to the first journal correction was 22.1(18.2-26.9) months: this did not diminish by year of submission of concerns, varied between publishers, and was shorter for journals with higher impact factors. 84 publications of original research were retracted. The median (range) proportion of concerns raised with the journal that were mentioned in the ensuing retraction notices was 9.5% (2-49). At least 75% of retraction notices included the suggested content for 7/9, 3/9 and 3/16 items in the Committee for Publication Ethics and Retraction Watch minimum and optimal recommended formats, respectively. Thus, assessment of concerns about publication integrity was delayed and incomplete. Adherence to recommended content of retraction notices was moderate at best. Strategies are needed to improve the efficiency, accuracy and transparency of processes for resolving concerns about publication integrity.
    Keywords:  Publication integrity; academic publishing; expression of concern; retraction
  59. Sci Adv. 2021 Apr;pii: eabb9004. [Epub ahead of print]7(17):
      Understanding the structure of knowledge domains is one of the foundational challenges in the science of science. Here, we propose a neural embedding technique that leverages the information contained in the citation network to obtain continuous vector representations of scientific periodicals. We demonstrate that our periodical embeddings encode nuanced relationships between periodicals and the complex disciplinary and interdisciplinary structure of science, allowing us to make cross-disciplinary analogies between periodicals. Furthermore, we show that the embeddings capture meaningful "axes" that encompass knowledge domains, such as an axis from "soft" to "hard" sciences or from "social" to "biological" sciences, which allow us to quantitatively ground periodicals on a given dimension. By offering novel quantification in the science of science, our framework may, in turn, facilitate the study of how knowledge is created and organized.
  60. Front Res Metr Anal. 2020 ;5 628703
      Many academic analyses of good practice in the use of bibliometric data address only technical aspects and fail to account for and appreciate user requirements, expectations, and actual practice. Bibliometric indicators are rarely the only evidence put before any user group. In the present state of knowledge, it is more important to consider how quantitative evaluation can be made simple, transparent, and readily understood than it is to focus unduly on precision, accuracy, or scholarly notions of purity. We discuss how the interpretation of 'performance' from a presentation using accurate but summary bibliometrics can change when iterative deconstruction and visualization of the same dataset is applied. From the perspective of a research manager with limited resources, investment decisions can easily go awry at governmental, funding program, and institutional levels. By exploring select real-life data samples we also show how the specific composition of each dataset can influence interpretive outcomes.
    Keywords:  bibliometrics; data interpretation; research assessment; research policy; responsible metrics
  61. Front Res Metr Anal. 2020 ;5 2
      Researcher behavior is shown to change under assessment. An unexpected time-skew toward most recent papers in each census period was found among the outputs selected by UK academics for the research assessment cycles of the 1990s. This skew changed to a more even time-based distribution for scientists and engineers in later cycles. At the same time, engineers switched their preferred output type for submission, from conference proceedings to journal articles. Social scientists also switched, from monographs to journal art. There was no discussion of these output patterns at the time, or later, but the patterns and their evolution had marked consistency across subjects and institutions. These changes are discussed in terms of consensus and influences on researcher concepts of the evidence of excellence. The increasing availability of citation data in the 1990s and the likely role of citation analysis as a steering factor are noted.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; heuristics & biases; peer - evaluation; peer consensus; research assessment
  62. J Prof Nurs. 2021 Mar-Apr;37(2):pii: S8755-7223(20)30091-0. [Epub ahead of print]37(2): 373-378
      BACKGROUND: There is a need to facilitate research collaboration between PhD- and DNP-educated faculty at colleges and schools of nursing. Both types of doctoral-prepared faculty are hired, and their skills and expertise are often different yet complementary. Strengthening collaborations can contribute to new knowledge and the translation of research into practice.PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to implement four strategies to foster research and scholarship productivity and evaluate the outcomes.
    METHOD: We implemented four strategies to foster collaboration. Two interactional strategies included Research Exchange (an annual event) and an enhanced matchmaking and mentoring plan. The two organizational strategies implemented were internal research pilot funds and writing clubs.
    RESULTS: All four approaches have been found to be effective in improving research collaboration and scholarship outcomes, including presentations, manuscripts, and proposals for external funding. Faculty have provided suggestions for further improvements.
    CONCLUSIONS: National trends indicate that there may be more DNP-prepared faculty than PhD-prepared faculty hired at colleges and schools of nursing. As such, it is useful to develop and purposefully offer approaches such as the four strategies described to enhance research productivity, facilitate career progression, and contribute to improved patient outcomes.
    Keywords:  DNP and PhD faculty; Faculty scholarship; Research collaboration; Scholarly productivity; Strategies
  63. Front Sociol. 2020 ;5 31
      [This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fsoc.2019.00087.].
    Keywords:  Italy; academic career; adjunct professor; gender inequalities; unpaid work
  64. J Prof Nurs. 2021 Mar-Apr;37(2):pii: S8755-7223(20)30088-0. [Epub ahead of print]37(2): 354-358
      BACKGROUND: Few publications have explored the role that professional organizations play in facilitating global partnerships; particularly regarding research and educational collaboration between doctoral prepared nurses and students residing in low- and middle-income countries with those from high-income countries.OBJECTIVE: To describe a pilot Spotlight Project which was developed to foster communication and collaboration among global doctoral prepared nurses and nursing students within an international nursing organization.
    METHODS: Twenty-seven members were identified and sent requests to complete the spotlight form created for this project. This form gave potential participants the option to do a 250 to 350-word write-up or develop a video describing their current research/educational initiatives, achievements, short and long -term goals.
    RESULTS: Eight of the 27 spotlight requests were returned. Information was received from one recent graduate and 7 faculty members. It included descriptions of motivation to pursue doctoral education, future aspirations, and academic and career accomplishments.
    DISCUSSION: The Spotlight Project could serve as an avenue for nursing students, researchers, and nursing schools; especially those from low- and middle-income countries that typically have limited funding and access to conferences and other professional opportunities to disseminate information about current projects, and a means of celebrating achievements of organization's members. This is also a potential avenue for international research and education collaboration between students and institutions.
    Keywords:  Global education; Global nursing; Global research; International collaboration
  65. Am J Emerg Med. 2021 Apr 18. pii: S0735-6757(21)00328-4. [Epub ahead of print]47 176-179
      BACKGROUND: Gender gaps have been described regarding the chairpersons in academic emergency departments, the composition of editorial boards and publications in emergency medicine. The objective of this study was to determine the gender distribution of chairpersons and board members of emergency medicine societies worldwide.MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional analysis, websites of national emergency medicine societies worldwide were screened for the composition of executive boards and the respective chairpersons. The gender of the board members and chairpersons was obtained either by the profile on the respective web site and/or by internet search and gender identification software. Descriptive statistics were performed and results for national societies were stratified by continent.
    RESULTS: A total of 61 boards of national emergency medicine societies were analyzed. Detailed information on the board composition was available for 50 societies, of which 27 were from Europe, 10 from Asia, five from Africa, four from North America, three from South America and one from Australasia. A total of 603 persons were included in the analysis. 45 (82%) of the listed societies' presidents were male, while 10 (18%) were female. 385 (70%) of the non-president board members were male. The highest proportion of female board members was seen in Australia/New Zealand with five out of eight persons (62%) followed by South America with 13 out of 29 (45%).
    CONCLUSIONS: A marked gender disparity was found for emergency medicine societies worldwide in terms of chair functions as well as board composition. Wide regional differences were found between world regions.
    Keywords:  Diversity; Emergency medicine; Equality; Gender; Society
  66. Eur J Med Genet. 2021 Apr 15. pii: S1769-7212(21)00090-2. [Epub ahead of print] 104224
      This article reviews the development of research in the field of craniosynostosis from a bibliometric standpoint. Craniosynostosis is a malformation occurring during the early development of the skull, when one or more of the sutures close too early, causing problems with normal brain and skull growth. Research in this field has developed from early clinical case descriptions, to genetic discoveries responsible for the occurring malformations and onwards to developing sophisticated surgical treatment. In this article we describe these developments, zoom in on publication trends and characteristics and visualize developing networks and topic shifts in this research field.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; Craniosynostosis; Network Analyses; Rare Diseases; congenital malformations
  67. Fam Med. 2021 Apr;53(4): 285-288
      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Scholarship is essential to growth and innovation in family medicine. Moreover, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education Review Committee-Family Medicine requires family medicine residents to complete scholarly activities. However, many residents lack the training and confidence to successfully conduct such activities. In the year 2014, our residency implemented a scholarly activity curriculum to train our residents to plan, complete, and disseminate research and quality improvement projects. We sought to evaluate the impact of one institution's scholarly activity curriculum for family medicine residents on resident scholarly activity productivity.METHODS: We reviewed the scholarly activities conducted by our family medicine residents in the 5 years after initiation of the scholarly activity curriculum and compared them to those conducted in the 5 years prior to initiation of the curriculum.
    RESULTS: Since 2014, the percentage of residents who coauthored at least one poster increased significantly, from 55.2% in 2009-2014, to 82.5% in 2014-2019 (P&lt;.001). In the academic years 2014 to 2019, residents also coauthored significantly more book chapters compared to the 5 years prior to the curriculum.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our curriculum has been successful in improving resident scholarly activity productivity as evidenced by a significant increase in the percentage of residents coauthoring posters and the total number of book chapters written by residents.
  68. Pathology. 2021 Apr 15. pii: S0031-3025(21)00090-8. [Epub ahead of print]