bims-evares Biomed News
on Evaluation of research
Issue of 2021‒03‒21
forty-one papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. J Clin Orthop Trauma. 2021 Apr;15 125-129
      Scaphoid fractures are commonly seen following a fall on an outstretched hand and often missed on initial presentation. An untreated scaphoid fracture may result in avascular necrosis of the scaphoid due to its retrograde blood supply. Published articles guide our investigation and management of these injuries. A citation analysis was performed on the top 30 articles relating to scaphoid fractures ranked by citation number. The 30 articles have been cited a total of 4595 times originating from 9 different countries. The leading article was cited 443 times with an average of 12.66 citations/year. Although this may not directly correlate with study quality, it does provide an insight to the influence which a paper has had on the scientific community. This list may prove invaluable to clinicians involved in the treatment of patients with scaphoid fractures and those actively furthering the development of the field.
    Keywords:  Altmetrics; Bibliometric analysis; Citation; Orthopedic surgery; Scaphoid fracture
  2. ANZ J Surg. 2021 Mar 18.
      BACKGROUND: The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons awards scholarships to surgeons, surgical trainees and recipients focused on developing their clinical knowledge and improving outcomes for patients. A bibliometric analysis of research scholarship recipients publications and h-index scores was conducted to understand the benefits of receiving these scholarships.METHODS: A bibliometric analysis of Royal Australasian College of Surgeons scholarship recipients in 2015 was performed using Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID), Scopus, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, LinkedIn and PubMed to identify the number of publications, h-index scores, field-weighted citation impact and the relative citation ratio.
    RESULTS: Nineteen research scholarship recipients authored 842 publications, with 491 (58%) published after completion of their scholarship. Seven recipients published 50% or more of their articles in the 5 years since completion. Five recipients have each published more than 45 articles since 2015. H-index scores varied between Scopus and Google Scholar (overall range: 4-34). Scopus identified the most publications, followed by ResearchGate. Determining publication numbers for recipients was problematic due to self-reporting in some databases (i.e. Google Scholar, ResearchGate), variations in author names (i.e. maiden to married name), duplication of publications and the inclusion of supplementary material (i.e. extra tables) in self-reporting databases. Field-weighted citation impact and relative citation ratio values exceeded 1 on 12 occasions demonstrating recipients are more cited than the global average.
    CONCLUSION: Continuous tracking of publication rates and h-index scores of scholarship recipients demonstrates recipients' continuing interest in advancing and disseminating medical knowledge to improve patient outcomes. The 2015 scholarship recipients publication numbers continued to increase after their scholarship tenure.
    Keywords:  fellowship and scholarship; medical societies; programme evaluation; research support as topic; surgeon
  3. Medicine (Baltimore). 2021 Mar 12. 100(10): e25016
      BACKGROUND: The h-index of a researcher refers to the maximum number h of his/her publications that has at least h citations via the concept of the square area. The x-index is determined by the maximum area of a rectangle under the curve to interpret authors' individual research achievements (IRAs). However, the properties of both metrics have not been compared and discussed before. This study aimed to investigate whether both metrics of h- and x-index are suitable for evaluating IRAs in a short period of years.METHODS: By searching the PubMed database (, we used the keyword "PLoS One" (journal) and downloaded 50,000 articles published in 2015 and 2016. A total of 146,346 citations were listed in PubMed Central and 27,035 authors(with h-index ≥1) were divided into 3 parts. Correlation coefficients among metrics (ie, AIF, h, g, Ag, and x-index) were examined. The bootstrapping method used for estimating 95% confidence intervals was applied to compare differences in metrics among author groups. The most cited authors and topic burst were visualized by social network analysis. The most prominent countries/areas were highlighted by the x-index and displayed via choropleth maps.
    RESULTS: Results demonstrated that, first, the h-index had the least relation to other metrics and failed to differentiate authors' IRAs among groups, particularly in a short time period. Second, the top 3 highest x-index for countries were the United States, China, and the UK but with the productivity-oriented feature. Third, the most cited medical subject headings (ie, MeSH terms) were genome, metabolome, and microbiology, and the most cited author was Lori Newman (whose x-index = 13.52, and h = 2) from Switzerland with the article (PMID = 26646541) cited 291 times. The need for the x-index combined with a visual map for displaying authors' IRAs was verified and recommended.
    CONCLUSIONS: We verified that the h-index failed to differentiate authors' IRAs among author groups in a short time period. The x-index combined with the Kano map is recommended in research for a better understanding of the authors' IRAs in other journals or disciplines, not just limited to the journal of PloS One as we did in this study.
  4. eNeurologicalSci. 2021 Jun;23 100333
      Objectives: To examine the factors that influence country self-citation rate (SCR) in clinical neurology and to assess the impact of self-citation on the ranking of the top 50 countries.Methods: SCImago Journal & Country Rank was used to collect data for the 50 most cited countries in clinical neurology during 1996-2019. Country SCR was correlated with several productivity parameters and examined statistically. Countries that dropped in their ranking after the exclusion of self-citations were identified.
    Results: The median (range) country SCR for the 50 most cited countries was 11.3%.(5.3%- 47%). Country SCR correlated significantly with total citable documents and total cites numbers and rankings. The exclusion of self-citations led to a drop in the ranking of 8(16%) countries only. No significant difference between the total and net total cites rankings was observed.
    Conclusions: Self-citation can be appropriate and reflect an expansion on earlier research. Highly cited productive countries tend to have high country SCR. Excluding self-citations had minimal impact on the ranking of the top 50 countries. Our findings indicate that self-citation is unlikely to influence country standing amongst the top 50 and does not support the argument for eliminating self-citations from citation-based metrics. A more globalization through international collaboration in research is encouraged.
    Keywords:  Bibliometry; Clinical neurology; Country self-citation; SCImago Journal & Country Rank; Self citation rate
  5. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2021 Mar 17. 1-7
      OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to assess the profile of articles published in the American Journal of Roentgenology (AJR) and potential associations with bibliometric indexes over a 5-year period. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Citable documents published from 2014 to 2018 were retrieved from the Journal Citation Reports database. Six bibliometric indexes were assessed. The following article parameters were retrieved: type, subspecialty (17 topics covered by AJR), origin, and title. Differences between groups were assessed by t test, ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis test, or chi-square test. Citability was assessed by regression analysis. RESULTS. After exclusions, 2210 articles were considered citable and included in the analyses. Most of the metrics improved slightly, except for the Eigenfactor score and article influence score, which decreased. Original articles were preponderant; AJR published significantly more review articles than did three other general radiology journals. The mean number of citations per year of original articles (2.03 ± 2.18) was significantly larger than that of review articles (2.06 ± 2.47) (p = .02). The mean number of citations per year was significantly higher for articles with mixed-origin authorship (3.12 ± 3.19) than for articles with American (2.02 ± 2.17) or non-American (1.93 ± 2.26) authors only (p < .001). The distributions of mean number of citations per year among subspecialties differed significantly (p = .001). Articles on abdominal, musculoskeletal, pediatric, and women's imaging were more frequently cited. Multivariate regression analysis showed that subspecialty and presence of acronyms or initialisms in the title were the only independent predictors of citability (both, p = .001). CONCLUSION. The main AJR bibliometric indexes increased slightly from 2014 to 2018, except for those from the Eigenfactor Project. The presence of acronyms or initialisms in the title and subspecialty were the only independent predictors of citability.
    Keywords:  bibliometrics; impact factor; radiology
  6. Front Neurol. 2021 ;12 637310
      Background: Moyamoya angiopathy (MMA), which includes moyamoya disease (MMD) and moyamoya syndrome (MMS), is an uncommon cerebrovascular condition characterized by recurrent stroke. We carried out a bibliometric analysis to examine the development of and research trends in MMA research. Methods: Studies published between 2010 and 2019 on MMA were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) on August 14, 2020, and bibliometric and visualization-based analyses were performed by using three different scientometric tools: HistCite, VOSviewer, and CiteSpace. Results: A total of 1,896 publications published in 384 journals by 6,744 authors, 1,641 institutions and 56 countries/regions were included in the analyses. Annual publication outputs increased from 2010 to 2019. The USA, Japan and China were three key contributors to this study field. Capital Medical University, Seoul National University, and Stanford University were three major institutions with larger numbers of publications. Zhang D, World Neurosurgery, Kuroda S, and STROKE were the most prolific author, prolific journal, top co-cited author and top co-cited journal, respectively. The top five keywords during this period were moyamoya disease, revascularization, stroke, children and surgery, while revascularization surgery and RNF213 were the most common frontier topics. Conclusions: In this study, the research trends of global scientific research on MMA over the past decade were systematically analyzed. The study can provide guidance for scholars who want to understand current trends in research in this area and new research frontiers.
    Keywords:  CiteSpace; HistCite; VOSviewer; Web of Science; bibliometrics; emerging topics; moyamoya; visualization
  7. J Clin Orthop Trauma. 2021 May;16 157-167
      Purpose: One of the most common adverse events after orthopaedic surgery, with a potential for subsequent serious morbidity and mortality is venous thromboembolism (VTE). Bibliometric analysis has been performed regarding many topics and across orthopaedics. As DVT prophylaxis is a major component of both orthopaedic surgery considerations and research, a bibliometric analysis in this area would prove beneficial in not only in understanding the research done in the field thus far, but would also direct future research efforts.Methods: The Web of Science (WoS) database from the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) was used to compile articles for bibliometric analysis using Boolean search: ((Orthopaedic∗ OR Orthopaedic∗) AND (thromboprophylaxis OR Thromboembolism OR Deep vein thrombosis OR thrombus OR embolism OR anticoagulation OR Embolus OR prophylaxis)).
    Results: The Top 100 cited articles included in the final list generated a total of 21,099 citations. The highest cited article was Prevention of venous thromboembolism by Geerts et al. published in Chest, which had a total of 2802 on WoS, and a calculated citation density of 215.54 of citations/years since publication. Comparing the overall citation against the year of publication there was a slight positive trend favoring more recent publications (R-value: 0.142; adjusted R-squared: 0.01; p = 0.16). Analysis of an articles Level of Evidence (LOE), 17 were grade with a level of I.
    Conclusions: Orthopaedic thromboprophylaxis is an ever-changing field that is at the forefront of orthopaedic literature. The significant trend favoring high quality research within orthopaedic thromboprophylaxis demonstrates the importance of this topic and there was a need for a guide to best understand the evolution of DVT prophylaxis.
    Keywords:  Anticoagulation; Bibliometric analysis; Deep vein thrombosis; Pulmonary embolism; Venous thromboprophylaxis
  8. J Med Internet Res. 2021 Mar 14.
      BACKGROUND: Gender imbalances in academia have been evident historically and persist today. For the past 60 years, we have witnessed the increase of participation of women in biomedical disciplines, showing that the gender gap is shrinking. However, preliminary evidence suggests that women, including female researchers, are disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic in terms of unequal distribution of childcare, elderly care and other kinds of domestic and emotional labor. Sudden lockdowns and abrupt shifts in daily routines have disproportionate consequences on their productivity, which is reflected by a sudden drop in research output in biomedical research, consequently affecting the number of female authors of scientific publications.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that the COVID-19 pandemic has a disproportionate adverse effect on the productivity of female researchers in biomedical field in terms of authorship of scientific publications.
    METHODS: This is a retrospective observational bibliometric study. We investigate the proportion of male and female researchers who published scientific papers during the COVID-19 pandemic, using bibliometric data from biomedical preprint servers and selected Springer-Nature journals. We use the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression model to estimate the expected proportions over time by correcting for temporal trends. We also use a set of statistical methods such as Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test and Regression Discontinuity Design (RDD) to test the validity of results.
    RESULTS: A total of 78,950 papers from bioRxiv, medRxiv and 62 selected Springer-Nature journals by 346,354 unique authors were analyzed. The acquired dataset consisted of papers that were published between January 1, 2019, and August 2, 2020. The proportion of women first authors publishing in biomedical fields during the pandemic drops on average 9.1% across disciplines (expected arithmetic mean y_est=0.39; observed arithmetic mean y=0.35; standard error of the estimate, S_est=0.007; standard error of the observation, σ_x =0.004). The impact is particularly pronounced for papers related to COVID-19 research, where the proportion of female scientists in the first author position drops by 28% (y_est=0.39; y=0.28;S_est=0.007;σ_x =0.007). When looking at the last authors, the proportion of women drops in average 7.9% (y_est=0.25; y=0.23;S_est=0.005;σ_x =0.003), while the proportion of women writing about COVID-19 as the last author decreased by 18.8% (y_est=0.25; y=0.21;S_est=0.005;σ_x =0.007). Further, by geocoding authors' affiliations, we show that the gender disparities become even more apparent when disaggregated by the country, up to 35% in some cases.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings document a decrease in the number of publications by female authors in biomedical field during the global pandemic. This effect is particularly pronounced for papers related to COVID-19, indicating that women are producing fewer publications related to COVID-19 research. This sudden increase in the gender gap is persistent across the ten countries with the highest number of researchers. These results should be used to inform the scientific community of the worrying trend in COVID-19 research and the disproportionate effect that the pandemic has on female academics.
  9. Australas J Dermatol. 2021 Mar 17.
      BACKGROUND: Alternative metrics are emerging scores to assess the impact of research beyond the academic environment.OBJECTIVE: To analyse whether a correlation exists between manuscript characteristics and alternative citation metrics.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This bibliometric analysis included original articles published in the five journals with the highest impact factors during 2019. We extracted the following characteristics from each record: journal, publication month, title, number of authors, type of institution, type of publication, research topic, number of references, financial support, free/open access status and literature citations. The main measure was the identification of variables of higher social attention (measured by the Altmetric Attention Score ≥25) using binary logistic regression. Model performance was assessed by the change in the area under the curve (AUC).
    RESULTS: A total of 840 manuscripts were included. The Altmetric scores across all five journals ranged from 0 to 465 (mean 12.51 ± 33.7; median 3). The most prevalent topic was skin cancer, and the study design was clinical science. The scientific journal (P < 0.001), the presence of conflicts of interest (OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.3-3.7]; P = 0.002) and open access status OR 3.2 [95%CI 1.6-6.7]; P = 0.002) were found as independent predictors of high Altmetric scores.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests an article´s social recognition may be dependent on some manuscript characteristics, thus providing useful information on the dissemination of dermatology research to the general public.
    Keywords:  bibliometric indicators; dermatology; research evaluation; social media; social networking
  10. Radiology. 2021 Mar 16. 204417
      Background Early reports show the unequal effect the COVID-19 pandemic might have on men versus women engaged in medical research. Purpose To investigate whether the COVID-19 pandemic has had an impact on scientific publishing by female physicians in medical imaging. Materials and Methods We conducted a descriptive bibliometric analysis of first and last-author gender of papers submitted to the top 50 medical imaging journals from March to May 2020 (n=2480) compared to the same period of the year in 2018 (n=2238) and 2019 (n=2355). Manuscript title, date of submission, first and last name of first and last authors, journal impact factor and author country of provenance were recorded. The Gender-API software was used to determine author gender. Statistical analysis comprised Chi square tests and multivariable logistic regression. Results Percentages of female first- and last-authorship were 1172/3711 (31.6%) and 717/3711 (19.3%) in 2018- 2019 versus 725/2248 (32.3%) and 465/2248 (20.7%) in 2020 (p=0.61 and p=0.21 respectively), and of COVID-19-related papers 89/253 (35.2%) and 52/253 (20.6%) respectively. No associations were found between first and last author gender, year of publication and continent of provenance. First- and last-authorship of high-ranking papers was not in favor of North American females whatever the year: OR 0.79 (p=0.05) and OR 0.72 (p=0.02). Higher rates of female last-authorship of high-ranking papers were observed in Europe (p=0.003): OR 1.20 (p=0.21) in 2018-2019 multiplied by interaction term OR 1.52 (p=0.09) in 2020, and of female first-authorship of low-ranking papers in Asia: OR=1.38 [0.98-1.92] (p=0.06) in 2020. Female first- and last-authorship of COVID-19-related papers was overrepresented for lowest-rank papers (p=0.02 and p=0.01). Conclusion One in three first authors and one in five last authors were female in 2018-2019 and 2020. While the first 2020 lockdown did not diminish the quantity of female publications, the impact upon the quality was variable. See also the editorial by Robbins and Khosa.
    Keywords:  Authorship; COVID-19; Nuclear Medicine; Physicians; Radiology; Women
  11. Scientometrics. 2021 Mar 06. 1-21
      The scholarly output of the new coronavirus research has been proliferating. During five months, an amount of 14,588 scientific publications about nCoV-2 and COVID-19 has been generated intensively (as indexed in Scopus on 31 May 2020). Such a knowledge outburst has created ample interest in understanding the research landscape of this newly configured area. This paper demonstrates on scientometric dimensions of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCov) research using quantifiable characteristics of the publication dataset. Findings reveal that the rate of publication growth (1600%) is very significant to a synergic response of the researchers to combat with the most extended sequence of an RNA virus. Indeed their response has geared up to an average of 100 articles per day. Many scholarly publishers have disclosed their preprint servers to make the publications available immediately, even by enabling Open Access. The scientific contents have published in more than 500 journals from 240 academic publishers. While the top-ten publishers occupied almost 70% of the articles, then about 25% of the studies were sponsored by 300 funding agencies. Among the notable journals Lancet, Nature, BMJ, JAMA, JMV, and NEJM are prominent. Findings also reveal that majority of the contributions have occurred in Medical Science, focusing on virology, immunology, epidemiology, pharmacology, public health, critical care, and emergency medicine. However, the closely associated terms are virus transmission, infection control, asymptomatic, quarantine, pneumonia, human, disease severity, clinical trials, viral pathogenesis, pandemic, risk, and mortality. The study suggests that academic hubs are located mostly in the USA, China, Italy, and the UK. Among the productive institutions; Huazhong Univ (China), Tongji Med. College (China), Harvard Med. School (USA), Univ of Milan (Italy), INSERM (France), UCL (UK) are outstanding. The G7 countries together produced 50% of the global research output on nCov-2. It also noted an encouraging trend of collaborative research across many countries and disciplines, where the values of CI (6.46), DC (0.79), and CC (0.59) are very significant. It examines the geographical diversity of the collaborating authors, thereby visualized their linkages via co-authorship occurrences. Finally, it analyzed the publications' impact to showcase the most influential contributions of the new coronavirus research.
    Keywords:  2019-nCoV; COVID-19; Knowledge mapping; Novel Coronavirus; Quantitative analysis; Research evaluation; SARS-CoV-2; Scientific visualization; Scientometrics
  12. Sci Prog. 2021 Jan-Mar;104(1):104(1): 368504211000509
      Several studies have summarized the biomedical publications in Arab countries. However, the quantity of health-related article publications from universities in recent years in Saudi Arabia is unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to perform a bibliometric analysis that showcases the quantitative health-related article publications output from universities in Saudi Arabia between 2008 and 2017. An extensive literature search was conducted using the PubMed database. The search was limited to original research articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses published in the English language reporting on humans from medicine and health sciences colleges by researchers affiliated with any university in Saudi Arabia between January 2008 and December 2017. A total of 3172 articles were found published between January 2008 and December 2017. The number of publication output increased significantly (p = 0.0027) from 73 (2.3%) in 2008 to 721 (22.7%) in 2017. The highest quantity of publications came from the Riyadh region (n = 2257), specifically King Saud University (n = 1538). Of specific journals, the BioMed Central journals published the most articles by Saudi Arabian researchers (n = 112). The total number of publications increased from 2% to 24.8% by region. However, approximately 80% of the papers were published in journals with an impact factor (IF) <3. Around 3.8% of the papers were published in journals that had an IF ≥6 and has increased significantly (p = 0.030) from 0% to 1.2% in the past decade. The journal with the highest IF that published a high quantity of articles was the American Journal of Human Genetics. This study has identified a continuous significant increase in the publication of health-related articles from universities in Saudi Arabia. This study extended our knowledge of the quantity of scientific productivity in the field of medicine and health sciences over a recent decade.
    Keywords:  Article; bibliometric; health science; impact factor; journal; medicine; publication; university
  13. J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2021 Mar 12.
      INTRODUCTION: The academic impact of open access publications compared with conventional publications in orthopaedic surgery is not well described. The primary objective of this study was to compare the number of academic citations and social media posts between recent conventional and open access publications in orthopaedic surgery. Secondary objectives of this study were (1) to determine the correlation between academic citations and social media posts and (2) to study the trend of academic citations and social media posts over time.METHODS: An internet-based study was performed on 3,720 articles from five high-impact orthopaedic journals and their associated open access journals from March 2017 to February 2019, including 2,929 conventional and 791 open access journal publications. Academic citations were quantified using Google Scholar and Web of Science, and social media mentions using Twitter. The Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparisons of nonparametric data, and the Spearman rank correlation coefficient was calculated for correlations.
    RESULTS: The average number of academic citations per article was 10.1 on Google Scholar and 6.0 on Web of Science. The average number of Twitter posts per article was 1.6. Conventional publications had markedly more citations than open access publications on Google Scholar and Web of Science. Open access publications had markedly more Twitter posts, but the effect size was small and unimportant. Academic citations were weakly correlated with social media posts. On average, orthopaedic publications accrue 7.4 citations per year on Google Scholar and 4.6 citations per year on Web of Science.
    DISCUSSION: Our findings support a citation advantage to conventional publication. Publications in open access journals are cited less frequently and less rapidly compared with those in conventional journals. The use of social media for orthopaedic research is effectively equivalent between conventional and open access journals and continues to grow.
  14. Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol. 2021 Mar 19.
      PURPOSE: Citation analysis has been used to determine the impact of an article in a medical specialty. The purpose of this study was to identify the 50 most cited articles on olecranon fracture outcomes, indications, techniques, procedural descriptions, and complications and analyse their characteristics.METHODS: The Web of Science database was used to search for publications related to olecranon fractures. The top 50 most cited articles that met the inclusion criteria were recorded and reviewed in terms of journal and year of publication, country of origin, type of study, and level of evidence.
    RESULTS: The top 50 articles were cited a total of 2165 times and the year of publication ranged from 1957 to 2014. Of the 50 articles identified, 43 were case series correlating with a Level IV evidence designation. The top 50 articles were published in 20 different medical journals and originated from 18 different countries.
    CONCLUSION: The majority of the articles analysed were uncontrolled case series that reported outcomes and complications surrounding the operative treatment of olecranon fractures. The top 50 most influential articles pertaining to olecranon fractures provides physicians and residency programs with a high-yield list of publications to reference on the topic.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric analysis; Olecranon fractures; Tension band wiring
  15. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2021 Mar 16.
      BACKGROUND: A recent analysis suggested potential narrowing of the gender gap in research productivity in the field of rhinology. This analysis did not, however, provide insight into how the genders are represented in the rhinologic literature. This study aimed to evaluate 11 years of literature to evaluate for gender differences in authorship position, collaborations, category and content of research, citations, and funding to gain perspective on how gender and authorship has changed over time.METHODS: Authorship data for all articles on rhinologic subject matter published between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2018 in four otolaryngology journals was collected. The gender of authors was determined by protocol. Category and content of research and funding status/source were additionally obtained.
    RESULTS: Data were collected from 2666 articles. Gender of 14,510 authors was determined. Female authors accounted for 23% of the overall authors and male authors accounted for 77%. Female first authorship increased significantly over time, but there was no change in female senior authorship. The percentage of female authors steadily increased over time, whereas male authorship decreased slightly. Mixed gender teams were shown to be increasing in frequency. Women published more than expected in basic science and allergy and less than expected in skull base. On funded studies, women were significantly underrepresented as senior authors.
    CONCLUSION: This study represents the first assessment of gender differences in the rhinology literature. Areas where female representation can improve include senior authorship, increased involvement in skull base publications, and increased funding.
    Keywords:  allergy workforce; endoscopic skull-base surgery; rhinology workforce
  16. JCO Glob Oncol. 2021 Mar;7 378-383
      PURPOSE: To examine the trends and quality metrics of publications by radiation oncologists in Saudi Arabia.METHODS: PubMed was searched using names of all Saudi radiation oncologists to retrieve published articles between January 2010 and December 2019. International collaboration, journal impact factor and country of origin, and number of citations were collected. Each article was assessed for epidemiologic type and independently assigned a level of evidence (LOE) by two authors. The trend in publications was examined and compared in the first and second 5-year periods (2010-2014 and 2015-2019) using relevant parameters.
    RESULTS: A total of 186 publications were found and included. The most common type of research was cohort studies followed by case reports and case series in 24%, 14%, and 13% of all publications, respectively. Dosimetry, clinical, and preclinical studies formed 7%, 8.6%, and 7.5% of the total publications, respectively. The LOE was I, II, III, IV, and not applicable in 8.6%, 22%, 25.8%, 29%, and 14.5% of the included publications, respectively. Comparing the first and second 5-year periods, there was an increase in international collaboration (P < .001) in the second period. The number of citations (P < .001) and journal impact factor (P = .028) were lower in the second period. LOE and publications in international journals were not statistically different between the two periods.
    CONCLUSION: Although radiation oncology research activity in Saudi Arabia has gained momentum in terms of volume and international collaboration over time, the LOE has not improved. This calls for a national effort to make the contribution to the literature a priority, allocate adequate resources, and apply appropriate measures to enhance research productivity and quality.
  17. Scientometrics. 2021 Mar 07. 1-17
      The aim of the present study is to identify retracted articles in the biomedical literature (co) authored by Indian authors and to examine the features of retracted articles. The PubMed database was searched to find the retracted articles in order to reach the goal. The search yielded 508 records and retrieved for the detailed analysis of: authorships and collaboration type, funding information, who retracts? journals and impact factors, and reasons for retraction. The results show that most of the biomedical articles retracted were published after 2010 and common reasons are plagiarism and fake data for retraction. More than half of the retracted articles were co-authored within the institutions and there is no repeat offender. 25% of retracted articles were published in the top 15 journals and 33% were published in the non-impact factor journals. Average time from publication to retraction is calculated to 2.86 years and retractions due to fake data takes longest period among the reasons. Majority of the funded research was retracted due to fake data whereas it is plagiarism for non-funded.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; Biomedicine; India; Misconduct; PubMed; Publication ethics; Retractions
  18. J Clin Orthop Trauma. 2021 May;16 219-225
      Background: Spine is a rapidly growing branch with fully-dedicated peer-reviewed journals. Journal impact factor (JIF), speed of publication, and readership are some critical factors affecting the author's choice for submission. This study aimed to find the bibliometric data of spine journals.Method: Fourteen Spine journals in NCBI (National centre for Biotechnology information, USA) database, meeting the inclusion criterion were analyzed for original articles, collected via stratified sampling from each issue of the journal. The dates to submission (DS), acceptance (DA), and publication (DP), study design, corresponding author's details like-subject specialization and country of affiliation were recorded for each original article. Data on JIF, number of issues/years, open access availability (OA), article processing charges (APC) were also retrieved. Correlation and geographic plot were used to display the findings.
    Results: The median (interquartile range) time for submission to publication/total time (TT) in spine journals was 175 (120-313) days with a submission to acceptance time of 107 (66-168) days and acceptance to publication time of 54 (20-170). Fifty-seven percent of the journals had APC, and all had options for OA. A significant correlation was noted between all determinants of publication speed and the Scimago Journal rankings (SJR) (AT: r = 0.238, PT: r = 0.074, TT: r = 0.288, p < 0.001). Amongst the author affiliations, the USA (37.5%) and Japan (18.6%) had the maximum contributions. Furthermore, 57.4% of authors were orthopaedicians, and 14.4% were neurosurgeons. Retrospective and prospective cohort studies were the standard study designs (48% vs. 20.9%), while clinical trials accounted for 5.8%.
    Conclusion: Spine journals had comparable publication speed with other biomedical journals; all spine journals had OA options. Observational study dominates the pattern in spine research. The contribution is mainly from orthopaedician, but the trend is changing towards collaborative research with neurosurgeons.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric; Contribution; Impact factor; Speed of publication; Spine journals
  19. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2021 Mar 05.
      OBJECTIVE: To evaluate trends in the extant literature on mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in military service members and veterans using network analysis based on a comprehensive search of original, peer-reviewed research articles involving human participants published between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2019. Specifically, we employed network analysis to evaluate associations in the following areas: (1) peer-reviewed journals, (2) authors, (3) organizations/institutions, and (4) relevant key words.PARTICIPANTS: Included studies were published in peer-reviewed journals available on Web of Science database, using US military service members or veterans.
    DESIGN: Bibliometric network analytical review.
    MAIN MEASURES: Outcomes for each analysis included number of articles, citations, total link strength, and clusters.
    RESULTS: The top publishing journals were (1) Journal of Head Trauma and Rehabilitation, (2) Military Medicine, (3) Brain Injury, (4) Journal of Neurotrauma, and (5) Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. The top publishing authors were (1) French, (2) Lange, (3) Cooper, (4) Vanderploeg, and (5) Brickell. The top research institutions were (1) Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center, (2) Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, (3) University of California San Diego, (4) Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, and (5) Boston University. The top co-occurring key words in this analysis were (1) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), (2) persistent postconcussion symptoms (PPCS), (3) blast injury, (4) postconcussion syndrome (PCS), and (5) Alzheimer's disease.
    CONCLUSIONS: The results of this network analysis indicate a clear focus on veteran health, as well as investigations on chronic effects of mTBI. Research in civilian mTBI indicates that delaying treatment for symptoms and impairments related to mTBI may not be the most precise treatment strategy. Increasing the number of early, active, and targeted treatment trials in military personnel could translate to meaningful improvements in clinical practices for managing mTBI in this population.
  20. Top Cogn Sci. 2021 Mar 20.
      Is cognitive science interdisciplinary or multidisciplinary? We contribute to this debate by examining the authorship structure and topic similarity of contributions to the Cognitive Science Society from 2000 to 2019. Our analysis focuses on graph theoretic features of the co-authorship network-edge density, transitivity, and maximum subgraph size-as well as clustering within the space of scientific topics. We also combine structural and semantic information with an analysis of how authors choose their collaborators based on their interests and prior collaborations. We compare findings from CogSci to abstracts from the Vision Science Society over the same time frame and validate our approach by predicting new collaborations in the 2020 CogSci proceedings. Our results suggest that collaboration across authors and topics within cognitive science has become increasingly integrated in the last 19 years. More broadly, we argue that a formal quantitative approach which combines structural co-authorship information and semantic topic analysis provides inroads to questions about the level of interdisciplinary collaboration in a scientific community.
    Keywords:  Co-authorship networks; Interdisciplinarity; Multidisciplinarity; Scientometrics; Topic modeling
  21. Environ Anal Health Toxicol. 2021 Mar;36(1): e2021005-0
      Exposure to ambient particulate matter is a major health risk factor for numerous diseases, including those of the cardiovascular and respiratory varieties. The aim of this study was to estimate the latest global research activities regarding particulate matter and health impact. We performed a bibliometric analysis of this field's scientific publication trends over a decade (2009-2018). Publications were retrieved from the Scopus and Web of Science databases using the search terms "particulate matter," "fine particulate matter," "health impact," and their synonyms. The literature on health impact in the research fields of particulate matter (PM10) and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) trended to significantly increase over the decade in consideration. It appears to have been led by researchers of the United States and China. Worldwide research on particulate matter and health effects has focused primarily on respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The precursors to and components of particulate matter (such as nitrogen dioxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, sulfur dioxide, and black carbon) were also popular research topics in this field. Research on children, older adults, and pregnant women, who are most vulnerable to the health effects of air pollution, has increased dramatically over the past 10 years. Our findings provide the information necessary to predict unmet research topics and future research needs.
    Keywords:  PM10; PM2.5; air pollution; particulate matter; public health; publication trends
  22. J Clin Orthop Trauma. 2021 Apr;15 110-116
      During the past decade, there was an increasing interest in orthopedic research in Indonesia. Therefore we aimed to investigate the profile of Indonesian orthopedic trend publication from 2010 to 2019. Systematic research was conducted to identify all orthopedic articles authored by Indonesian orthopedic surgeons. Article details (number of authors, authors' affiliation, publishing journal), type of author's affiliation, affiliate collaboration, study field, type, and level of evidence (LOE) were recorded and evaluated. Publishing journal metric and author h-index were also recorded. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Two hundred and twenty articles were included in our study. Clinical studies were the most common article type, followed by case reports and basic science. Among clinical articles, therapeutic studies were found significantly more frequent. On the other hand, economic studies were not found in this study period. The most popular field was oncology, followed by knee and spine. The average number of authors per article was 5.23 with a total of 205 individuals who had contributed during this decade. University hospital was the most common affiliation found and single-center study was the most common affiliate collaboration. The most common level of evidence was level V (case reports). Eighty-seven specific publishing journals were identified. More than 42% of the articles were published in journals with SJR between 0.25 and 0.50. The average author h-index was 3.56 (0-7). Although there was an increasing trend and quantity of publications among Indonesian authors, most articles had level 5 evidence (case reports) and the quality of publishing journals was mostly Q3 with a low-moderate SJR. Improvement of the article's quality and institutional collaboration will be needed for future contribution in global orthopedic society.
    Keywords:  Bibliographic; Indonesia; Orthopedic article; Publication trend
  23. J Environ Manage. 2021 Mar 15. pii: S0301-4797(21)00384-4. [Epub ahead of print]287 112322
      Heavy metals are a threat against human health. During the last century, with increased industrial activities, many water resources have been contaminated by heavy metals. Meanwhile the number of scientific studies about removing these toxic substances from aqueous environments has increased exponentially. According to bibliometric analysis the number of articles from 2000 to 2019 experienced a 1700% growth rate. China, India and the United States have published the greatest number of top-cited articles on the topic, with China in first place by a large margin. Six clusters of papers (by topic) were identified. From among the processes such as adsorption, membrane filtration, and ion exchange, adsorption has the lion's share of the investigations. Technical and efficiency considerations, as well as environmental impact and cost-effectiveness, were chosen as criteria to compare different methods. According to life cycle assessment, adsorption has the least amount of negative environmental effects compared to other trending methods such as membrane filtration and ion exchange. From a financial viewpoint, utilizing biosorbents and biochars for adsorption are the best options. Unlike other methods which depend on pretreatment processes and have a high energy demand, these sorbents are cost-effective and exhibit acceptable performance.
    Keywords:  Bibliometry; Environmental impact; Heavy metal ions; Scientometrics; Wastewater treatment
  24. Environ Sci Technol. 2021 Mar 16. 55(6): 3453-3464
      Environmental Science & Technology (ES&T) has served a leadership role in reporting advanced and significant research findings for decades and accumulated tremendous amount of high-quality literature. In this study, we developed tailored text mining methods and analyzed 29 188 papers published in ES&T from 2000 to 2019, and we performed data-driven analyses to reveal some critical information and guidance on what has been published, what topical changes have evolved, and what are the areas that deserve additional attention. While top research keywords remained stable (water, sorption, soil, emiss, oxid, exposur), the trending up and emerging keywords showed clear shift over the years. Keywords related to nanobased materials (nanoparticl, nanomateri, carbon nanotub), climate and energy (climat, ch4, greenhouse gas emiss, mitig, energi), and health (exposur, health, ingest) demonstrated the strongest uptrend in the past 10 years, while plastics and PFAS were among clear emerging topics in the past 5 years. Co-occurrence analysis showed distinct associations between media (water, soil, air, sediment), chemicals (pcb, humic subst, particulate matt), processes (sorption, remov, degrad), and properties (kinet, mechan, speciat). Furthermore, a rule-based classification deciphered trends, distributions, and interconnections of articles based on either monodomains (air, soil, solid waste, water, and wastewater) or multidomains. It found water and wastewater cross-discipline articles tended to have higher citation values, while air domain tended to stand alone. Water and air monodomains consistently increased their shares in publications (together 56.3% in 2019), while shares of soil studies gradually declined. This study provides new data-driven methods on literature mining and offers unique insights on environmental research landscape and opportunities.
  25. J Surg Res. 2021 Mar 13. pii: S0022-4804(21)00042-1. [Epub ahead of print]263 251-257
      BACKGROUND: Research output is one element of a multifactorial process that residency programs consider when evaluating applicants. However, there are minimal data assessing research productivity on admittance into research-oriented integrated vascular surgery residency (RO-IVSR) programs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of peer-reviewed research and the RO-IVSR match process.MATERIAL AND METHODS: Vascular surgery residents who matched into an RO-IVSR in 2015-2017 were divided into those matching an RO-IVSR top 10 program versus other. Total publications, first authorships, and type of research were compared between groups. Mann-Whitney U-tests were then performed between discrete levels of research productivity (0-1 versus ≥2 publications) to detect differences in ability to match a top 10 program.
    RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-eight residents published a total of 214 original research articles (83%), 26 case reports (10%), and 19 systematic reviews (7%). There were 66 first authorships (25%). Median total publications at RO-IVSR top 10 versus other programs were 2 versus 1 (P < 0.01). Top 10 IVSR had a significant difference in median publications for all other research categories. The ability to match into a top 10 program by discrete levels of research productivity at 0-1 versus 2+ showed significance (P < 0.05) in all research categories, including total publications, first authorships, and H-index.
    CONCLUSIONS: There was significantly higher research productivity among medical students who matriculate to top 10 IVSR programs. Furthermore, having 2 or more publications significantly increased the likelihood of attending a top 10 program. Thus, top programs likely use an applicants' research productivity as a distinct qualification category and a marker of future success.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric analysis; H-index; Integrated vascular surgery residency; Publications; Research; Residency match
  26. Medicine (Baltimore). 2021 Mar 12. 100(10): e24891
      BACKGROUND: With the evolving specialization of modern medicine, family medicine (FM), also known as general practice, is relatively late in being recognized as a formal specialty in most countries of the world. Because many non-FM specialists were recruited into the new specialty in the early stages of FM specialization, the contents of FM specialty journals might, to an extent, reflect the development of the FM specialization.METHODS: In this study, the voluminous journal, Chinese General Practice, which is regarded as the most representative specialty journal, was chosen and analyzed to illustrate the current situation of FM in China. A total of 878 articles, relating to the journal, Chinese General Practice in 2018, were retrieved from the publisher's web site and the original articles were categorized into FM- and non-FM- related articles by 3 board-certified FM doctors. Furthermore, the first authors, as well as the institutions and regions where the first authors worked, and their related specialties, were also analyzed.
    RESULTS: Of the 634 original articles, 252 (39.7%) articles were FM related. Only 41 FM-related articles were written by authors working at FM departments: 3 at community health service centers, 29 at hospitals, and 9 at universities. Of the 382 non-FM related articles, 159 articles dealt with the topic of internal medicine, followed by traditional Chinese medicine (36), obstetrics and gynecology (28), neurology (27), pediatrics (27), and surgery (21).
    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, FM publications in China in the study year, as exemplified by Chinese General Practice, were mostly contributed by non-FM authors dealing with non-FM topics. A transition to more FM-oriented development might be anticipated in the near future.
  27. Pediatr Res. 2021 Mar 17.
      BACKGROUND: Pediatric research is a diverse field that is constantly growing. Current machine learning advancements have prompted a technique termed text-mining. In text-mining, information is extracted from texts using algorithms. This technique can be applied to analyze trends and to investigate the dynamics in a research field. We aimed to use text-mining to provide a high-level analysis of pediatric literature over the past two decades.METHODS: We retrieved all available MEDLINE/PubMed annual data sets until December 31, 2018. Included studies were categorized into topics using text-mining.
    RESULTS: Two hundred and twenty-five journals were categorized as Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health based on Scimago ranking for medicine journals. We included 201,141 pediatric papers published between 1999 and 2018. The most frequently cited publications were clinical guidelines and meta-analyses. We found that there is a shift in the trend of topics. Epidemiological studies are gaining more publications while other topics are relatively decreasing.
    CONCLUSIONS: The topics in pediatric literature have shifted in the past two decades, reflecting changing trends in the field. Text-mining enables analysis of trends in publications and can serve as a high-level academic tool.
    IMPACT: Text-mining enables analysis of trends in publications and can serve as a high-level academic tool. This is the first study using text-mining techniques to analyze pediatric publications. Our findings indicate that text-mining techniques enable better understanding of trends in publications and should be implemented when analyzing research.
  28. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2021 ;pii: S1679-45082021000100204. [Epub ahead of print]19 eAO6002
      OBJECTIVE: To carry out a scoping review of the meta-analyses published regarding about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), evaluating their main characteristics, publication trends and methodological quality.METHODS: A bibliometric search was performed in PubMed®, Scopus and Web of Science, focusing on meta-analyses about COVID-2019 disease. Bibliometric and descriptive data for the included articles were extracted and the methodological quality of the included meta-analyses was evaluated using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews.
    RESULTS: A total of 348 meta-analyses were considered eligible. The first meta-analysis about COVID-19 disease was published on February 26, 2020, and the number of meta-analyses has grown rapidly since then. Most of them were published in infectious disease and virology journals. The greatest number come from China, followed by the United States, Italy and the United Kingdom. On average, these meta-analyses included 23 studies and 15,200 participants. Overall quality was remarkably low, and only 8.9% of them could be considered as of high confidence level.
    CONCLUSION: Although well-designed meta-analyses about COVID-19 disease have already been published, the majority are of low quality. Thus, all stakeholders playing a role in COVID-19 deseases, including policy makers, researchers, publishers and journals, should prioritize well-designed meta-analyses, performed only when the background information seem suitable, and discouraging those of low quality or that use suboptimal methods.
  29. PeerJ. 2021 ;9 e10927
      Background: Preprints are preliminary reports that have not been peer-reviewed. In December 2019, a novel coronavirus appeared in China, and since then, scientific production, including preprints, has drastically increased. In this study, we intend to evaluate how often preprints about COVID-19 were published in scholarly journals and cited.Methods: We searched the iSearch COVID-19 portfolio to identify all preprints related to COVID-19 posted on bioRxiv, medRxiv, and Research Square from January 1, 2020, to May 31, 2020. We used a custom-designed program to obtain metadata using the Crossref public API. After that, we determined the publication rate and made comparisons based on citation counts using non-parametric methods. Also, we compared the publication rate, citation counts, and time interval from posting on a preprint server to publication in a scholarly journal among the three different preprint servers.
    Results: Our sample included 5,061 preprints, out of which 288 were published in scholarly journals and 4,773 remained unpublished (publication rate of 5.7%). We found that articles published in scholarly journals had a significantly higher total citation count than unpublished preprints within our sample (p < 0.001), and that preprints that were eventually published had a higher citation count as preprints when compared to unpublished preprints (p < 0.001). As well, we found that published preprints had a significantly higher citation count after publication in a scholarly journal compared to as a preprint (p < 0.001). Our results also show that medRxiv had the highest publication rate, while bioRxiv had the highest citation count and shortest time interval from posting on a preprint server to publication in a scholarly journal.
    Conclusions: We found a remarkably low publication rate for preprints within our sample, despite accelerated time to publication by multiple scholarly journals. These findings could be partially attributed to the unprecedented surge in scientific production observed during the COVID-19 pandemic, which might saturate reviewing and editing processes in scholarly journals. However, our findings show that preprints had a significantly lower scientific impact, which might suggest that some preprints have lower quality and will not be able to endure peer-reviewing processes to be published in a peer-reviewed journal.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Crossref; Preprints; Preprints servers; iSearch COVID-19 portfolio
  30. Ambio. 2021 Mar 18.
      A large body of literature exists arguing that numerous, complex factors result in environmental migration. Thus, in order to understand environmental migration, we must investigate how its drivers are defined, explained and interrelated. This study aims to produce a comprehensive analysis of the literature on the drivers of environmental migration and assess future opportunities for studying 'environmental migration'. We conduct a systematic literature search using the keywords 'environmental migration' and 'drivers' in Scopus and Web of Knowledge, analysing 146 publications. The findings are organised as a bibliometric analysis, including network analysis and evaluation of publication metrics. Results show that the literature on environmental migration drivers constitutes a relatively new, growing field largely developed in the USA. It is rooted in the wider environmental migration literature and strongly associated with the discourse of climate change impacts as driving factors. Typologies of 'migrants' are more prevalent than 'refugees' when referring to actors.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; Drivers; Environmental migration; Lexical network; Temporal network; VOSViewer
  31. Ambio. 2021 Mar 14.
      In this perspective, we reflect upon the question: what processes may help transition scientific insights on sustainability issues into practice and thus contribute to tackling the complex, systemic sustainability problems of today? We use five forerunners in the field of providing and brokering knowledge for science informed real world solutions, all published in Ambio and highlighted in this Anniversary collection, as our starting point. We discuss how the authors present solutions, whom they tried to reach, and what was suggested-implicitly or explicitly-as the potential uptake processes for turning scientific knowledge into practice. With this as the starting point, we discuss how sustainability science, as a field vowed to action, has evolved in its views of actors, pathways for impacts, and the potential roles of research and researchers to promote sustainability transformations.
    Keywords:  Co-production of knowledge; Policy entrepreneurship; Solutions-oriented research; Sustainability science; Transdisciplinarity; Usable knowledge
  32. Nature. 2021 Mar;591(7850): S5
    Keywords:  Funding; Government; Institutions; Policy; Publishing
  33. Channels (Austin). 2021 Dec;15(1): 310-321
    Keywords:  Bibliometric; citespace; piezo; vosviewer
  34. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2021 Jan 30. pii: S2212-4403(21)00074-2. [Epub ahead of print] 4568
      OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to estimate the possible number of cancer cases produced during 2019 in US dental offices from radiography, estimate the possible reduction in those rates resulting from use of intraoral rectangular collimation and selection criteria, and determine the frequency and quality of website radiation risk information and informed consent forms.STUDY DESIGN: An analysis of dental radiation examinations in 2014 to 2015 US national survey data, Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends, and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements surveys was performed, in addition to an analysis of 2008 to 2020 Journal of Clinical Orthodontics national orthodontic surveys for radiographic examination frequencies. Lifetime attributable cancer risk estimates from US and European studies were used to generate the total dental and orthodontic office cancer totals. In total, 150 offices were examined online for the quality and frequency of risk information in websites and consent forms.
    RESULTS: The 2019 estimate for all office cancers is 967. Collimation and selection criteria could reduce this to 237 cancer cases. Most cancers arise from intraoral and cone beam computed tomography examinations, with 135 orthodontic cancers over 21 months (average treatment time). Collimation and selection criteria could reduce this to 68. Only 1% of offices use collimators or informed consent for radiography. The website and consent information were of poor quality.
    CONCLUSIONS: Dentists are not following selection criteria or using collimators according to guidelines. Up to 75% of cancer cases could be avoided.
  35. World Neurosurg. 2021 Mar 12. pii: S1878-8750(21)00391-0. [Epub ahead of print]
      INTRODUCTION: Women have now surpassed men in the number of medical students currently enrolled in the United States. Yet, in surgical subspecialties including neurosurgery, women continue to be significantly underrepresented. The objective of this study was to investigate the academic accomplishments of women in academic neurosurgery as measured by academic title, publications and grant funding.METHODS: A list of ACGME accredited neurosurgery departments was utilized and department websites were reviewed to collect data about female and male faculty. Scopus and NIH RePORTER websites were used to collect other variables.
    RESULTS: Women comprise 11.0% of all academic neurosurgeons. Of the 116 neurosurgery residency programs in the United States, 77% have at least one female faculty member. There are 172 academic female neurosurgeons in practice in the U.S currently. Of academic female neurosurgeons, 61% are assistant professors, 21% are associate professors and 18% are professors. Only 20 women hold leadership positions in their departments. Women have an average of 39.7 ± 49.6 publications. The average h-index of academic female neurosurgeons is 12.0 ± 11.1. Twenty-two women have or have had NIH funding with an average cumulative total grant value of $3,409,919. Having NIH funding and more publications is associated with higher academic rank and holding a leadership position. Women have significantly less funding and publications than men.
    CONCLUSION: Women represent younger faculty with expected publication and grant funding productivity. As women continue to advance into more senior positions, the trends for number of publications and grant funding is expected to increase.
    Keywords:  Academics; Female; Neurosurgery; Research; Women; h-index
  36. J Appl Behav Anal. 2021 Mar 19.
      Researchers have examined factors of authors such as sex of author, gender identity, and seniority within the field of behavior analysis to determine if any biases towards a certain group existed. Most recently, Kranak et al. (2020) found that women and new authors are well-represented in the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis (JABA). However, that analysis included only published manuscripts. Thus, the degree to which these subpopulations are proportionally represented is unknown, because that analysis was unable to determine how often these subpopulations are submitting manuscripts. Therefore, the purpose of the current investigation was to extend Kranak et al. and analyze all accepted and rejected manuscripts submitted to JABA from 2015 - 2019. Results indicated that women and men had nearly identical acceptance rates during this time period, whereas veteran authors' acceptance rate was nearly 2.5 times greater than that of new authors. Implications for publishing, reviewing, and research mentorship practices are discussed.
    Keywords:  bias; mentorship; publication; seniority; women and men
  37. Braz J Anesthesiol. 2021 Feb 19. pii: S0104-0014(21)00068-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Publication speed is one of the critical factors affecting authors' preference to a journal for manuscript submission. The publication time of submitted manuscripts varies across journals and specialty.OBJECTIVES: Several bibliometric studies in various fields of medicine, except in anesthesiology, have addressed the issue of publication speed and factors that influence the publication speed. We aimed to identify factors affecting the publication speed of indexed anesthesiology journals.
    METHOD: Overall, 25 anesthesiology journals indexed in MEDLINE database were retrospectively analyzed for the time required during different stages of publication process. A total of 12 original articles published in the year 2018 were randomly selected from each journal based on the number of issues. Time periods from submission to acceptance and from submission to publication were noted, and their association with impact factor (IF), advanced online publication (AOP), and article processing charges (APCs) were evaluated.
    RESULTS: The median time from submission to acceptance and from submission to publication for the selected journals were 120 (IQR [83-167]) days and 186 (IQR [126-246]) days, respectively. Publication speed was not found to have any correlation with IF and APC. However, journals with AOP required significantly lesser time for publication than those without AOP 138.5 and 240 days, respectively, (p =  0.011). Moreover, the IF of journals with AOP was significantly higher than that of journals without AOP (p =  0.002).
    CONCLUSION: The study provides an overview of total time required for peer review, acceptance, and publication in indexed anesthesiology journals. Researchers should focus on journals with AOP for expediting the publication process and avoiding publication delays.
    Keywords:  Anesthesiology; Bibliometric analysis; Journal Impact Factor; Peer review
  38. Laryngoscope. 2021 Mar 18.
      OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: While many students participate in research years or fellowships prior to entering the otolaryngology-head and neck surgery (OHNS) match, the effects of these fellowships on match outcomes remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the impact of research fellowships on odds of matching into OHNS.STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis.
    METHODS: Applications from first-time, US allopathic seniors between the 2014-2015 and the 2019-2020 application cycles were reviewed. Data were abstracted from Electronic Residency Application Service applications and match results determined using the National Residency Matching Program database and online public sources. The relationship between research fellowships and matching was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression.
    RESULTS: Of the 1775 applicants included, nearly 16% (n = 275) participated in research fellowships and 84.1% matched (n = 1492). Research fellows were no more likely to match into OHNS than non-research fellows (86.9% vs. 83.5%, unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.31, P = .161), even when adjusting for applicant characteristics (predicted probability [PP]: 88.8% vs. 85.8%, adjusted OR 1.31, P = .210). For applicants from top 25 medical schools, however, research fellowships were associated with higher odds of matching (PP: 96.5% vs. 90.0%, adjusted OR 3.07, P = .017). In addition, completing a fellowship was associated with significantly greater odds of matching into a top 25 OHNS residency program (PP: 58.6% vs. 30.5%, adjusted OR 3.24, P < .001).
    CONCLUSION: Fellowships may be beneficial for select applicants, though for most, they are not associated with improved odds of matching. These findings provide context for OHNS residency candidates considering research fellowships and should be carefully weighed against other potential advantages and disadvantages of fellowships.
    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: N/A Laryngoscope, 2021.
    Keywords:  Otolaryngology; match; medical student research; research fellowship; research years; residency
  39. BMC Med Educ. 2021 Mar 17. 21(1): 163
      BACKGROUND: Many medical schools and residency programs incorporate research projects into their curriculum, however most remain unpublished. Little is known on the long-term effect of early-career publication, especially in female graduates.METHODS: We collected data on physicians 15-20 years after graduation (representing a mid-career point), and analysed data on early publication, publication volume and impact according to graduates' gender and professional characteristics. Physicians were divided into those who never published, early-publishers (EP) who published within 2 years of graduation and late-publishers (LP). We analysed and compared the demographics, publication volume, publication quality as well as current mid-career position.
    RESULTS: Of 532 physicians, 185 were EP (34.8%), 220 were LP (41.3%), 127 (23.9%) never published, 491 (92.2%) became specialists and 122 (22.3%) achieved managerial position. Of the 405 who published, the average number of publications was 20.3 ± 33.0, and median (IQR) 9(19). H-index was significantly higher in EP, males, surgical specialists, and those holding a managerial position. Male gender was associated with higher publication rate (OR = 1.742; 95% CI 1.193-2.544; P = 0.004). Using quantile regression, female gender was negatively associated with the number of publications in Q50-Q95. Surgical specialty and managerial position were positively associated with publications in Q25 to Q75 and early publication in Q25 and Q75.
    CONCLUSIONS: We found a strong association between EP and the number, impact, and quality of publications throughout their academic career. This study illuminates the need for further investigations into the causes of gender discrepancies. We should invest in support programs encouraging early high quality research projects for young physicians and female graduates.
    Keywords:  Academic success; Gender bias; Interdisciplinary research; Professional development
  40. Cell. 2021 Mar 18. pii: S0092-8674(21)00227-0. [Epub ahead of print]184(6): 1407-1408
      Measuring scientific success has traditionally involved numbers and statistics. However, due to an increasingly uncertain world, more than ever we need to measure the effect that science has on real-world scenarios. We asked researchers to share their points of view on what scientific impact means to them and how impact matters beyond the numbers.