bims-evares Biomed News
on Evaluation of research
Issue of 2021‒01‒03
forty-six papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society


  1. J Oral Rehabil. 2021 Jan 01.
      BACKGROUND: Because of various clinical manifestations and complicated courses, temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) are difficult to treat. Current knowledge about this disease remains insufficient for precise treatment after diagnosis.OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study is to obtain and map the overall literature trends and most cited keywords in TMDs research.
    METHODS: Many indicators, including annual number of publications, country distribution, global cooperations, author contributions, original journals, cited references, and keywords were calculated and evaluated using VOSviewer v.1.6.13, which visualised many results, from the WoSCC database.
    RESULTS: A total of 3121 papers on TMDs research were retrieved from 2010 to 2019. The US produced the most articles published, but the most productive institution was the University of Sao Paulo (Brazil). Researchers and institutions conducting TMDs research have shown a very widespread and close connection. TMDs have been studied worldwide by many research centres. Professor Svensson P was the most published researcher in TMDs research and the Journal of Oral Rehabilitation published the most TMDs research articles. The top cited references mainly presented diagnostic criteria of TMDs. The most cited keywords formed clusters: (1) Anatomical factor of TMDs, (2) Symptoms of TMDs, and (3) RDC/TMD, the risk-factors, biopsychosocial factors, and epidemiology of TMDs.
    CONCLUSIONS: The research results provide very valuable data for a thorough understanding of the research status of TMDs and demonstrated international cooperation.
    Keywords:  VOSviewer; bibliometric analysis; temporomandibular disorders
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/joor.13143
  2. Int J Legal Med. 2021 Jan 02.
      A publically available database of the most highly cited scientists in all disciplines was used to identify people that belonged to the subject category "forensic science and legal medicine." This bibliometric information was derived from Elsevier's SCOPUS database containing eight million scientists with at least five articles as author or co-author. The top 100,000 most highly cited scientists were identified and ranked according to six citation metrics; total number of citations, H-index, H-index adjusted for co-authorship, citations to single-authored papers, citations to single or first author papers and, citations to single, first, or last-authored papers. The eight million entries in the SCOPUS database were sub-divided into 22 main subject categories and 176 sub-categories, one of which was legal and forensic medicine. The citation databases were provided as supplementary material in two articles published in PLoS Biology in 2019 and 2020. Among the top 100,000 most highly cited scientists, there were only 30 allocated to the legal and forensic medicine category, according to the 2019 PLoS Biology article. The updated database from 2020 also included the names of people within the top-cited 2% of their scientific discipline. This increased the number of forensic practitioners to 215 from a total of 10,158 individuals in this subject category. This article takes a closer look at these highly cited forensic scientists, the countries where they work, the particular research field in which they publish, and their composite citation scores with and without self-citations. The top ten most cited individuals in both databases (2019 and 2020) were the same and these should therefore be considered an elite group among all forensic practitioners.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; Citation analysis; Forensic science; Legal medicine; Publications
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00414-020-02491-x
  3. Biochem Med (Zagreb). 2021 Feb 15. 31(1): 010201
      Introduction: The number of research papers and journals each year is increasing and millions of dollars are spent. Despite this there is evidence to suggest that many publications do not impact clinical practice. We used citation analysis to measure the influence of metabolism publications from 2003-2013. Those papers with lower citation rates are likely to be of the least value and high rates of such publications may be a marker of research waste.Materials and methods: We analysed 67 journals with 81,954 articles related to metabolism indexed on the Scopus station database from 2003-2013. We identified those articles with less than 5 citations within 5 years from publication date as poorly cited. Journals were ranked by the percentage of articles that were poorly cited or uncited.
    Results: Over the 10-year period, the number of total articles increased by 127%. We found that 24% of articles were poorly cited within 5 years of publication. Journals in the bottom 25% and top 25% of rankings by citation rates accounted for a similar proportion of poorly cited articles. Most of the open access journals were ranked in the top 25% for citation rates.
    Conclusions: Our analysis contradicts concerns over increasing amounts of publications with little impact. The proportion of poorly cited articles are low, with little change in the trend over 10 years. The top and bottom ranked journals produced similar proportions of poorly cited articles. These findings suggest the necessity of pursuing further research to study waste in metabolism research.
    Keywords:  Scopus; bibliometrics; citation; metabolism; research waste
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.11613/BM.2021.010201
  4. Acta Radiol. 2020 Dec 26. 284185120983269
      BACKGROUND: The characteristics of self-corrected publications have not been fully evaluated.PURPOSE: To evaluate the annual number and characteristics of self-corrected publications in the imaging literature within the last 20 years.
    MATERIAL AND METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (via PubMed) using the following keyword: ("Published Erratum" [Publication Type] OR "Corrected and Republished Article" [Publication Type]) in the imaging literature to identify all self-corrected publications in which initial versions of articles were published during 1999-2018. Extracted data included: date of publication of the original version; date of correction notification; the time interval between initial publication and correction; journal name; journal impact factor (IF); type of articles; number of authors; country of origin; and location of errors. Journals were divided into four quartiles (Q1-Q4) based on their IF.
    RESULTS: A total of 1071 self-corrected publications were identified, representing 0.30% of all papers published in the imaging literature. Trend analysis showed exponential growth of the number and rate of self-corrected publications during 1999-2018. The median (range) time interval from initial publication to correction was 120 days (0-7755 days). The rate of self-corrected publications in Q4 journals (0.17%) was significantly lower than those in Q1 (0.35%, P<0.0001), Q2 (0.26%, P=0.0007), and Q3 (0.30%, P<0.0001) journals. Additionally, 80.8% of self-corrected publications were original articles, 29.2% were from the USA, and 30.7% were corrected for author information (name, affiliation, and email address).
    CONCLUSION: Self-corrected publications in the imaging literature have increased exponentially during 1999-2018 and author information was the most common location of error correction.
    Keywords:  Research; imaging literature; radiology; self-corrected publication
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1177/0284185120983269
  5. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2020 Dec 29. 100(48): 3903-3910
      Objective: To analyze the characteristics and citations of articles in National Medical Journal of China (NMJC) during 2016, and to discuss the academic level and quality of the journal. Methods: All the literature published in NMJC during 2016 were retrieved through the Chinese Medical Citation index, and the citation frequency data in China's core journals of science and technology from January 2017 to December 2018 was obtained through Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China. The citation status of articles published in NMJC was statistically analyzed by the method of literature metrology. The main indicators included the citation rate of articles published in each year, the citation frequency of all articles, the citation status of individual papers and authors, the regional and high-yield institution distribution of cited authors, and the main citation journals. Results: In 2016, a total of 962 articles were published in 22 columns of NMJC. The total number of published pages was 3 940, and the average number of articles was 4.09 pages. A total of 28 key topics have been published. The total citation was 2 077 times, with 2.16 times per paper. Among them, 322 papers were not cited, accounting for 33.47%. The maximum citation frequency of a single paper was 66 times. There were good citations in the columns of Guidelines, Epidemiology, New technology and methods, Clinical research and Editorial. Oncology, neurology/psychiatry, imaging/ultrasound/radiology, respiratory medicine and orthopedics accounted for a large part [40.43% (389 articles)]. Articles in neurosurgery, respiratory medicine, preventive medicine and gastrointestinal surgery were all cited with high frequency (all ≥2.75 times/article). A total of 483(50.21%) articles had obtained fund support, and the rate (68.12%) of them cited was slightly higher than that of articles without fund support (64.93%). A total of 23 articles were cited ≥10 times, and 16 first authors were cited ≥10 times. In addation, 26 corresponding authors were cited ≥10 times and 10 institutions were cited more than 15 times. The authors of the cited papers were distributed in 29 provinces (autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the central government), and there were more articles and higher total citation frequency in Beijing, Shanghai, Jiangsu and Tianjin. From 2017 to 2018, papers published in NMJC were cited 2 077 times by a total of 490 journals. Conclusions: The guidelines published in NMJC is highly cited. The editorial department should adjust the column setting timely, strengthen the planning of key topic selection and the solicitation and publicity of excellent papers, and further improve the influence of the magazine.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; Medicine; Periodicals
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn112137-20201117-03122
  6. Cureus. 2020 Nov 18. 12(11): e11542
      Introduction Retraction of published papers has a far-reaching impact on the scientific world, especially if the retracted papers were published in high-impact journals. Although it has been noted that the retraction rates of journals correlated with their citation metrics, no conclusive data were available for most clinical specialties. In this study, we determined the retraction rate for anesthesia and two comparison groups (neurosurgery and high impact clinical journals). We then studied the correlation of the retraction rate with citation metrics. Methods We generated a list of all anesthesia journals that were indexed in the National Library of Medicine database. We obtained the number of papers published in each journal as well as the number of papers retracted from each. We also collated the Impact Factor® and H-index of each journal. The same methodology was followed for neurosurgery and high impact clinical journals. We then studied the correlations between the retraction rate and citation metrics of each journal. Results The retraction index was 2.59 for anesthesiology, 0.66 for neurosurgery and 0.75 for the high-impact clinical journals group. The retraction rate did not correlate with the citation metrics. However, the number of papers published in each journal and the absolute number of retractions showed a positive correlation with the citation metrics. The H-index showed stronger correlations with these parameters than the Impact factor. Conclusions The number of retractions increased in proportion to both the number of papers published in a journal and the citation metrics of that journal.
    Keywords:  anesthesia; citation metrics; h-index; impact factor; neurosurgery; retraction; retraction index; retraction rate
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.11542
  7. Psychiatr Danub. 2020 Autumn - Winter;32(3-4):32(3-4): 463-471
      BACKGROUND: Within a few months during COVID-19 pandemic, more than a thousand studies on this topic have been published in scientific journals. Hence, the aim of the present study was to review and analyze the publishing trends on mental health literature including top cited documents, productive countries, institutions, journals, authorship and collaboration, the most frequent keywords and funding bodies.METHOD: A bibliometric analysis was performed, and data were retrieved from Scopus. The relevant data was harvested and 277 relevant records were imported on July 15, 2020. The data analysis was performed using various bibliometric software.
    RESULTS: These documents were published by 195 journals and received 738 citations. USA ranked first with 50 articles and China is the most influential country with the highest Citation Impact. International journal of Environmental research and Public Health is the top journal for mental health studies with highest number of papers and citation impact. The trend of multi-author publications has outnumbered single-author pattern.
    CONCLUSION: Overall research shows that most of the papers published related to mental health care and COVID-19 were in the field of medicine and psychology. This research is first bibliometric study in the field of mental health care related to COVID-19.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.24869/psyd.2020.463
  8. J Plast Surg Hand Surg. 2020 Dec 25. 1-10
      Introduction: Bibliometric and altmetric analyses are used to identify landmark publications in their respective research field. We hypothesised that highly cited skin oncology articles correlate positively with the Oxford Evidence Based Medicine scoring level, altmetric score (AS) and rank within the top 100 manuscripts. Methods: Thomson Reuter's Web of Science citation indexing database was searched to identify all English-language skin oncology full-text articles in the last 75 years. The top 100 articles with the highest citation count were analysed by subject matter, publishing journal, author, year, institution, individual and five-year impact factor, AS and Oxford EBM level. Results: 180,132 articles were identified. The most cited article (Hodi et al.) demonstrated improved survival with ipilimumab in patients with metastatic melanoma (7894 citations). The article with the highest AS was Esteva et al. (AS = 576.7, 'dermatologist-level classification of skin cancer with deep neural networks'). No difference was found between evidence level and citation count (r = -0.1239, p = 0.2291), but a significant difference was seen for AS (r = -0.3024, p = 0.0028). AS scores increased over time, whereas bibliometrics did not. Conclusion: This work highlights the most influential work in the skin oncology field in the last 75 years. We have identified a differential relationship between commonly used metrics and evidence level in the field of skin oncology. As the digitalisation of research output and consumption increases, both bibliometric and altmetric analyses need to be considered when an article's impact is being assessed.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; altmetrics; basal cell carcinoma; melanoma; squamous cell carcinoma
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/2000656X.2020.1858842
  9. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(12): e0244423
      BACKGROUND: Propensity score techniques can reduce confounding and bias in observational studies. Such analyses are able to measure and balance pre-determined covariates between treated and untreated groups, leading to results that can approximate those generated by randomized prospective studies when such trials are not feasible. The most commonly used propensity score -based analytic technique is propensity score matching (PSM). Although PSM popularity has continued to increase in medical literature, improper methodology or methodological reporting may lead to biased interpretation of treatment effects or limited scientific reproducibility and generalizability. In this study, we aim to characterize and assess the quality of PSM methodology reporting in high-impact otolaryngologic literature.METHODS: PubMed and Embase based systematic review of the top 20 journals in otolaryngology, as measured by impact factor from the Journal Citations Reports from 2012 to 2018, for articles using PSM analysis throughout their publication history. Eligible articles were reviewed and assessed for quality and reporting of PSM methodology.
    RESULTS: Our search yielded 101 studies, of which 92 were eligible for final analysis and review. The proportion of studies utilizing PSM increased significantly over time (p < 0.001). Nearly all studies (96.7%, n = 89) specified the covariates used to calculate propensity scores. Covariate balance was illustrated in 67.4% (n = 62) of studies, most frequently through p-values. A minority (17.4%, n = 16) of studies were found to be fully reproducible according to previously established criteria.
    CONCLUSIONS: While PSM analysis is becoming increasingly prevalent in otolaryngologic literature, the quality of PSM methodology reporting can be improved. We provide potential recommendations for authors regarding optimal reporting for analyses using PSM.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0244423
  10. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2020 Nov;46(8): 919-931
      A large volume of literature has become available to practitioners prescribing anticoagulants. The aim of this study was to analyze the bibliometric characteristics of the top 100 most cited articles related to anticoagulation over the past 25 years, with special consideration to impact of direct or "nonvitamin K antagonist" oral anticoagulants (NOACs) compared with vitamin K antagonists. A bibliometric analysis of the 100 most cited journal articles related to anticoagulants published between 1994 and 2019 was performed in April 2019. The top 100 articles by citation count were analyzed to extract bibliometric data related to journal title, impact factor, year of publication, place of publication, anticoagulant studied, indication for anticoagulation, study design, and conflicts of interest. The median (interquartile range) number of citations per article was 806 (621-1,085). The anticoagulant most frequently researched was warfarin (37%). NOAC publications (21%) grew at a relative rate of 3.4 times faster compared with all publications. The indication most commonly researched was venous thromboembolism (26%). Eighty articles constituted level I or II evidence, with randomized controlled trials the most common type of study (74). A financial conflict of interest was declared in 87% of articles with private, for-profit organizations the most common source of funding (26%). In summary, top research related to anticoagulation is highly impactful but may be at risk of sponsorship bias. High-level evidence for NOACs continues to expand across a range of indications with citation metrics likely to soon approach or surpass that of older drugs.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1718892
  11. Scientifica (Cairo). 2020 ;2020 5019607
      Publishing original peer-reviewed research is essential for advancement through all career stages. Fewer women than men hold senior-level positions in academic medicine and, therefore, examining publication trends relative to gender is important. The goal of this study was to examine and compare publication trends in The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery (JBJS) and The Bone and Joint Journal (BJJ) with a particular emphasis on trends regarding author gender. Data was collected and analyzed for manuscripts published in JBJS and BJJ over the past 30 years. For manuscripts published in 1986, 1996, 2006, and 2016, we recorded the numbers of authors, manuscript pages, references, collaborating institutions, the position in the byline of the corresponding author, the country of the corresponding author, and the names of the first and corresponding author. We also calculated the normalized number of citations and corresponding author position. The number of authors, institutions, and countries collaborating on manuscripts published in both JBJS and BJJ increased over time. JBJS published more manuscripts from North America and BJJ published more manuscripts from Europe. In both journals, the percentage of women as first and/or corresponding author increased over time. Trends over the past 30 years have shown increased collaborations with greater citations in manuscripts published in JBJS and BJJ. In the same time period, both journals demonstrated a rise in the percentage of manuscripts with women first and/or corresponding authors, suggesting a decrease in the gender gap.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/5019607
  12. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020 Dec 25. pii: S1876-2018(20)30645-6. [Epub ahead of print]55 102532
      The paper examines 1037 publications on bipolar disorder (BD) during the years 2000-19 from India, as listed in the Scopus database. India's publications constituted 2.27 % share of global output (45,624 publications) in the study period of 20 years. India does not figure in the top 10 countries in terms of research output on BD. The number of publications on BD from India increased from 13 in 2000 to 107 in 2019, registering 14.44 % annual average growth, higher than world's growth of 6.02 %. India's 10-year cumulative publications increased from 264 during 2000-09 to 773 during 2010-19, registering 192.8 % absolute growth, much higher than world cumulative growth of 63.27 %. India's publications on BD averaged citation impact per paper of 14.24, which decreased from 25.38 to 10.43 from 2000-09 to 2010-19. Maximum numbers of papers from India on BD were published by researchers from National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore (222 papers),Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh(118 papers), and AII India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (79 papers). Lady Harding Medical College, New Delhi (36.20 and 2.54), Schizophrenia Research Foundation, Chennai (27.45 and 1.93), and King George's Medical University, Lucknow (25.21 and 1.77) were the most significant organizations in terms of citation per paper and relative citation index. Maximum number of papers were published in Indian Journal of Psychiatry (101 papers), followed by Asian Journal of Psychiatry (88 papers) and Indian Journal of Psychology Medicine (34 papers).
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; Bipolar disorders; Indian publications; Scientometric
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102532
  13. Korean J Pain. 2021 Jan 01. 34(1): 82-93
      Background: This study used bibliometric analysis of articles published about the topic of regional anesthesia from 1980-2019 with the aim of determining which countries, organizations, and authors were effective, engaged in international cooperation, and had the most cited articles and journals.Methods: All articles published from 1980-2019 included in the Web of Science database and found using the keywords regional anesthesia/anaesthesia, spinal anesthesia/anaesthesia, epidural anesthesia/anaesthesia, neuraxial anesthesia/anaesthesia, combined spinal-epidural, and peripheral nerve block in the title section had bibliometric analysis performed. Correlations between the number of publications from a country with gross domestic product (GDP), gross domestic product (at purchasing power parity) per capita (GDP PPP), and human development index (HDI) values were investigated with the Spearman correlation coefficient. The number of articles that will be published in the future was estimated with linear regression analysis.
    Results: Literature screening found 11,156 publications. Of these publications, 6,452 were articles. The top 4 countries producing articles were United States of America (n = 1,583), Germany (585), United Kingdom (510), and Turkey (386). There was a significant positive correlation found between the GDP, GDP PPP, and HDI markers for global countries with publication productivity (r = 0.644, P < 0.001; r = 0.623, P < 0.001, r = 0.542, P < 0.001). The most productive organizations were Harvard University and the University of Toronto.
    Conclusions: This comprehensive study presenting a holistic summary and evaluation of 6,452 articles about this topic may direct anesthesiologists, doctors, academics, and students interested in this topic.
    Keywords:  Anesthesia; Anesthesiologists; Bibliographies as Topic; Bibliometrics; Conduction; Epidural; Gross Domestic Product; Nerve Block; Publications; Spinal
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3344/kjp.2021.34.1.82
  14. Ann Surg. 2020 Dec 18. Publish Ahead of Print
      INTRODUCTION: Surgical researchers seek to publish their findings in esteemed surgical journals to advance science and their careers. A detailed investigation of study and manuscript attributes in a specific research area, like pancreatic neoplasia, may yield informative insights for researchers looking to maximize research impact.OBJECTIVES: We analyzed publications related to pancreatic surgery primarily focused on pancreatic and periampullary tumors in order to identify elements associated with acceptance into high impact journals and a high likelihood of future citations.
    METHODS: A comprehensive review of nine surgical journals was performed between 2010-19. Journals were grouped based on impact factor into high (>3), medium (1-3) and low (<1) impact categories. Each publication was annotated to identify study topic, methodology and statistical approach. Findings were compared according to journal impact and number of citations to identify predictors of success across these two domains.
    RESULTS: A total of 1,044 out of 21,536 (4.8%) articles published in the index journals were related to pancreatic tumors. The most common focus of study was perioperative outcomes and complications (46.7%). There was significantly more number of authors, participating institutions, countries, and randomized clinical trials in higher impact journals as well as high-cited articles (p<0.05). Though advanced statistical analysis was used more commonly in high-impact journals (p<0.05), it did not translate to higher citations (p>0.05).
    CONCLUSION: Pancreatic neoplasia continues to be extensively studied in surgical literature. Specific elements of study methodology and design were identified as potentially key attributes to acceptance in high impact journals and citation success.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004670
  15. SAGE Open Med. 2020 ;8 2050312120953285
      Background: Biomedical research and publications provide evidence-based information about the extent and burden of health-related problems of a country and help to formulate strategic and operational plans to tackle the problems.Purpose: To determine the biomedical publication rates of CARICOM full member countries.
    Methods: Biomedical publications of full member CARICOM countries were retrieved using PubMed (1990-2015) and SCImago Journal & Country Rank (1996-2015) databases. CARICOM countries having >50 publications in the PubMed (1990-2015) database were subject to further analysis, whereby publications of each country were adjusted by total population (million population), gross domestic product (billion-dollar), and Internet usage rate (hundred thousand population).
    Results: Total publications by all countries were 7281 and 8378 in PubMed and SCImago Journal & Country Rank, respectively. Jamaica produced highest number of publications (PubMed: 3928 (53.9%); SCImago Journal & Country Rank: 2850 (34.0%)). In both databases, Grenada had the highest research publications when adjusted with per million population (4721 and 10,633), per billion gross domestic product (803 and 1651), and per hundred thousand Internet users (1487 and 3387). Trend analysis revealed Jamaica produced the highest number of additional PubMed listed publications each year, averaging 4.8/year, followed by Trinidad and Tobago (4.4). According to SCImago Journal & Country Rank, Jamaica also had the highest number of citations (42,311) and h-index (76), followed by Trinidad and Tobago (29,152 and 71). Barbados had the highest number of citations per document (24.9), followed by Haiti (18.4). The publication rates determined by PubMed and SCImago Journal & Country Rank databases were significantly correlated (p < 0.001). Most publications (68% SCImago Journal & Country Rank and 85% PubMed) can be attributed to authors affiliated with Barbados, Jamaica, and Trinidad.
    Conclusion: Publication and citation rates varied markedly between CARICOM countries and were in general low. Most publications could be attributed to researchers affiliated with The University of the West Indies. More universities valuing biomedical research are needed in the region, and more resources needed to improve publication rates.
    Keywords:  Biomedical publications; CARICOM countries; PubMed; SCImago Journal & Country Rank; disparity; research productivity
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1177/2050312120953285
  16. Glob Health Action. 2021 Jan 01. 14(1): 1855694
      Background: Over the past decade, the political movement called 'Revolución Ciudadana' implemented a variety of policies and interventions (P&I) in Ecuador to improve higher education and strengthen local research capacity. We refer specifically to the 'Mandato 14' and the Higher Education Law (LOES, Spanish acronym) launched in 2008 and 2010, respectively. Objective: To assess the impact of these P&I (Mandato 14/LOES) on the production of health sciences-related articles (HSRA), and the relationship of these HSRA with the country's health priorities. Methods: A Scopus search was performed to retrieve HSRA published from 1999 to 2017. Bivariate analysis was used to assess variation between the period I (1999-2008) and period II (2009-2017). Further, we examined the association between the top 10 causes of mortality and the total HSRA output. Results: The final study sample consisted of 2784 articles. After 2008, Ecuadorian production of HSRA increased steadily from 671 to 2133 publications (p<.001). Overall (1999-2017), the most common study design was cross-sectional (32.3%), the primary research focus was in the clinical-surgical area (49.3%), and the academic institutions were the primary drivers of scientific production during period II (56.9% vs. 29.5%, p<.001). Further, we found a decrease in the production of randomized controlled trials (6.7% vs. 1.8%, p<.001). Only 9% of research production involved the primary causes of mortality, and the proportion has remained unchanged over time (8.2% vs. 9.3%, p>.05). Conclusions: Ecuadorian HSRA output increased significantly after 2008. This larger volume of scientific output could be the result to the Mandato 14/LOES implemented in the last decade. However, a low percentage of HSRA are dedicated to addressing the country's health priorities. Proper planning, execution and monitoring of national health research agendas would reduce the mismatch between health burden and the HSRA output in Ecuador and other low-and middle-income countries.
    Keywords:  Ecuador; National health research system; bibliometric analysis; biomedical research; health research policy; policy analysis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/16549716.2020.1855694
  17. Arthroscopy. 2021 Jan;pii: S0749-8063(20)30788-X. [Epub ahead of print]37(1): 69-70
      The Thomson Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science database was used to rank the top 50 articles regarding rotator cuff repair by number of citations received. Although the number of citations is a useful benchmark, it must be taken as only one of many indices of the value of an article to the study of orthopaedics. The most cited articles are out of date, reflecting that a longer time in publication allows more time for citation, and most have low levels of evidence (Level IV, retrospective case series absent a control group).
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arthro.2020.09.027
  18. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2020 ;29(4): 681-689
      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe and analyze the research outputs on enteral nutrition, which is the administration of food through the gastrointestinal tract for nutrition maintenance.METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We searched the Web of Science Core Collection database for original publications on enteral nutrition research from 2010 to 2019. HistCite and VOSviewer software were used for analysis and visualization of the publication outputs, journals, institutions, keywords, cocitations, and collaborations among authors in different countries or regions.
    RESULTS: A total of 963 relevant articles were included. The number of publications in 2010 and 2019 were 68 and 139, respectively. Nutrition in Clinical Practice and the Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition had the highest number of publications and cocitations (76, 7.89%; 2058), respectively. The United States and China were the top contributors, accounting for 24.1% and 22.3% of the total articles, respectively. Andrew S. Day and Stephen A. McClave were core researchers in this field. Primary authors collaborated closely. Enteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition, and support were the three most common keywords. The top 10 cocited references concerned administering early enteral nutrition therapy in acutely ill patients and patients with acute Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease, acute pancreatitis, upper gastrointestinal malignancy, and other surgical diseases were among the research hotspots.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings can help researchers identify notable research trends and clinically relevant articles. New catheterization technologies are a future research direction.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.6133/apjcn.202012_29(4).0002
  19. Epilepsy Behav. 2020 Dec 21. pii: S1525-5050(20)30856-8. [Epub ahead of print]115 107676
      The Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía "Manuel Velasco Suárez" (INNN) is one of the main institutions in Latin America treating epilepsy; and bibliometric analysis has an increasing role in analyzing the literature, acting as a Google Maps of medical research. We tracked the scientific output in Scopus and the impact of the institution from its foundation to July 2020 in the field of epilepsy. We roughly separated this group by clinical and experimental approach, identifying core journals, type of article, increase with time, and number of citations. A total of 228 papers, from a total of 3,034 produced by the INNN in that period, were found. Additionally, we identified that neurocysticercosis, pharmacology, genetics, and proteins involved in epilepsy were the most investigated topics. Also, there is a sustained growth in the number of papers per year since 1985. The number of authors per paper ranges from one to 15, and neuroscience journals are the preferred target of researchers, with a predilection for "Epilepsy and Behavior".
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; Epilepsy; Medical research; México; Public health systems research; SCOPUS
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yebeh.2020.107676
  20. Neurol Sci. 2021 Jan 02.
      OBJECTIVE: Scientific productivity is relevant to support clinical activity, improve therapeutic strategies, and understand the pathophysiological mechanisms of neurological disorders. We performed an updated bibliometric research to assess the country-specific relationship between neurological scientific production and socio-economic variables of dedicated resources.METHODS: Neurological scientific productivity of 168 countries, from 1996 to 2019, was obtained using the SCImago online website. Data on gross domestic product (GDP), percentage of GDP spent in research and development, and number of researchers per million people were obtained using the World Bank Group website.
    RESULTS: The USA was the first country in terms of documents produced (260,030), followed by Germany (69,841), Japan (65,200), the UK (60,914), and Italy (50,017). Except for Japan, all the most productive countries had an increase in scientific productivity in the last 12 years. In 2019, the USA still ranked first in the number of neurological papers published, followed by Germany, the UK, Italy, and Japan. Among the most productive countries, Canada and Japan did not increase the percentage of GDP spent in research over time. Except for Canada and Japan, all the most productive countries increased the number of researchers in the last years.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis provided novel evidence of the adequacy of the scientific return on country-specific investment of local dedicated resources.
    Keywords:  Gross domestic product; Neurology; Science; Scientific production
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10072-020-04893-6
  21. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2020 Dec 15.
      This paper assesses the research literature on OFC in LMIC over the last decade across various geographical settings and project focus of the indexed literature. A scoping review of the indexed literature was performed using a set of predefined keywords. The articles were filtered by a ten-year time frame (2010-2019) and a strict inclusive-exclusive criterion. Two authors screened the titles/abstracts/full text of the final included papers and input the desired data (year of publication, type of publication, geographical country/region and project focus to a coded spreadsheet). Six hundred and twenty publications were inventoried from the indexed literature on OFC in LMIC settings over the 10-year period. Five hundred and eighty-three derived from single LMIC countries and 37 from multi-settings. More than half of the articles were reported from Asia (57%), then from Americas (22.8%), Africa (15.4%) and the rest from cross-regional, Europe and Oceania (4.9%). The top 3 LMIC contributors towards OFC publications were China (21.5%), Brazil (13.1%) and India (11.6%). The most discussed OFC project themes were prevalence, surgical repair, aetiology and genetics. This study helps OFC researchers, humanitarian missions and research grant funders to identify gaps in the literature on issues impacting on children and adults born with OFC, in which issues were subjected to research and which were less explored in which LMIC regions. In addition, this study offers recommendations for established OFC researchers and international research bodies to identify areas of deficiency in the literature and what information is required to support LMIC governments achieve SDGs by 2030.
    Keywords:  cleft lip; cleft palate; low- and middle-income countries; orofacial cleft; scoping review
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/ocr.12458
  22. Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi. 2020 Dec 25. 37(6): 1012-1024
      With the increasing global burden of various cancer, an abundance of papers emerged every year in the research hotspots of oncology, covering a wide range of research types and topics. In order to facilitate interested readers to quickly grasp the frontier and hotspots of cancer research, it would be helpful to sort out and summarize the research topic in a timely manner. According to the classification of disciplines, we screened the Essential Science Indicators (ESI) hot papers released in 2019 for the ones in the oncology field, utilized methods such as bibliometrics, statistical description, hierarchical induction, analysis and interpretation to further reveal the context and characteristics of research in the field of oncology, summarized the latest progresses and future directions in the field, and provided information and hints for the trajectory of future research. A total of 549 papers were included, which were mainly from the field of clinical medicine; the country with the most publications was the United States, while China ranked the fourth in terms of contribution; the research institution with the highest number of published papers was University of Texas system; N Engl J Med published the most papers, with contribution also from highly influential journals in the field of oncology such as Lancet Oncol, J Clin Oncol, JAMA Oncol and Cancer Discov. Oncology remained the most popular research topic in the medical research and spanned a wide spectrum of sub-topics. In this study, we demonstrated and sorted out research frontiers in the field of oncology in 12 different research directions including the basic cancer research, cancer epidemiology, and various tumors types related to different systems and organs.
    Keywords:  bibliometric analysis; oncology; research hotspot
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7507/1001-5515.202009083
  23. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2020 Dec 28. pii: S0901-5027(20)30437-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      This study was performed to assess changes over time in the quality of research in oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) by examining the level of evidence of published articles. A secondary aim was to determine the relationship of the journal impact factor to these levels of evidence. The four major OMS journals with an impact factor were assessed. Articles published in 2017 and 2018 were categorized based on their level of evidence, and their correlation with the 2019 journal impact factor was investigated using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho). The total number of published articles increased by a factor of 2.4 over a 15-year period, from 932 in 2002-2003 to 2253 in 2017-2018. The percentage of articles increased by 1.0% for level I evidence, 3.4% for level II, 8.2% for level III, and 4.1% for level IV. Non-evidence articles reduced by 16.7%. All journals showed an increase in impact factor, and a significant correlation was noted between the proportion of published higher-level evidence articles and the impact factor over time (rho=0.811, P=0.001). It is concluded that OMS journals currently display a higher proportion of good quality articles leading to a better impact factor than 15 years ago.
    Keywords:  bibliometrics; evidence-based medicine; journal impact factor; randomized controlled trial; systematic review
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijom.2020.11.021
  24. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2020 Dec 30. 1055665620982783
      BACKGROUND: The characteristics that predispose plastic surgeons to a career in pediatric plastic surgery remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the characteristics of current pediatric plastic surgeons and to determine their academic productivity.METHODS: Pediatric plastic surgeons were identified through an internet search of all academic children's hospitals affiliated with an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited integrated or independent plastic surgery program. Demographics, training background, institutional and leadership positions, and academic productivity were determined.
    RESULTS: A total of 304 pediatric plastic surgeons were identified. The majority of pediatric plastic surgeons were white (n = 217, 71.8%) males (n = 235, 77.6%). Clinical fellowships were completed by 86.8% (n = 263) of the cohort, with craniofacial (n = 181, 59.7%) being the most common followed by hand (n = 54, 17.8%); 41.1% had clinical fellowship training at 10 institutions, with the top 3 most represented programs being University of Pennsylvania (n = 19, 6.2%), University of California-Los Angeles (n = 16, 5.3%), and Harvard University (n = 15, 4.9%); 25.7% (n = 78) held leadership positions within their institutions. A significant higher academic productivity was found among research fellowship-trained surgeons, chiefs of pediatric plastic surgery, fellowship directors, and members of departments of plastic surgery. Those who completed an independent residency had a significant higher H-index and number of citations.
    CONCLUSION: Pediatric plastic surgery is represented by surgeons of diverse training background. An elite cohort of programs has trained the most pediatric plastic surgeons. Lastly, high academic productivity was found to be correlated with certain demographic and leadership variables highlighting its impact on career advancement.
    Keywords:  academics; career; characteristics; pediatric; plastic surgeons; productivity
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1177/1055665620982783
  25. Front Psychiatry. 2020 ;11 611489
      The term "alexithymia" was introduced in the lexicon of psychiatry in the early '70s by Sifneos to outline the difficulties manifested by some patients in identifying and describing their own emotions. Since then, the construct has been broadened and partially modified. Today this describes a condition characterized by an altered emotional awareness which leads to difficulties in recognizing your own and others' emotions. In half a century, the volume of scientific products focusing on alexithymia has exceeded 5,000. Such an expansive knowledge domain poses a difficulty for those willing to understand how alexithymia research has developed. Scientometrics embodies a solution to this issue, employing computational, and visual analytic methods to uncover meaningful patterns within large bibliographical corpora. In this study, we used the CiteSpace software to examine a corpus of 4,930 publications on alexithymia ranging from 1980 to 2020 and their 100,251 references included in Web of Science. Document co-citation analysis was performed to highlight pivotal publications and major research areas on alexithymia, whereas journal co-citation analysis was conducted to find the related editorial venues and disciplinary communities. The analyses suggest that the construct of alexithymia experienced a gradual thematic and disciplinary shift. Although the first conceptualization of alexithymia came from psychoanalysis and psychosomatics, empirical research was pushed by the operationalization of the construct formulated at the end of the '80s. Specifically, the development of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale, currently the most used self-report instrument, seems to have encouraged both the entrance of new disciplines in the study of alexithymia (i.e., cognitive science and neuroscience) and an implicit redefinition of its conceptual nucleus. Overall, we discuss opportunities and limitations in the application of this bottom-up approach, which highlights trends in alexithymia research that were previously identified only through a qualitative, theory-driven approach.
    Keywords:  affect regulation; alexithymia; citespace; co-citation analysis; emotional processing; science mapping; scientometric review; systematic review
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.611489
  26. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2020 Dec 30. 1-36
      Purpose : Individuals with visual impairments and blindness who are marginalized in healthcare systems are located at the intersection of low accessibility for healthcare services and health-related information. To uncover recent trends in vision healthcare research, this study employed a text mining approach to literature analysis. Methods : A total of 506 journal articles published between January 2000 and April 2020 were collected from the Web of Science database. To investigate the main research themes and evolving trends, bibliometric and hierarchical cluster analyses were performed using R software. Results : Although the number of articles per year fluctuated in the past two decades, the findings of this study indicate a growing interest in visual impairment healthcare research. The United States contributed 32.3% to the overall output followed by the United Kingdom (16.7%). The prolific journals were Ophthalmic Epidemiology (4.7%), British Journal of Ophthalmology (4.4%), and JAMA Ophthalmology (3.4%). By using a hierarchical clustering algorithm, the 10 main research topics were estimated. Conclusions : Given the increasing prevalence of visual impairment in an aging society, an understanding of the current knowledge structure in scientific literature is essential for innovating on the existing healthcare system. The results of this study can guide researchers to discover the unexplored research areas and provide new directions for future work.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; blindness; cluster analysis; healthcare disparities; review literature as topic; vision disorders
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2020.1863993
  27. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Dec 18. 99(51): e23801
      OBJECTIVES: To clarify the styles used in background sections of systematic reviews (SR) and to identify which styles if any were related to the publication in high-impact-factor (HIF) medical journals.METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study for original SR articles published in top 50 journals in MEDICINE, GENERAL & INTERNAL category in Journal Citation Reports 2018. We randomly included 90 articles from top 10 HIF journals and 90 from others, respectively. We conducted a content analysis to classify the background styles. We assessed the factors associated with the publication in HIF journals.
    RESULTS: We found 6 categories. We defined 6 categories as follows: Update of prior SR, New in scope than prior SR, Higher quality than prior SR, Completely new SR, Limitations of primary studies only, and Not presenting unknown in prior SR or primary studies. All 6 categories were not related to the publication in HIF journals.
    CONCLUSIONS: We found 6 categories of styles in background sections of SR, none of which however were related to publication in HIF journals. SR authors may wish to use any of these categories to communicate the importance of their research questions.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000023801
  28. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Dec 29. pii: E196. [Epub ahead of print]18(1):
      China has enacted numerous green building policies (GBPs) to promote green building (GB) development in the past decades. Investigating the evolution characteristics of China's GBPs is significant for the future optimization of the GBP system. However, few studies on this topic have been conducted. To bridge this research gap, this paper adopted the methods of bibliometric analysis and text mining to probe the dynamic evolution of the GBPs in China. Firstly, a total 199 collected policies from 1986 to 2019 were grouped into five stages according to the Five-Year Plan. Then, the topics emphasized in different stages and the cooperative relationships among policymaking agencies were discovered by mapping and visualizing the co-word network and co-author network. Based on the derived results, an in-depth discussion was further conducted from five aspects: targets, objects, instruments, GB performance indicators, and the collaboration structure of policymaking agencies. It was revealed that the topics of GBPs evolved from macro to specific, and the types of policy targets, objects, instruments, and GB performance indicators evolved from few to multiple. Additionally, the collaboration structure of policymaking agencies went from dispersive to centralized. This study sheds lights on the dynamic evolution of China's GBPs and provides valuable references for other countries in need.
    Keywords:  China; bibliometric analysis; green building; policy evolution; text mining
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010196
  29. Brain Sci. 2020 Dec 21. pii: E1018. [Epub ahead of print]10(12):
      Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is conceived as a neurodevelopmental disorder. The scientific literature welcomes studies that reflect the possible singularities that people with ASD may present both in their daily lives and at an educational level. The main objective of this study is to analyze the scientific production on the term autism in Web of Science, focused on the educational field, in order to identify the research trends in this field of study. The intention is to offer researchers who study autism in the educational field some clear research directions. A bibliometric-type methodology was developed using the scientific mapping technique. For this purpose, a performance analysis and a co-word analysis were carried out. Work was conducted with an analysis unit of 5512 documents. The results show that the volume of production has been irregular from the beginning to the present. The collection of documents on the subject began to be relevant, in terms of the volume of production, from 2007, and this has persisted to the present. It is concluded that there are two lines of research. The first is the line focused on mothers of children with ASD and the second is the line of research focused on young people with ASD. In addition, since 2012, new lines of research have been generated, focused on the diagnosis and inclusion of these students in educational centers.
    Keywords:  SciMAT; Web of Science; autism; bibliometric analysis; scientific mapping
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10121018
  30. Scientometrics. 2020 Dec 17. 1-25
      Forecasting is one of the methods applied in many studies in the library and information science (LIS) field for numerous purposes, from making predictions of the next Nobel laureates to potential technological developments. This study sought to draw a picture for the future of the LIS field and its sub-fields by analysing 97 years of publication and citation patterns. The core Web of Science indexes were used as the data source, and 123,742 articles were examined in-depth for time series analysis. The social network analysis method was used for sub-field classification. The field was divided into four sub-fields: (1) librarianship and law librarianship, (2) health information in LIS, (3) scientometrics and information retrieval and (4) management and information systems. The results of the study show that the LIS sub-fields are completely different from each other in terms of their publication and citation patterns, and all the sub-fields have different dynamics. Furthermore, the number of publications, references and citations will increase significantly in the future. It is expected that more scholars will work together. The future subjects of the LIS field show astonishing diversity from fake news to predatory journals, open government, e-learning and electronic health records. However, the findings prove that publish or perish culture will shape the field. Therefore, it is important to go beyond numbers. It can only be achieved by understanding publication and citation patterns of the field and developing research policies accordingly.
    Keywords:  Disciplinary differences; Forecasting; Library and information science; Sub-field analysis; Time series analysis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-020-03800-2
  31. Ann Thorac Surg. 2020 Dec 27. pii: S0003-4975(20)32175-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Thoracic surgery (TS) residency positions are in high demand. There is no study describing the nation-wide attributes of successful matriculants in this specialty. We examined the characteristics of TS resident applicants and identified factors associated with acceptance.METHODS: Applicant data from 2014-2017 application cycles was extracted from the Electronic Residency Application System and stratified by matriculation status. Medical education, type of general surgery residency, and research achievements were analyzed. The number of peer-reviewed publications and the corresponding impact factor for the journals where they were published were quantified.
    RESULTS: There were 492 applicants and 358 matriculants. The overall population was primarily male (79.5%), white (55.1%), educated at U.S. allopathic medical schools (66.5%), and trained at university-based general surgery residencies (59.6%). Education at U.S. allopathic schools (OR = 2.54, p <0.0001), being a member of AOA (OR = 3.27, p = 0.021), general surgery residency affiliation with a TS residency (OR = 2.41, p=0.0003 ) or National Cancer Institute designated Comprehensive Cancer Center (OR = 1.76, p = 0.0172), and being a first time applicant (OR = 4.71, p < 0.0001) were independently associated with matriculation. Matriculants published a higher number of manuscripts than non-matriculants (median of 3 vs. 2, p <0.0001) and more frequently published in higher impact journals (p < 0.0001).
    CONCLUSIONS: Our study includes objective and quantifiable data from recent application cycles and represents an in-depth examination of applicants to TS residency. Type of medical school and residency, as well as academic productivity correlate with successful matriculation.
    Keywords:  Thoracic surgery; applicant; characteristics; matriculant; residency; training
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.12.017
  32. Semin Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2020 Dec 24. pii: S1043-0679(20)30428-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding has declined among cardiothoracic surgeons. R01 grants are a well-known mechanism to support high-impact research, and we sought to clarify the association between NIH funding and academic achievement. We hypothesized that cardiothoracic surgeons who acquired R01 funding exhibit greater research output and faster career advancement. All cardiothoracic surgeons (n=992) working at accredited United States cardiothoracic surgery training hospitals in 2018 were included. Institutional webpages, Scopus, and Grantome were utilized to collect publicly-available data regarding each surgeon's training and career history, research publications, and NIH funding. 78 (7.9%) surgeons obtained R01 funding as a principal investigator, while 914 (92.1%) did not. R01-funded surgeons started their attending careers earlier (1998 vs 2005, p<0.0001) and were more likely to have pursued dedicated research training (p<0.0001). R01-funded surgeons authored 5.3 publications/year before their first R01 grant, 9.3 during the grant period, and 8.6 after the grant expired, all of which were greater than the publication rate of non-R01-funded surgeons at comparable career timepoints (2.0-3.0 publications/year, p<0.0001). Among time-matched surgeons who completed medical school in 1998 or earlier (n=73 R01-funded vs n=602 non-funded), R01-funded surgeons have published more total publications (178.0 vs 56.5 papers, p<0.0001) and exhibit a greater H-index (41.0 vs 19.0, p<0.0001). R01-funded surgeons have also advanced to higher academic ranks (p<0.0001) and are more likely to be chiefs of their departments or divisions (42.5% vs 25.7%, p=0.0035). Cardiothoracic surgeons who obtain R01 funding exhibit greater research productivity and faster career advancement.
    Keywords:  R01; academic; career; funding; productivity
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semtcvs.2020.12.002
  33. BMC Med Genomics. 2020 Dec 28. 13(Suppl 11): 189
      This editorial summarizes eight research articles included in this supplement issue for the 2020 International Conference on Intelligent Biology and Medicine (ICIBM 2020) conference, that was held on August 9-10, 2020 (virtual conference), with a topic on data-driven analytics in biomedical genomics. These articles cover a wide range of topics in medical genomics that focus on integrative analysis of genomics data together with other types of data toward understanding complex human diseases, including cancer. With the growing importance of data analytics in biomedical science, we expect this collection of research articles provides scientific discussions in this direction.
    Keywords:  Gene regulation; Genomics; Human diseases; Integrative analysis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12920-020-00833-7
  34. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(12): e0235058
      INTRODUCTION: Differences in academic qualifications are cited as the reason behind the documented gender gap in industry sponsorship to academic plastic surgeons. Gendered imbalances in academic metrics narrow among senior academic plastic surgeons. However, it is unknown whether this gender parity translates to industry payments.METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of industry payments disbursed to plastic surgeons in 2018. Inclusion criteria encompassed (i) faculty with the rank of professor or a departmental leadership position. Exclusion criteria included faculty (i) who belonged to a speciality besides plastic surgery; (ii) whose gender could not be determined; or (iii) whose name could not be located on the Open Payment Database. Faculty and title were identified using departmental listings of ACGME plastic surgery residency programs. We extracted industry payment data through the Open Payment Database. We also collected details on H-index and time in practice. Statistical analysis included odds ratios (OR) and Pearson's correlation coefficient (R).
    RESULTS: We identified 316 senior academic plastic surgeons. The cohort was predominately male (88%) and 91% held a leadership role. Among departmental leaders, women were more likely to be an assistant professor (OR 3.9, p = 0.0003) and heads of subdivision (OR 2.1, p = 0.0382) than men. Industry payments were distributed equally to male and female senior plastic surgeons except for speakerships where women received smaller amounts compared to their male counterparts (median payments of $3,675 vs $7,134 for women and men respectively, p<0.0001). Career length and H-index were positively associated with dollar value of total industry payments (R = 0.17, p = 0.0291, and R = 0.14, p = 0.0405, respectively).
    CONCLUSION: Disparity in industry funding narrows at senior levels in academic plastic surgery. At higher academic levels, industry sponsorship may preferentially fund individuals based on academic productivity and career length. Increased transparency in selection criteria for speakerships is warranted.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0235058
  35. Postgrad Med J. 2020 Dec 30. pii: postgradmedj-2020-139422. [Epub ahead of print]
      
    Keywords:  medical education & training; qualitative research
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-139422
  36. HSS J. 2020 Dec;16(Suppl 2): 366-371
      Background: Observational studies constitute the majority of the orthopedic literature, each type distinct in terms of what it can and cannot measure. Case-control studies select participants based on outcome status, not exposure status, and therefore differ from other observational studies in their aims, limitations, and conclusions. Misclassification of a different kind of study as a case-control study can lead to misinterpretation of the data and misreporting of its level of evidence (LOE), either "overselling" or "underselling" its importance.Questions/Purposes: We sought to answer three questions: (1) How frequently do studies reported to be orthopedic case-control studies actually reflect other study designs? (2) What factors might be associated with misclassification? (3) How does study design misclassification affect LOE reporting?
    Methods: A bibliometric analysis was performed to identify all studies published in 75 orthopedic journals over a one-year period (January 2017 through December 2017) that included the term "case-control" in the title, abstract, or main text. We identified the proportion of studies that were misclassified as "case-control" in design and recorded the associated changes in reported LOE. We also examined associations between study misclassification (and by extension LOE misclassification) and the study specialty, journal specialty, and journal impact factor.
    Results: Of 339 studies that reported a case-control design, 227 (67%) were misclassified and reflected other study designs. The study designs most often misclassified as case-control designs were retrospective cohort studies (n = 97; 43%) and cross-sectional studies (n = 88; 39%). The frequency of misclassification was associated with the subspecialty of the journal and the impact factor but not the study subspecialty. After correction of the LOE in the misclassified studies that reported an LOE (n = 193), it was found that 28 (15%) had underreported their LOE, and eight (4%) had overreported their LOE.
    Conclusions: Studies reported in the orthopedic literature to have a case-control design frequently have another study design, and this pattern is consistent across subspecialties. Enhanced rigor in accurately defining study designs in orthopedics could be achieved through training and stricter review processes.
    Keywords:  bibliometric; case–control study; level of evidence; misclassification
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11420-020-09753-9
  37. World Neurosurg. 2020 Dec 20. pii: S1878-8750(20)32636-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: This study's aim is to provide the status of women neurosurgeons (WNS) with academic faculty and/or leadership positions in neurosurgery (NS) in the United States (US).METHODS: NS academic programs were defined as having an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) neurosurgery residency program (NSRP). Using a Google search, gender, academic rank, postgraduate degree(s), academic and clinical title(s), and subspecialty were recorded for each neurosurgery faculty. The officer gender was recorded for the top seven NS US organizations, seven subspecialty sections, and the 50 US NS State Societies.
    RESULTS: WNS were faculty at 89/115 (77%) of ACGME NSRP and constituted 10% of the workforce (186/1773). WNS residents were present at 92% of ACGME NSRP and constituted 19% of the workforce (293/1515). Two NSRP (8%) had neither WNS faculty (WNSF) nor WNS residents. NSRP without WNSF had a size >10 faculty in 13/25 (52%). WNS NSRP Chair accounted for 3%. WNSF academic rank was lower than man (p<.05). WNSF had a higher number of postgraduate degrees (p<.05). Pediatrics was the most common sub-specialty (30%). Over time, WNS held 1% of the leadership positions within the top seven US NS organizations and 7% within the seven subspecialty sections. Over the past 20 years, 14/50 (28%) US State NS Societies had a WNS President.
    CONCLUSIONS: In 2020, the gender gap for US WNS faculty and residents still exist. By providing informed benchmarks, our study might help NS organizations, medical school leadership, hiring committees, editors and conference speakers to plan their next steps.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.12.069
  38. Am Surg. 2020 Dec 27. 3134820966282
      BACKGROUND: Academic achievement is an integral part of the promotion process; however, there are no standardized metrics for faculty or leadership to reference in assessing this potential for promotion. The aim of this study was to identify metrics that correlate with academic rank in hepatopancreaticobiliary (HPB) surgeons.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Faculty was identified from 17 fellowship council accredited HPB surgery fellowships in the United States and Canada. The number of publications, citations, h-index values, and National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding for each faculty member was captured.
    RESULTS: Of 111 surgeons identified, there were 31 (27%) assistant, 39 (35%) associate, and 41 (36%) full professors. On univariate analysis, years in practice, h-index, and a history of NIH funding were significantly associated with a surgeon's academic rank (P < .05). Years in practice and h-index remained significant on multivariate analysis (P < .001).
    DISCUSSION: Academic productivity metrics including h-index and NIH funding are associated with promotion to the next academic rank.
    Keywords:  academic rank; h-index; hepatopancreaticobiliary surgery
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1177/0003134820966282
  39. Br J Sports Med. 2020 Dec 24. pii: bjsports-2020-103146. [Epub ahead of print]
      
    Keywords:  implementation; methodology; orthopaedics; research; sport
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2020-103146
  40. BMJ Open. 2020 Dec 21. 10(12): e037269
      OBJECTIVES: To analyse the relationship between first author's gender and ethnicity (estimated from first name and surname), and chance of publication of rapid responses in the British Medical Journal (BMJ). To analyse whether other features of the rapid response account for any gender or ethnic differences, including the presence of multiple authors, declaration of conflicts of interests, the presence of Twitter handle, word count, reading ease, spelling and grammatical mistakes, and the presence of references.DESIGN: A retrospective observational study.
    SETTING: Website of the BMJ (BMJ.com).
    PARTICIPANTS: Publicly available rapid responses submitted to BMJ.com between 1998 and 2018.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Publication of a rapid response as a letter to the editor in the BMJ.
    RESULTS: We analysed 113 265 rapid responses, of which 8415 were published as letters to the editor (7.4%). Statistically significant univariate correlations were found between odds of publication and first author estimated gender and ethnicity, multiple authors, declaration of conflicts of interest, the presence of Twitter handle, word count, reading ease, spelling and grammatical mistakes, and the presence of references. Multivariate analysis showed that first author estimated gender and ethnicity predicted publication after taking into account the other factors. Compared to white authors, black authors were 26% less likely to be published (OR: 0.74, CI: 0.57-0.96), Asian and Pacific Islander authors were 46% less likely to be published (OR: 0.54, CI: 0.49-0.59) and Hispanic authors were 49% less likely to be published (OR: 0.51, CI: 0.41-0.64). Female authors were 10% less likely to be published (OR: 0.90, CI: 0.85-0.96) than male authors.
    CONCLUSION: Ethnic and gender differences in rapid response publication remained after accounting for a broad range of features, themselves all predictive of publication. This suggests that the reasons for the differences of these groups lies elsewhere.
    Keywords:  epidemiology; health economics; health informatics; health policy; medical education & training; statistics & research methods
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037269
  41. Paediatr Child Health. 2020 Dec;25(8): 554-555
      
    Keywords:  Academic medical centre; Education; Research
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/pch/pxaa095
  42. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(12): e0244611
      Scholars traditionally receive career credit for a paper based on where in the author list they appear, but position in an author list often carries little information about what the contribution of each researcher was. "Contributorship" refers to a movement to formally document the nature of each researcher's contribution to a project. We discuss the emerging CRediT standard for documenting contributions and describe a web-based app and R package called tenzing that is designed to facilitate its use. tenzing can make it easier for researchers on a project to plan and record their planned contributions and to document those contributions in a journal article.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0244611
  43. Am J Emerg Med. 2020 Dec 17. pii: S0735-6757(20)31156-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2020.12.037