bims-evares Biomed News
on Evaluation of research
Issue of 2020‒12‒06
33 papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society


  1. Med Educ. 2020 Dec 01.
    Madden C, O'Malley R, O'Connor P, O'Dowd E, Byrne D, Lydon S.
      CONTEXT: Gender bias has been observed in the authorship and editorship of academic literature in varied medical specialties. This is important as peer-reviewed publications, and participation on editorial boards, are closely related to academic productivity and advancement. The aim of this paper was to examine whether gender-based disparities in authorship and editorship exist in leading medical education journals.METHODS: A retrospective bibliometric review was conducted of articles published at eight different timepoints across a 49-year time period (specifically:1970, 1980, 1990, 2000, 2005, 2010, 2015 and 2019) in four leading medical education journals (Academic Medicine, BMC Medical Education, Medical Education, and Medical Teacher). First and last (as a proxy for senior) author gender was determined for each article, along with the gender of the 2019 editorial board members of each journal. Chi-square tests for trend were conducted to examine variations in author gender distributions over time, and binomial tests of proportions were conducted to examine gender distributions in authorship and editorship in 2019. Logistic regression analyses were carried out to determine factors that predicted the odds of female authorship.
    RESULTS: A total of 5,749 articles were included. A significant trend of increased women as first and last authors was observed across all journals. The percentage of women first authors increased from 6.6% in 1970 to 53.7% in 2019 (p<.001), and women last authors increased from 9.5% in 1970 to 46% in 2019 (p<.001). Overall, the distributions of women first authors, last authors, and editorial board members in 2019 indicated greater gender parity than many other fields of medicine.
    CONCLUSIONS: Positive progress towards gender parity has been made in medical education scholarship. However, future research and efforts are needed to ensure the continued participation, and highlighting, of women in medical education scholarship and to address other factors which may hinder academic advancement for women in this field.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.14427
  2. World J Urol. 2020 Dec 02.
    Reichelt AC, Suarez-Ibarrola R, Herrmann TRW, Miernik A, Schöb DS.
      PURPOSE: To perform a bibliometric analysis of lased-based BPH treatment publications and to obtain an understanding of the publication trends over time.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Medline database was searched for articles in English language regarding laser-based BPH therapy up to 2018. Matching articles were assigned to at least one of the following categories: Ho:YAG, Tm:YAG, green light, diode, Nd:YAG laser and review articles. The laser categories were analysed using bibliometric procedures regarding citation rate, authors, country of origin and journal of publication. Moreover, the articles on laser BPH therapy included in the EAU, AUA and JUA guidelines were analysed to evaluate the most influential articles.
    RESULTS: In total, 982 articles were included: 317 articles were assigned to green light, 283 to Ho:YAG, 101 to Tm:YAG, 74 to Nd:YAG and 39 to diode lasers. The publication rate for Nd:YAG laser has declined, but continues to grow for Ho:YAG and Tm:YAG lasers. We found a positive correlation between number of authors and year of publication (R = 0.3, p < 0.001*). Articles on Ho:YAG lasers are cited the most (mean 23.0 ± 37.1). Asia has contributed the most articles. Mostly, countries with high health and research and development (R&D) expenditures influenced the guidelines regarding laser-based approaches. Yet, after adjustment of all search results to GDP, health and R&D expenditure, India and China were the most prolific countries.
    CONCLUSION: Laser-based approaches for BPH treatment are increasing but have not been implemented worldwide. Asia's contribution should be acknowledged. An inflationary trend regarding the number of authors per article is confirmed.
    Keywords:  Benign prostatic hyperplasia; Bibliometrics; Laser; Publication trends
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00345-020-03532-1
  3. AIMS Neurosci. 2020 ;7(4): 389-400
    Hossain MM.
      Background: Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) is a rare neuropsychiatric condition characterized by distorted visual perceptions, body schema, and experience of time. A global overview of research on AIWS can inform future developments and clinical practice in this field. This bibliometric study aimed to analyze the characteristics of the global research landscape on AIWS.Methods: Bibliometric data on AIWS related publications published until 2019 were retrieved from the Web of Science database. The data were analyzed using statistical and scientometric tools to evaluate the publication trends, key research domains, top contributing journals, institutions, and countries associated with AIWS-related research.
    Results: A total of 125 published items were analyzed with a mean of 3 authors and 8.15 citations per document. Most articles were published after 2008, in medical journals focused on neuropsychiatric sciences, and most institutions affiliated with AIWS research were based on high-income countries. Major research domains associated with AIWS included visual disturbances, body image, migraine, infections, risk factors, and other clinical correlates. Several overarching domains were identified; however, clinical research on diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of AIWS is relatively limited.
    Conclusion: The current research landscape informs a developing trend in AIWS research in selected regions and specialties. Future research should emphasize multidisciplinary and translational investigations on clinical and epidemiological areas through global collaborations that may advance the knowledge and practice on AIWS.
    Keywords:  Alice in Wonderland syndrome; Todd's syndrome; bibliometrics; neuroscience; pediatric neurology
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3934/Neuroscience.2020024
  4. J Vector Borne Dis. 2019 Oct-Dec;56(4):56(4): 281-287
    Satish S, Vasna J.
      Dengue fever is common in tropical and subtropical countries of the world and its present impact is 30 times more than what it was 50 yr ago. The aim of the study was to analyze the research output/publications on dengue across the world as well as in India, using the Web of Science database. Literature search was done using the keyword 'dengue' in the title field to find global and Indian publications on dengue from 1 June 1997 to 20 July 2018. Bibliometric analysis was done on the basis of the magnitude of research output; year, type and language of publications; citations and h-index, impact factor, keywords, most productive institutes etc. Descriptive analysis was performed using MS Office, Word Cloud Generator and SPSS software. The analysis of the records obtained indicated that globally 11,742 articles were published on dengue during the period of 21 yr of which 1114 were Indian. The country with highest number of publications was United States (3449; 29.37%) while India ranked third (1114; 9.48%). Majority of the published articles where in the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene (1366; 11.63%) and the leading journal in India was Indian Journal of Medical Research (56; 5.02%) followed by the Journal of Vector Borne Diseases (42; 3.77%). The most productive Institute at global level was 'Mahidol University, Thailand' while in the Indian context it was 'All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi'. The elevated metrics of citation, impact factor, and h-index are based on the magnitude of scientific research outputs. Increasing trend in the number of publications over the years both globally as well as in India indicates overall growth in dengue research. Even though it is a good sign of productivity it is still significantly related to the magnitude of occurrence of dengue cases across the globe. Further, it is a good indication that the scientific community is dynamic and responding well in bringing out the regional scenarios to the public for health promotion.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric analysis; India; Web of science; dengue; global
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.4103/0972-9062.302029
  5. Polymers (Basel). 2020 Nov 29. pii: E2848. [Epub ahead of print]12(12):
    Khan AS, Ur Rehman S, AlMaimouni YK, Ahmad S, Khan M, Ashiq M.
      This study aimed to investigate the current state of research on antibacterial dental adhesives. The interest in this field can be drawn from an increasing number of scholarly works in this area. However, there is still a lack of quantitative measurement of this topic. The main aim of this study was to consolidate the research published on the antibacterial adhesive from 1996 to 2020 in Web of Science indexed journals. The bibliometric method, a quantitative study of investigating publishing trends and patterns, was used for this study. The result has shown that a gradual increase in research was found, whereby a substantial increase was observed from 2013. A total of 248 documents were published in 84 journals with total citations of 5107. The highly cited articles were published mainly in Q1 category journals. Most of the published articles were from the USA, China, and other developed countries; however, some developing countries contributed as well. The authorship pattern showed an interdisciplinary and collaborative approach among researchers. The thematic evaluation of keywords along with a three-factor analysis showed that 'antibacterial adhesives' and 'quaternary ammonium' have been used commonly. This bibliometric analysis can provide direction not only to researchers but also to funding organizations and policymakers.
    Keywords:  Web of Science; antibacterial adhesives; bibliometric analysis; bonding agents; dental adhesives; healthcare; mapping review
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12122848
  6. J BUON. 2020 Sep-Oct;25(5):25(5): 2322-2331
    Goksoy B, Bozkurt H.
      PURPOSE: Bibliometric and Altmetric analyse the most influental publications and provide important perspectives regarding article impact. The Altmetric Score (AS) is an automatically calculated metric for monitoring social media attention. The hypothesis is that would citation number correlate positively with AS?METHODS: Gastric cancer as a search term was entered into Thomson Reuter's Web of Science database to identify articles in the last decade. The 50 most cited articles were analysed by topic, journal, author, year, and AS.
    RESULTS: By bibliometric criteria, it was observed that there were 63,154 articles published in the literature on gastric cancer in the last decade. The most cited article was made by Bang et al for the treatment of HER2-positive advanced gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction cancer. The study with the highest altmetric score was published by Bass et al and described the molecular evaluation of gastric cancer as part of the cancer genome atlas. The majority of the top 50 most cited article types were original scientific papers (n=39). The highest number of publications was published in the Journal of Clinical Oncology (n=9) and the most contributing country was the United States (n=22). Positive correlation was detected between the number of citations and AS. We revealed a negative correlation between AS and numbers of years since publication of the article.
    CONCLUSION: The remarkable result of this study is that both the citation and AS of the articles provide important but different viewpoints.
  7. World Neurosurg. 2020 Nov 25. pii: S1878-8750(20)32472-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    Grogan D, Reddy V, Gupta A, Chang YF, Fields D, Agarwal N.
      BACKGROUND CONTEXT: The assessment of academic physicians should utilize field-independent publication metrics to measure improvement of grant outcomes, promotion, and continued evaluation of research productivity. Publication metrics such as the author-level h-index are often used to evaluate and compare research productivity in academia. The h-index, however, is not a field-normalized statistic and has been criticized as inappropriate for comparison of authors from different fields. For example, fields such as internal medicine have a larger audience and thus afford publications a higher likelihood of increased citations compared to a perhaps equally impactful paper in a smaller field such as neurosurgery. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) has developed a new, field-normalized article-level metric called the relative citation ratio (RCR) that can be used to more accurately compare author productivity between fields. The spinal subspecialty represents a special subset of the neurosurgical field with a designated fellowship and distinct differences in the RCR metrics. The authors look to analyze the unique results found in the academic spinal surgeon RCR values compared to all academic neurosurgeons.PURPOSE: The assessment of academic physicians should utilize field-independent publication metrics to measure improvement of grant outcomes, promotion, and continued evaluation of research productivity. Here, we provide an analysis of RCR indices for 358 academic spine neurosurgeons in the United States, including the mean RCR of each author's total publications and the weighted RCR, which is the sum of all an author's publication-level RCR values. We further assess the impact of gender, career duration, academic rank, and PhD acquisition on the RCR scores of U.S. academic spinal neurosurgeons.
    STUDY DESIGN: Literature review METHODS: The mean RCR is a total citations per year of a publication divided by average citations per year received by NIH-funded papers in the same field. A value of 1 is the normal NIH-funded standard. iCite database searches were performed for all physician faculty members affiliated with ACGME-accredited neurological surgery programs who have sub-specialized in spine as of November 1, 2019. Gender, career duration, academic rank, additional degrees, total publications, mean RCR, and weighted RCR were collected for each individual. RCR and weighted RCR were compared between variables to assess patterns of analysis.
    RESULTS: A total of 358 fellowship-trained academic spine surgeons from 125 institutions were included in the analysis. Neurological spine surgeons had exceptionally research productivity, with a median RCR of 1.38 [IQR = 0.94 - 1.95] and a weighted median RCR of 25.28 [IQR = 6.87 - 79.93]. Overall, gender and academic rank were associated with increased mean RCR and weighted RCR values. Career duration and PhD acquisition were not. All subgroups analyzed had an RCR value above 1.0, with professor-level faculty or department chair having the highest mean and weighted RCR values overall.
    CONCLUSIONS: Current academic spine neurosurgeons have high median RCR values relative to the NIH standard RCR value of 1.0. Relative to the field of neurological surgery overall, RCR values for the spinal subspecialty are comparable. These data offer a more accurate means for self-evaluation of academic neurosurgeons as well as evaluation of faculty by institutional and departmental leaders.
    Keywords:  Citations; National Institutes of Health; Physician Productivity; Relative Citation Ratio; Spine Surgery
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.11.097
  8. Poult Sci. 2020 Dec;pii: S0032-5791(20)30646-5. [Epub ahead of print]99(12): 6503-6512
    Bertran K, Cortey M, Díaz I.
      Identifying which diseases represent a priority is crucial to optimize resources for diagnostics, control, and prevention. Here, the impact of 111 poultry pathogens belonging to Viruses (n = 31), Bacteria (n = 33), and Other (n = 47) was assessed using the H-index. The overall mean H-indexes suggested that poultry Viruses have statistically greater impact than Bacteria, which in turn are statistically more relevant than Others. Among the 20 highest H-indexes, 45% were zoonotic, and almost a third was Office International des Epizooties-listed. Avian influenza virus (H-index 127), Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium (H-index 72), and Eimeria spp (H-index 70) ranked the highest in Virus, Bacteria, and Other, respectively. Pathogens that produce overt clinical diseases and economic damage, cause immunosuppression, and/or are zoonotic had the highest H-index scores. The evolution of citations of particular pathogens reflected severe poultry outbreaks and/or zoonotic outbreaks in relatively wide geographic areas. Also, the evolution of citations based on taxonomic groups mirrored major changes in poultry production practices and management throughout history. Thus, Others were the most cited pathogens until the 1970s and, following 3 decades of unpopularity because of widespread use of intensive production practices, regained importance in the 2000s thanks to welfare regulation changes. Citations for Bacteria increased especially from the 1990s onward, probably because of the ban of growth promoters in western countries and the need to find new control methods for bacterial and protozoal infections. In general, countries with the greatest poultry production and research budgets had higher research production, that is the United States of America (USA) and China. Interestingly, the United Kingdom was among the top research producers despite falling behind other countries in poultry production and research budget. Moreover, the USA exhibited the strongest poultry research production based on number and diversity of publications (Dcos-index). In conclusion, the H-index could be a valid, simple tool to prioritize funding or interest in poultry diseases, especially when used as a preliminary selection approach in combination with other metrics.
    Keywords:  H-index; pathogen; poultry
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.09.017
  9. Acta Biomed. 2020 11 30. 91(12-S): e2020005
    Vitale E, Moretti L, Notarnicola A, Di Dio F, Rifino F, Moretti B.
      BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE WORK: Women graduated and engaged in the scientific world are in increasing numbers. The present study aimed to analyze the gender difference in nursing scientific publication and to understand the trend in nursing science is the same or different to that reported in other scientific disciplines.METHODS: We considered the first name in the authorship of the highest impacted factor journals related of year 2019 in the Web of Science database for the period 2015-2019, as: the International Journal of Nursing Studies (IJNS) and the Nursing Outlook (NO). Considering the proposed economic classification of the "World bank", weassessed the gender of the first authors searched with the relative degree of wealth of their countries thanks to the chi square test.
    RESULTS: From 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2019 a total of 1171 first authors were identified. Of these, 776 (66.27%) belonged to the IJNS and 395 (33.73%) to the NO. The female gender was most representative than the male gender into two journals. In fact, 982 (83.9%) citations belong to female researchers while 189 (16.1%) citations belong to male researchers. However, the same trend is not evaluated in the Italian scenario where the male gender predominates over the female one in scientific production.
    CONCLUSIONS: Nursing scientific production shows a counter trend compared to other scientific disciplines, highlighting a predominance of the female sex over the male one. This difference is more pronounced in the more economically developed countries.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.23750/abm.v91i12-S.9583
  10. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2020 Dec 02. 102(23): e131
    Xu RF, Varady NH, Chen AF.
      BACKGROUND: Despite efforts to address gender disparities in medicine, female representation in orthopaedics lags behind that of other fields, and little work has evaluated gender disparities within the subspecialty of arthroplasty surgery. The objective of this study was to analyze female authorship trends in arthroplasty research from 2002 to 2019.METHODS: Articles published from 2002 to 2019 in 12 clinical orthopaedic and arthroplasty journals were extracted from PubMed. Articles that provided the full name of the first author and contained the terms "arthroplasty," "hip replacement," "knee replacement," or "joint replacement" in the title and/or as keywords were analyzed. The gender of the author was determined with the validated Genderize algorithm, and publication trends were analyzed over time. Descriptive and comparative statistics were computed, and logistic regression was used to evaluate gender trends.
    RESULTS: From 2002 to 2019, 14,692 articles met the inclusion criteria, and the gender of 63,628 authors was identified. There were 23,626 unique authors; 4,003 (16.9%) were women and 19,623 (83.1%) were men. Female involvement in arthroplasty publications increased from 11.1% in 2002 to 12.6% in 2019 (p < 0.001), and the percentage of female first authors increased from 5.0% in 2002 to 11.3% in 2019 (p < 0.001). Critically, however, the proportion of women as senior authors significantly declined from 8.5% in 2002 to 6.2% in 2019 (p < 0.001). From our analysis of U.S. publications with physician senior authors, the proportion of female senior authors remained relatively stable from 1.7% in 2002 to 2.4% in 2019 without a significantly increasing trend (p = 0.88). Overall, on average, women published a mean (and 95% confidence interval) of 1.9 ± 0.1 publications, while men published 2.9 ± 0.1 publications (p < 0.001). The proportion of female senior authors in arthroplasty publications (6.6%) was lower than that of other orthopaedic subspecialties such as sports medicine (9.2%), spine (13.6%), and foot and ankle (13.1%).
    CONCLUSIONS: While overall female representation and first authorship in arthroplasty literature have increased over time, the paucity of women in senior author roles remains troubling. Future studies should examine why the proportion of women publishing in arthroplasty remains lower than that in most other orthopaedic subspecialties.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2106/JBJS.20.00258
  11. Entropy (Basel). 2019 Jul 15. pii: E694. [Epub ahead of print]21(7):
    Li W, Zhao Y, Wang Q, Zhou J.
      Entropy, founded in 1999, is an emerging international journal in the field of entropy and information studies. In the year of 2018, the journal enjoyed its 20th anniversary, and therefore, it is quite reasonable and meaningful to conduct a retrospective as its birthday gift. In accordance with Entropy's distinctive name and research area, this paper creatively provides a bibliometric analysis method to not only look back at the vicissitude of the entire entropy topic, but also witness the journal's growth and influence during this process. Based on 123,063 records extracted from the Web of Science, the work in sequence analyzes publication outputs, high-cited literature, and reference co-citation networks, in the aspects of the topic and the journal, respectively. The results indicate that the topic now has become a tremendous research domain and is still roaring ahead with great potentiality, widely researched by different kinds of disciplines. The most significant hotspots so far are suggested as the theoretical or practical innovation of graph entropy, permutation entropy, and pseudo-additive entropy. Furthermore, with the rapid growth in recent years, Entropy has attracted many dominant authors of the topic and experiences a distinctive geographical publication distribution. More importantly, in the midst of the topic, the journal has made enormous contributions to major research areas, particularly being a spear head in the studies of multiscale entropy and permutation entropy.
    Keywords:  CiteSpace; bibliometrics; co-citation; entropy; hotspots
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/e21070694
  12. Front Neurol. 2020 ;11 984
    Zhong D, Luo S, Zheng L, Zhang Y, Jin R.
      Objective: This study aimed to review the research status and to demonstrate the hot spots and frontiers of epilepsy and circadian rhythm via CiteSpace. Method: We searched Web of Science (WoS) for studies related to epilepsy and circadian rhythm from inception to 2020. CiteSpace was used to generate network maps about the collaborations between authors, countries, and institutions and reveal hot spots and frontiers of epilepsy and circadian rhythm. Results: A total of 704 studies related to epilepsy and circadian rhythm from the WoS were retrieved. Sanchez-Vazquez FJ was the most prolific author (17 articles). The USA and University of Murcia were the leading country and institution in this field with 219 and 22 publications, respectively. There were active collaborations among the authors, countries, and institutions. Hot topics focused on the interaction between epilepsy and circadian rhythm, as well as possible novel treatments. Conclusions: Based on the results of CiteSpace, the current study suggested active cooperation between authors, countries, and institutions. Major ongoing research trends include the circadian rhythm of epilepsy based on different epileptic focus and the interaction between epilepsy and circadian rhythm, especially through melatonin, sleep-wake cycles, and clock genes, which may implicate possible treatments (such as chronotherapy, neural stem cells transplantation) for epilepsy in the future.
    Keywords:  CiteSpace; bibliometrics; circadian rhythm; epilepsy; review; visualization analysis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.00984
  13. Eur J Public Health. 2020 Nov 29. pii: ckaa199. [Epub ahead of print]
    Spaak M, Cipriano M, Alla F, Benamouzig D.
      BACKGROUND: We aimed to identify the knowledge producers, the knowledge that they produce and the main areas of interest for health services research (HSR) in France, which is one of the priorities for public health research planning.METHODS: A two-phase approach comprising a bibliometric analysis and semi-structured interviews with 20 researchers and 13 staff members of public health bodies was used.
    RESULTS: In France today, interdisciplinary research teams are being organized in the main cities despite a lack of critical mass. The interviews showed that the term 'health services research' is vague with fuzzy boundaries between research, scientific expertise and evaluation. A keyword cluster analysis showed that French HSR is more hospital-centric compared to those countries that publish most frequently. The analysis also revealed a lack of research on methodological aspects.
    CONCLUSIONS: We analyzed the structure of HSR in France and the specificity of the French publications in this field, compared with other countries. The results indicate the obstacles faced by researchers and decision-makers and offer insight into how these barriers may be removed.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/ckaa199
  14. Int J Med Inform. 2020 Nov 10. pii: S1386-5056(19)30989-X. [Epub ahead of print]145 104330
    Pai RR, Alathur S.
      PURPOSE: The purpose of this research is to analyze the literature published on mobile health (mHealth) in the Indian context. It also reviews the most important research works and presents various methodologies adopted by the researchers in this domain.DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The SciVerse SCOPUS database was used for extracting the literature on mobile health. The study used articles published between January 2008 to 28th June 2019. The keyword used is 'mHealth' and journal articles with studies or interventions carried out in India were selected for bibliometric analysis and methodological review.
    FINDINGS: For the keyword search, a total of 7,874 documents have been extracted, of which only 158 have been considered for the analysis. There is an exponential increase in the number of publications from the year 2015 to 2019. The keywords used for representing their articles have been grouped as mobile health devices, gender and age groups, system and software, health and disease condition, management, evidence-based practices (outcome), methods, and importance of the study. The journal PLOS One (87) has the highest number of citations, followed by The Lancet (63). The bibliometric analysis of the literature revealed seven clusters classified as individual's individual's mobile health applications adoption characteristics, need for mobile health and its governance, mobile phone application with the internet of things based framework for healthcare monitoring, mobile health for primary healthcare systems, authentication and security protocol for mobile healthcare, development and experimentation of mobile health application, and development and mobile health for adherence support intervention.
    ORIGINALITY/VALUE: The study contributes in analyzing the bibliometrics and provides a methodological review for the journal articles published on mobile health. Previous articles considered systematic analysis of the bibliometric for mHealth, and mobile technology but less adequately discussed specifically towards Indian context which this study has embraced.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric analysis; India; Maternal and child health; Mobile health; Smartphone; Vosviewer
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2020.104330
  15. JAMA Netw Open. 2020 Dec 01. 3(12): e2027104
    Jia Y, Huang D, Wen J, Qureshi R, Wang Y, Rosman L, Chen Q, Robinson KA, Gagnier JJ, Ehrhardt S, Celentano DD.
      Importance: Duplicate publications of randomized clinical trials are prevalent in the health-related literature. To date, few studies have assessed the interaction between duplicate publication and the language of the original publication.Objective: To assess the existence of duplicate publication and the extent to which duplicate publication is associated with the language of the original publication.
    Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective cohort study, eligible randomized clinical trials were retrieved from trial registries, and bibliographic databases were searched to determine their publication status. Eligible randomized clinical trials were for drug interventions from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2014. The search and analysis were conducted from March 1 to August 31, 2019. The trial registries were either primary registries recognized by the World Health Organization or the Drug Clinical Trial Registry Platform sponsored by the China Food and Drug Administration.
    Exposures: Individual randomized clinical trials with positive vs negative results.
    Main Outcomes and Measures: Journal articles were classified as main articles (determined by largest sample size and longest follow-up among all journal articles derived from that randomized clinical trial) and duplicates. The duplicates were classified into 4 types: (1) unreferenced subgroup analysis (article did not disclose itself as a subgroup analysis or reference its main article); (2) unreferenced republication (article did not disclose itself as a replicate of the main article or reference it); (3) unreferenced interim analysis (article did not disclose itself as an interim analysis or reference its main article); and (4) partial duplicate (article did not disclose its sharing a subset of participants with other articles or reference them).
    Results: Among 470 randomized clinical trials published by August 2019 as journal articles, 55 (11.7%) had 75 duplicates, of which 53 (70.7%) were cross-language duplicates. Of the 75 duplicates, 33 (44.0%) were unreferenced republications, 25 (33.3%) unreferenced subgroup analyses, 15 (20.0%) unreferenced interim analyses, and 2 (2.7%) partial duplicates. When the main article of a randomized clinical trial was published in Chinese, those with positive findings were 2.48 (95% CI, 1.08-5.71) times more likely to have subsequent duplicate publication than those with negative findings.
    Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, most duplicates were cross-language duplicates and the most common type was unreferenced republication of the main article. Duplicate publication bias exists when the main articles of randomized clinical trials were published in Chinese, potentially misleading readers and compromising journals and evidence synthesis.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.27104
  16. Cornea. 2020 Dec 02.
    Amarasekera DC, Lam SS, Rapuano CJ, Syed ZA.
      PURPOSE: To identify female authorship trends in first author and last author positions in Cornea from 2007 to 2019.METHODS: First and last authors of all Clinical Science and Basic Investigation publications in Cornea over 13 years were sorted by sex. Identification of sex was based on the author's institutional profile or a Google-based name identifier in cases of equivocal names. The proportion of female board-certified ophthalmologists between 2007 and 2019 was collected from the American Board of Ophthalmology total roster of certified diplomats.
    RESULTS: First and last author sexes were collected from 2313 publications (1837 Clinical Science and 476 Basic Investigation). Between 2007 and 2019, the percentage of female first authors increased from 30.5% to 41.5%, although this change was not significant (P = 0.240). Female last author percentage increased significantly from 14.9% to 26.6% (P = 0.016). The percentage of female American Board of Ophthalmology-certified diplomats also increased significantly from 17.4% to 24.5% (P < 0.001). Similarly, when comparing 2007 and 2008 with 2018 and 2019, we noted a significant increase in the proportion of women in the last author (P < 0.001) but not in the first author (P = 0.208) position. We also identified a significantly higher proportion of female first authors than that of female board-certified ophthalmologists (P < 0.001). Finally, there was a strong association between first author sex and last author sex (P < 0.001) across manuscripts.
    CONCLUSIONS: The proportion of women in last author positions increased over 13 years among manuscripts in Cornea. Despite these advances in academic female representation within the cornea subspecialty, a gender gap in authorship persists.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1097/ICO.0000000000002598
  17. Asian J Psychiatr. 2020 Dec;pii: S1876-2018(20)30459-7. [Epub ahead of print]54 102347
    Albahari D, Bashir M.
      OBJECTIVES: Qatar's contribution to biomedical research has increased significantly in the past couple of decades, but the exact participation of women researchers remains obscure. This study aims to explore the gender gap in research production of Qatar in the field of mental health.METHODS: The authors searched five databases for published articles from Qatar in the field of mental health from 2015 to 2019. The authors examined the retrieved articles for the gender gap in 1) the number of researchers. 2) the numbers of articles produced by men-only research teams vs. the research teams included women. 3) h-index. 4) foreign collaboration. 5) research design and themes.
    RESULTS: The authors identified 152 published articles in the field of mental health. Men researchers outnumbered women researchers (124 vs. 81). Men had statistically significant higher h-index compared to women (14.6 ± 1.4 vs 4.6 ± 0.9; p < 0.001). Research teams that included women had produced fewer articles compared to men-only groups (41.4 %), they also had less foreign collaborators (68 % vs. 91 %, p = 0.001). They were less involved in experimental research and more involved in observational research compared to male-only research groups (15.90 % vs. 38.6 % and 47.6 % vs. 25 % respectively; p = 0.034). In articles with women authors, women were the first authors in 50.8 % of the articles, and men were the senior authors in 79.4 % of them.
    CONCLUSION: The study identifies gender gaps in some aspects of research productivity in Qatar. This data will provide a benchmark for future research in the field.
    Keywords:  Gender gap; Gender inequity; Mental health research; Qatar; Research productivity
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102347
  18. J Med Internet Res. 2020 Dec 04. 22(12): e22327
    Oska S, Lerma E, Topf J.
      BACKGROUND: A visual abstract is a graphic summary of a research article's question, methods, and major findings. Although they have a number of uses, visual abstracts are chiefly used to promote research articles on social media.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine if the use of visual abstracts increases the visibility of nephrology research shared on Twitter.
    METHODS: A prospective case-control crossover study was conducted using 40 research articles published in the American Journal of Nephrology (AJN). Each article was shared by the AJN Twitter account in 3 formats: (1) the article citation, (2) the citation with a key figure from the article, and (3) the citation with a visual abstract. Tweets were spaced 2 weeks apart to allow washout of the previous tweet, and the order of the tweets was randomized. Dissemination was measured via retweets, views, number of link clicks, and Altmetric scores.
    RESULTS: Tweets that contained a visual abstract had more than twice as many views as citation-only tweets (1351, SD 1053 vs 639, SD 343) and nearly twice as many views as key figure tweets (1351, SD 1053 vs 732, SD 464). Visual abstract tweets had 5 times the engagements of citation-only tweets and more than 3.5 times the engagements of key figure tweets. Visual abstract tweets were also associated with greater increases in Altmetric scores as compared to citation-only tweets (2.20 vs 1.05).
    CONCLUSIONS: The use of visual abstracts increased visibility of research articles on Twitter, resulting in a greater number of views, engagements, and retweets. Visual abstracts were also associated with increased Altmetric scores as compared to citation-only tweets. These findings support the broader use of visual abstracts in the scientific community. Journals should consider visual abstracts as valuable tools for research dissemination.
    Keywords:  Twitter; dissemination; science communication; social media; visual abstract
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2196/22327
  19. J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis. 2020 Nov 26. pii: S1052-3057(20)30899-5. [Epub ahead of print]30(2): 105481
    Apor ADAO, Pagaling GT, Espiritu AI, Jamora RDG.
      BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular disease is the second leading cause of death worldwide and provides a heavy burden of disease in Southeast Asia (SEA). Contribution to the collective knowledge of this disease is necessary to address practice and treatment disparities. There is limited data on research productivity in the region. This study aimed to determine research productivity on stroke and other cerebral and spinal vascular diseases among the SEA countries and determine its relationship with bibliometrics, socioeconomic parameters, healthcare delivery indices, and burden of disease.METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using five major healthcare databases. We included studies published until June 2020 on cerebral and spinal vascular disease with at least one author from SEA. Country-specific socioeconomic parameters, the burden of disease, healthcare delivery indices, and the number of neurologists were collected from international databases and published data. Correlational analysis was done on bibliometric indices and collected data.
    RESULTS: A total of 2577 articles were included. Singapore had the most publications (n=1095, 42.5%) and citations (PlumX n=16,592, 55.2%; Scopus n=22,351, 56.7%). Gross domestic product per capita, percent gross domestic product for research and development, universal health care effective coverage index overall and for stroke treatment, and the number of neurologists had a positive correlation to bibliometric indices.
    CONCLUSIONS: There is a disparity in stroke research productivity among high-income and low-income countries in SEA. Priority must be given to scientific research output and its role in socioeconomic development and policy formulation.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; Research productivity; Southeast Asia; Stroke; healthcare delivery; socioeconomic factors
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105481
  20. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(12): e0242857
    Ismail LE, Karwowski W.
      BACKGROUND: Neuroergonomics combines neuroscience with ergonomics to study human performance using recorded brain signals. Such neural signatures of performance can be measured using a variety of neuroimaging techniques, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), and electroencephalography (EEG). EEG has an excellent temporal resolution, and EEG indices are highly sensitive to human brain activity fluctuations.OBJECTIVE: The focus of this systematic review was to explore the applications of EEG indices for quantifying human performance in a variety of cognitive tasks at the macro and micro scales. To identify trends and the state of the field, we examined global patterns among selected articles, such as journal contributions, highly cited papers, affiliations, and high-frequency keywords. Moreover, we discussed the most frequently used EEG indices and synthesized current knowledge regarding the EEG signatures of associated human performance measurements.
    METHODS: In this systematic review, we analyzed articles published in English (from peer-reviewed journals, proceedings, and conference papers), Ph.D. dissertations, textbooks, and reference books. All articles reviewed herein included exclusively EEG-based experimental studies in healthy participants. We searched Web-of-Science and Scopus databases using specific sets of keywords.
    RESULTS: Out of 143 papers, a considerable number of cognitive studies focused on quantifying human performance with respect to mental fatigue, mental workload, mental effort, visual fatigue, emotion, and stress. An increasing trend for publication in this area was observed, with the highest number of publications in 2017. Most studies applied linear methods (e.g., EEG power spectral density and the amplitude of event-related potentials) to evaluate human cognitive performance. A few papers utilized nonlinear methods, such as fractal dimension, largest Lyapunov exponent, and signal entropy. More than 50% of the studies focused on evaluating an individual's mental states while operating a vehicle. Several different methods of artifact removal have also been noted. Based on the reviewed articles, research gaps, trends, and potential directions for future research were explored.
    CONCLUSION: This systematic review synthesized current knowledge regarding the application of EEG indices for quantifying human performance in a wide variety of cognitive tasks. This knowledge is useful for understanding the global patterns of applications of EEG indices for the analysis and design of cognitive tasks.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0242857
  21. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(12): e0241797
    Chakraborty M, Byshkin M, Crestani F.
      Patent Citation Analysis has been gaining considerable traction over the past few decades. In this paper, we collect extensive information on patents and citations and provide a perspective of citation network analysis of patents from a statistical viewpoint. We identify and analyze the most cited patents, the most innovative and the highly cited companies along with the structural properties of the network by providing in-depth descriptive analysis. Furthermore, we employ Exponential Random Graph Models (ERGMs) to analyze the citation networks. ERGMs enables understanding the social perspectives of a patent citation network which has not been studied earlier. We demonstrate that social properties such as homophily (the inclination to cite patents from the same country or in the same language) and transitivity (the inclination to cite references' references) together with the technicalities of the patents (e.g., language, categories), has a significant effect on citations. We also provide an in-depth analysis of citations for sectors in patents and how it is affected by the size of the same. Overall, our paper delves into European patents with the aim of providing new insights and serves as an account for fitting ERGMs on large networks and analyzing them. ERGMs help us model network mechanisms directly, instead of acting as a proxy for unspecified dependence and relationships among the observations.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0241797
  22. Aesthet Surg J. 2020 Nov 30. pii: sjaa335. [Epub ahead of print]
    Hammond JB, Armstrong VL, McMullen K, Bernard RW, Teven CM.
      BACKGROUND: Recent data show that aesthetic surgery research is lagging in comparison to reconstructive surgery: research funding and institutional disparities within aesthetic surgery are potential factors in this trend.OBJECTIVES: To determine if disparities exist in aesthetic surgery research based on funding sources or practice settings.
    METHODS: Aesthetic Surgery Journal articles from 2009-2019 were reviewed. Chi-square, t-test, bivariate and multivariate regression analyses evaluated research trends.
    RESULTS: A total of 2,262 publications were identified, with 318 funded articles meeting inclusion criteria. Majority of studies (294, 92%) received external funding, with 281 (88%) being supported solely by external funds. Externally funded studies were financed by private industry (194, 66%), foundations/societies (53, 18%), government grants (23, 8%), or a combination of agencies (24, 8%). Majority of funded studies were at academic institutions (266, 84%), followed by private practice (46, 14%) and private industry (6, 2%). Analysis of annual publications revealed a rising percentage of academic-based research, which correlated with decreasing research from private practice (r= -0.95, r 2= 0.89, P<0.001). Compared to academic institutions, private practice relied more heavily on industry funding (55% vs. 87% respectively, P=0.001), exhibiting lower rates of foundational/societal (20% vs. 2%), governmental (9% vs. 0%), combined (8% vs. 7%), and internal department funding (8% vs. 4%). Article citations and level of evidence were unaffected by funding source, agency, or practice setting.
    CONCLUSIONS: Lack of diversity in research funding among private practice surgeons may explain the reported discrepancies that currently exist between aesthetic and reconstructive surgery research.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjaa335
  23. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(12): e0242984
    Börner K, Scrivner O, Cross LE, Gallant M, Ma S, Martin AS, Record L, Yang H, Dilger JM.
      Understanding the emergence, co-evolution, and convergence of science and technology (S&T) areas offers competitive intelligence for researchers, managers, policy makers, and others. This paper presents new funding, publication, and scholarly network metrics and visualizations that were validated via expert surveys. The metrics and visualizations exemplify the emergence and convergence of three areas of strategic interest: artificial intelligence (AI), robotics, and internet of things (IoT) over the last 20 years (1998-2017). For 32,716 publications and 4,497 NSF awards, we identify their topical coverage (using the UCSD map of science), evolving co-author networks, and increasing convergence. The results support data-driven decision making when setting proper research and development (R&D) priorities; developing future S&T investment strategies; or performing effective research program assessment.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0242984
  24. Isr J Health Policy Res. 2020 Dec 03. 9(1): 74
    Rosen B, Schoenbaum SC, Israeli A.
      As 2020 comes to a close, the Israel Journal of Health Policy Research (IJHPR) will soon be starting its tenth year of publication. This editorial compares data from 2012 (the journal's first year of publication) and 2019 (the journal's most recent full year of publication), regarding the journal's mix of article types, topics, data sources and methods, with further drill-downs regarding 2019.The analysis revealed several encouraging findings, including a broad and changing mix of topics covered. However, the analysis also revealed several findings that are less encouraging, including the limited number of articles which assessed national policy changes, examined changes over time, and/or made secondary use of large-scale survey data. These findings apparently reflect, to some extent, the mix of studies being carried out by Israeli health services researchers.As the senior editors of the IJHPR we are interested in working with funders, academic institutions, the owners and principal users of relevant administrative databases, and individual scholars to further understand the factors influencing the mix of research being carried out, and subsequently published, by Israel's health services research community. This deeper understanding could then be used to develop a joint plan to diversify and enrich health services research and health policy analysis in Israel. The plan should include a policy of ensuring improved access to data, to properly support information-based research.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13584-020-00427-9
  25. Nurs Ethics. 2020 Dec 03. 969733020968215
    Gabrielsson S, Eriksson S, Godskesen T.
      BACKGROUND: Predatory publishing poses a fundamental threat to the development of nursing knowledge. Previous research has suggested that authors of papers published in predatory journals are mainly inexperienced researchers from low- and middle-income countries. Less attention has been paid to contributors from high-income countries.AIM: To describe the prevalence and characteristics of Swedish authors publishing in predatory nursing journals.
    DESIGN: Quantitative descriptive case study.
    PARTICIPANTS AND RESEARCH CONTEXT: Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the academic positions and academic affiliations of the authors of 39 papers published in predatory nursing journals during 2018 and 2019. Predatory nursing journals with Swedish contributors were identified by searching public listings of papers and applying a set of criteria. Journal site archives were used to identify additional papers with Swedish authors.
    ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS: This study was conducted in accordance with national regulations and ethical principles of research.
    RESULTS: Almost two-thirds of Swedish authors publishing in predatory nursing journals hold senior academic positions. A small group of higher education institutions account for a majority of academic affiliations. Findings suggest that higher education institutions and experienced nursing researchers from Sweden make substantial contributions to predatory nursing journals, but that predatory publication habits might be concentrated in a limited number of academics and research milieus. A year-to-year comparison indicates that the prevalence of publishing in predatory journals might be diminishing.
    DISCUSSION: Swedish nurse researchers help legitimize predatory journals, thus jeopardizing the trustworthiness of academic nursing knowledge. Substandard papers in predatory journals may pass as legitimate and be used to further academic careers. Experienced researchers are misleading junior colleagues, as joint publications might become embarrassments and liabilities.
    CONCLUSION: While the academic nursing community needs to address the problem of predatory publishing, there is some hope that educational efforts might have an effect on combating predatory publishing in nursing.
    Keywords:  Academic publishing; predatory journals; publication ethics; research dissemination
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1177/0969733020968215
  26. Behav Anal Pract. 2020 Dec;13(4): 820-825
    Rotta K, Li A, Poling A.
      Participating in athletics confers a wide range of benefits, regardless of participants' gender or disability status. Our review of 95 behavior-analytic sports-performance articles revealed that over half of them included at least 1 female participant, but only 5 included at least 1 participant with a reported developmental disability. Given that females are often underrepresented as research participants, and that female athletes face unique barriers, it is heartening that so many articles involved female participants. Moreover, there were more female than male participants overall. However, it is surprising and distressing that so few articles involved participants with a developmental disability. Participating in sports can be a lifelong source of fitness, friends, and fun. Practitioners should encourage people of all ages, races, and genders, and from all disability categories, to find a sport they like, to learn to do it well enough to enjoy it, and to do it regularly. Researchers should give them the tools necessary to make those efforts as easy, and as fruitful, as possible. Nothing but good can come from these efforts.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric analysis; Developmental disabilities; Gender issues; Inclusivity; Sports performance; Women
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40617-020-00477-0
  27. Postgrad Med J. 2020 Dec 03. pii: postgradmedj-2020-139001. [Epub ahead of print]
    Donaldson CJ, Sequeira Campos M, Ridgley J, Light A.
      PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate whether, in the UK, medical school attended influences the propensity to apply to and be successful in obtaining an offer from the Academic Foundation Programme (AFP), thus taking the first step to embarking on a clinical-academic career.STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective observational study was performed. Using the UK Foundation Programme's yearly statistical report data, mean application rates to, and mean offer rates from the AFP were calculated by medical school, between the years 2017-2019. Mean application and mean offer rates were subsequently correlated with metrics of medical school academic performance and research focus.
    RESULTS: Mean application rates to the AFP were higher in medical schools that had a mandatory intercalated degree as part of the undergraduate medical curriculum (mean=33.99%, SD=13.93 vs mean=19.44%, SD=6.88, p<0.001), lower numerical rank in the Times Higher Education 2019 World Rankings (correlation with higher numerical rank, r=-0.50, p=0.004), and lower numerical rank in the Research Excellence Framework 2014 UK rankings (correlation with higher numerical rank, r=-0.37, p=0.004). Mean offer rates from the AFP were not correlated with any metric of medical school academic performance or research focus.
    CONCLUSIONS: Students attending a medical school with greater academic performance and research focus are more likely to apply and subsequently embark on a clinical-academic career. However, students wishing to embark a clinical-academic career from any medical school have an equal chance of success.
    Keywords:  medical education & training
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2020-139001
  28. Scientometrics. 2020 Nov 21. 1-22
    Ngayua EN, He J, Agyei-Boahene K.
      The increasing demand for new therapies and other clinical interventions has made researchers conduct many clinical trials. The high level of evidence generated by clinical trials makes them the main approach to evaluating new clinical interventions. The increasing amounts of data to be considered in the planning and conducting of clinical trials has led to higher costs and increased timelines of clinical trials, with low productivity. Advanced technologies including artificial intelligence, machine learning, deep learning, and the internet of things offer an opportunity to improve the efficiency and productivity of clinical trials at various stages. Although researchers have done some tangible work regarding the application of advanced technologies in clinical trials, the studies are yet to be mapped to give a general picture of the current state of research. This systematic mapping study was conducted to identify and analyze studies published on the role of advanced technologies in clinical trials. A search restricted to the period between 2010 and 2020 yielded a total of 443 articles. The analysis revealed a trend of increasing research interests in the area over the years. Recruitment and eligibility aspects were the main focus of the studies. The main research types were validation and evaluation studies. Most studies contributed methods and theories, hence there exists a gap for architecture, process, and metric contributions. In the future, more empirical studies are expected given the increasing interest to implement the AI, ML, DL, and IoT in clinical trials.
    Keywords:  Artificial intelligence; Clinical trials; Deep learning; Internet of things; Machine learning
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-020-03774-1
  29. Rev Esp Enferm Dig. 2020 Dec 01. 113
    Saavedra-López MA, Calle-Ramirez XM, Hernández RM.
      Latin American scientific production related to the COVID-19 epidemic means that only 6% represent publications by Latin American authors, led by countries such as Brazil and Mexico; however, this production is still scarce, so efforts must be doubled to make a substantial contribution to the search for alternatives to address the global health crisis that is now in place.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.17235/reed.2020.7432/2020
  30. Harm Reduct J. 2020 Nov 30. 17(1): 93
    Quan AML, Wilson LA, Mithani SS, Zhu DT, Bota AB, Wilson K.
      BACKGROUND: We aim to describe the general characteristics of how the Canadian newspaper The Globe and Mail reports on opioid-related news, the opioid crisis and its victims, and explore how Canadians' perceptions of the opioid crisis could have developed over time from this reporting. The Globe and Mail has the highest circulation among Canadian newspapers and is Canada's newspaper of record.METHODS: Reviewers performed independent, blinded bibliometric searches of all The Globe and Mail articles archived in the Canadian Periodicals Index Quarterly spanning an 18-year period (1 January 2000-1 June 2018) related to the keywords "opioids" or "drugs and opioids" and "opiates". Independently and in duplicate, reviewers manually extracted qualitative data from articles and identified emergent themes. Articles were screened independently by both reviewers based on the inclusion criteria. Conflicts were resolved by discussion and consensus. Social representation theory was used as a framework for describing how the opioid crisis is portrayed in Canada.
    RESULTS: Our search yielded 650 relevant opioid articles. The number of articles peaked in 2009, 2012, and in 2016, coinciding with major developments in the epidemic. The language used in this discourse has evolved over the years and has slowly shifted towards less stigmatizing language. Content analysis of the articles revealed common social representations attributing responsibility to pharmaceutical companies, physicians, and foreign countries.
    CONCLUSIONS: The Globe and Mail's coverage of the opioid crisis is focused on basic social representations and attributed responsibility for the crisis to a few collectives. A shift toward coverage of the root causes of the opioid epidemic could positively influence the general public's perception of the opioid crisis and promote deeper understanding of the issue. Journalists face several obstacles to achieve greater focus and framing of the opioid crisis; a closer working relationship between the media and the research community is needed.
    Keywords:  Canada; Content analysis; Opioids
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12954-020-00443-7
  31. J Med Internet Res. 2020 Dec 02. 22(12): e25070
    Acquaviva KD, Mugele J, Abadilla N, Adamson T, Bernstein SL, Bhayani RK, Büchi AE, Burbage D, Carroll CL, Davis SP, Dhawan N, English K, Grier JT, Gurney MK, Hahn ES, Haq H, Huang B, Jain S, Jun J, Kerr WT, Keyes T, Kirby AR, Leary M, Marr M, Major A, Meisel JV, Petersen EA, Raguan B, Rhodes A, Rupert DD, Sam-Agudu NA, Saul N, Shah JR, Sheldon LK, Sinclair CT, Spencer K, Strand NH, Streed CG, Trudell AM.
      BACKGROUND: The traditional model of promotion and tenure in the health professions relies heavily on formal scholarship through teaching, research, and service. Institutions consider how much weight to give activities in each of these areas and determine a threshold for advancement. With the emergence of social media, scholars can engage wider audiences in creative ways and have a broader impact. Conventional metrics like the h-index do not account for social media impact. Social media engagement is poorly represented in most curricula vitae (CV) and therefore is undervalued in promotion and tenure reviews.OBJECTIVE: The objective was to develop crowdsourced guidelines for documenting social media scholarship. These guidelines aimed to provide a structure for documenting a scholar's general impact on social media, as well as methods of documenting individual social media contributions exemplifying innovation, education, mentorship, advocacy, and dissemination.
    METHODS: To create unifying guidelines, we created a crowdsourced process that capitalized on the strengths of social media and generated a case example of successful use of the medium for academic collaboration. The primary author created a draft of the guidelines and then sought input from users on Twitter via a publicly accessible Google Document. There was no limitation on who could provide input and the work was done in a democratic, collaborative fashion. Contributors edited the draft over a period of 1 week (September 12-18, 2020). The primary and secondary authors then revised the draft to make it more concise. The guidelines and manuscript were then distributed to the contributors for edits and adopted by the group. All contributors were given the opportunity to serve as coauthors on the publication and were told upfront that authorship would depend on whether they were able to document the ways in which they met the 4 International Committee of Medical Journal Editors authorship criteria.
    RESULTS: We developed 2 sets of guidelines: Guidelines for Listing All Social Media Scholarship Under Public Scholarship (in Research/Scholarship Section of CV) and Guidelines for Listing Social Media Scholarship Under Research, Teaching, and Service Sections of CV. Institutions can choose which set fits their existing CV format.
    CONCLUSIONS: With more uniformity, scholars can better represent the full scope and impact of their work. These guidelines are not intended to dictate how individual institutions should weigh social media contributions within promotion and tenure cases. Instead, by providing an initial set of guidelines, we hope to provide scholars and their institutions with a common format and language to document social media scholarship.
    Keywords:  accomplishment; contribution; crowdsource; dissemination; education; health professions; innovation; medicine; promotion; research; scholarship; social media; tenure
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2196/25070
  32. mBio. 2020 Dec 01. pii: e01680-20. [Epub ahead of print]11(6):
    Hagan AK, Topçuoğlu BD, Gregory ME, Barton HA, Schloss PD.
      Despite 50% of biology Ph.D. graduates being women, the number of women that advance in academia decreases at each level (e.g., from graduate to postdoctorate to tenure track). Recently, scientific societies and publishers have begun examining internal submissions data to evaluate representation and evaluation of women in their peer review processes; however, representation and attitudes differ by scientific field, and to date, no studies have investigated academic publishing in the field of microbiology. Using manuscripts submitted between January 2012 and August 2018 to the 15 journals published by the American Society for Microbiology (ASM), we describe the representation of women at ASM journals and the outcomes of their manuscripts. Senior women authors at ASM journals were underrepresented compared to global and society estimates of microbiology researchers. Additionally, manuscripts submitted by corresponding authors that were women received more negative outcomes than those submitted by men. These negative outcomes were somewhat mediated by whether or not the corresponding author was based in the United States and by the type of institution for United States-based authors. Nonetheless, the pattern for women corresponding authors to receive more negative outcomes on their submitted manuscripts held. We conclude with suggestions to improve the representation of women and decrease structural penalties against women.IMPORTANCE Barriers in science and academia have prevented women from becoming researchers and experts that are viewed as equivalent to their colleagues who are men. We evaluated the participation and success of women researchers at ASM journals to better understand their success in the field of microbiology. We found that women are underrepresented as expert scientists at ASM journals. This is, in part, due to a combination of both low submissions from senior women authors and more negative outcomes on submitted manuscripts for women compared to men.
    Keywords:  bias; gender; peer review; profession of microbiology; representation; scientific publishing
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01680-20