bims-evares Biomed News
on Evaluation of research
Issue of 2020‒07‒12
28 papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society


  1. BMC Res Notes. 2020 Jul 08. 13(1): 327
    Carta MG, Moro MF, Kirilov I, Romano F, Tagliagambe S.
      OBJECTIVE: This research note aimed to analyze the scientific productivity trends 2015-2019, focusing on the top 30 universities in Europe and United States and on the top 30 private companies-as classified in the SCImago Institutions Ranking. Our hypothesis is that private companies are gaining an increasingly prominent role in the research field, while academia is losing its predominance.RESULTS: From 2015 to 2019, all universities in Europe and the United States lost positions in the scientific production ranking, while private companies gained positions. These trends seem to be driven mainly by the scientific productivity sub-indicator "Innovation". These data suggest that the role private companies will play in the future will not be limited to support research economically or influence it from "outside". Private companies have taken a path that may lead them to directly control all stages of production/communication of knowledge, including research-a role once bestowed on universities. Our data, although preliminary, seem to suggest that, at present, academia risks losing its predominance in the research field. This scenario deserves attention because of the threats it may pose to the independence of research and its role in supporting human equity and sustainable health for all.
    Keywords:  Database analysis; Research methodology; Research output; Scientific productivity
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05128-9
  2. Ann Surg. 2020 Jul 07.
    Emamaullee J, Lian T, Moroz S, Zuckerbraun B, Matthews J, Gosain A.
      BACKGROUND: Since 2005, the American College of Surgeons has administered the Jacobson Promising Investigator Award (JPIA), which recognizes surgeon-scientists at the "tipping point" of their research careers.OBJECTIVE: We retrospectively reviewed JPIA applicants to identify factors associated with selection for the award and future research success.
    METHODS: Profiles were reviewed for all applicants between 2008 and 2018, at the time of application and as of 2019. Web of Science and NIH Reporter metrics were also reviewed for each applicant.
    RESULTS: Eleven of 97 applicants were selected for the JPIA. At the time of application, awardees were more likely to have extramural (NIH K-award) versus intramural (KL2) or other career development award funding (55% vs 33%, P = 0.03) and more publications [median 70 (interquartile range, IQR 55-100) vs 40 (IQR 22-67), P = 0.03]. Post-application, JPIA awardees were more likely to achieve a higher h-Index and m-quotient compared to nonawardees (P < 0.001 for both). All JPIA recipients received new NIH funding post-award, including 82% with R01 funding, compared to 23% of nonselected applicants (P < 0.0001). Over $48 million from NIH was awarded to JPIA recipients since 2008, representing a 147-fold return on investment.
    CONCLUSIONS: Selection for the JPIA is associated with previous extramural NIH K award and, on average, 70 peer-reviewed publications at the time of application. Receipt of the JPIA is associated with a high rate of subsequent NIH R01 funding and publication metrics. The JPIA is an excellent indicator of "tipping point" success in academic surgery and demonstrates the huge potential impact of philanthropic support on early career surgeon-investigators.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004142
  3. Neurology. 2020 Jul 09. pii: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000010285. [Epub ahead of print]
    Minen MT, Law EF, Harriott A, Seng EK, Hranilovich J, Szperka CL, Wells RE.
      There has been a substantial rise in the number of women pursuing careers in neurology. However, research has shown that women in neurology have high rates of burnout with gender disparities in burnout and attrition in the field. Recently, there was a call from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), including the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), asking for input on factors that may limit or discourage grant applications from women. As the recipients of the highly coveted NIH career mentored awards (K-awards) in headache medicine, we applaud the NIH for asking for gender specific feedback and for raising awareness of research showing that female faculty on the Research Track are at increased risk of departure. Using the NIH model for the Responsible Conduct of Research and the tenant of "Nurturing the Fertile Environment", we discuss specific challenges in academic research that may contribute to gender differences in neurology research success. While the rate of women conducting NIH-funded migraine research increased from 23 to 41% over the last 10 years, more women are currently in training compared to independence, with 6/6 of the NIH training grants but only 12/36 of the NIH Research-level grants, held by women in fiscal years 2017-2019. We suggest concrete solutions to these challenges to ensure the success of women in research reaching independence.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010285
  4. Channels (Austin). 2020 Dec;14(1): 203-215
    Zhang S, Zhao D, Jia W, Wang Y, Liang H, Liu L, Wang W, Yu Z, Guo F.
      The transient receptor potential melastatin-subfamily member 7 (TRPM7) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that contains both an ion channel and an active kinase. TRPM7 has involved in a variety of cellular functions and critically participates in various diseases mainly including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. However, the theme trends and knowledge structures for TRPM7 have not yet been studied bibliometrically. The main purposes of this research are to compare the scientific production in the research field of TRPM7 among countries and to evaluate the publication trend between 2004 and 2019. All publications were extracted from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) database from 2004 to 2019. Microsoft Excel 2018, Prism 6, and CiteSpace V were applied to analyze the scientific research outputs including journals, countries, territories, institutions, authors, and research hotspots. In this report, a total of 860 publications related to TRPM7 were analyzed. Biophysical Journal ranked top for publishing 31 papers. The United States of America had the largest number of publications (320) with a high citation frequency (11,298) and H-index (58). Chubanov V (38 publications) and Gudermann T (38 citations), who from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, were the most productive authors and had the greatest co-citation counts. Our study also combined the bibliometric study with a systematic review on TRPM7, highlighting the four research frontiers of TRPM7. This is the first study that demonstrated the trends and future development in TRPM7 publications, providing a clear and intuitive profile for the contributions in this field.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric; CiteSpace V; TRPM7; WoSCC
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1080/19336950.2020.1788355
  5. Sports Health. 2020 Jul 06. 1941738120922163
    Judy RP, Talentino S, Bedi A, Lesniak BP.
      CONTEXT: Sports Health: A Multidisciplinary Approach, now 10 years into production, has been ranked a top-25 journal in sport sciences and has tripled its impact throughout its existence.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate authorship trends and levels of evidence (LOE) of articles published in Sports Health from 2009 to 2018. The secondary aim was to analyze funding sources and internationalization throughout the journal's tenure.
    DATA SOURCES: All clinical studies published in Sports Health between the years 2009 and 2018 were examined.
    STUDY SELECTION: All publications from the provided years were electronically reviewed by 2 reviewers and evaluated for inclusion criteria. Editorials, society news, memorials, letters to the editor, and corrigenda were excluded.
    STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review.
    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 5.
    DATA EXTRACTION: Articles were examined for number of authors, presence of female authorship, funding, country of origin, international collaboration, academic degree or certification of first and senior authors, and LOE. Clinical articles were assigned LOE based on guidelines from the University of Oxford's Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine.
    RESULTS: A total of 654 articles were examined. The percentage of high-LOE studies increased throughout the study period. The percentage of publications with female authors also increased throughout the study period. The mean number of authors per article increased from 3.2 to 4.6 over the 10-year period (P < 0.05). The percentage of publications with international collaboration stayed consistent, while the number of countries per year increased during the study period. Overall, institutions from 23 countries have published in Sports Health since its inception to the time of this study.
    CONCLUSION: Female authorship in Sports Health surpasses industry standards, and the percentage of high-LOE studies remains remarkably high. Sports Health has stayed true to its multidisciplinary scope, as evidenced by the authors' varying degrees and numerous countries that publish in the journal.
    Keywords:  authorship; level of evidence; orthopaedic surgery
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1177/1941738120922163
  6. Work. 2020 Jul 02.
    Irmak R.
      BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 outbreak pandemic is a situation without a tested action plan. Rehabilitation team members have been called for duty with new responsibilities in addition to their conventional roles in the healthcare system. The infectious disease specialists are updating the knowledge base in limited time in clinical settings. The number of articles in PubMed grows at an increasing rate.OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to identify core COVID-19 articles by citation and co-citation network analysis in PMC subset of PubMed.
    METHODS: Citation and co-citation network analysis methods were used to identify core articles and knowledge base.
    RESULTS: COVID-19 terms query retrieved 15,387 articles in PubMed. These articles formed a citation network with 6,778 articles and 25,163 PMC-PubMed citations. The main article cluster in the co-citation network consists of 2,811 articles and 78,844 co-citations.
    CONCLUSIONS: The number of COVID-19 articles in PubMed is increasing at a very high rate. Citation and co-citation network analysis are advantageous techniques to identify knowledge base in a scientific discipline. These techniques may help rehabilitation specialists to identify core articles efficiently.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; citation network analysis; co-citation network analysis; knowledge base
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3233/WOR-203193
  7. J Orthop Surg Res. 2020 Jul 10. 15(1): 251
    Li C, Ojeda-Thies C, Xu C, Trampuz A.
      BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is the most serious complication of joint replacement surgery. Further comorbidities include bedsore, deep vein thrombosis, reinfection, or even death. An increasing number of researchers are focusing on this challenging complication. The aim of the present study was to estimate global PJI research based on bibliometrics from meta-analysis studies.METHODS: A database search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Relevant studies were assessed using the bibliometric analysis.
    RESULTS: A total of 117 articles were included. The most relevant literature on PJI was found on Scopus. China made the highest contributions to global research, followed by the USA and the UK. The institution with the most contributions was the University of Bristol. The journal with the highest number of publications was The Journal of Arthroplasty, whereas the Journal of Clinical Medicine had the shortest acceptance time. Furthermore, the top three frequently used databases were Embase, MEDLINE, and Cochrane. The most frequent number of authors in meta-analysis studies was four. Most studies focused on the periprosthetic hip and knee. The alpha-defensin diagnostic test, preventive measures on antibiotics use, and risk factors of intra-articular steroid injections were the most popular topic in recent years.
    CONCLUSION: Based on the results of the present study, we found that there was no single database that covered all relevant articles; the optimal method for bibliometric analysis is a combination of databases. The most popular research topics on PJI focused on alpha-defensin, antibiotic use, risk factors of intra-articular steroid injections, and the location of prosthetic hip and knee infection.
    Keywords:  Arthroplasty; Bibliometrics; Meta-analysis; Periprosthetic joint infection; Research; Surgical site infections
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s13018-020-01757-9
  8. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(7): e0234880
    Feng S.
      This paper introduces a measure of the proximity in ideas using unsupervised machine learning. Knowledge transfers are considered a key driving force of innovation and regional economic growth. I explore knowledge relationships by deriving vector space representations of a patent's abstract text using Document Vectors (Doc2Vec), and using cosine similarity to measure their proximity in ideas space. I illustrate the potential uses of this method with an application to geographic localization in knowledge spillovers. For patents in the same technology field, their normalized text similarity is 0.02-0.05 S.D.s higher if they are located within the same city, compared to patents from other cities. This effect is much smaller than when knowledge transfers are measured using normalized patent citations: local patents receive about 0.23-0.30 S.D.s more local citations than compared to non-local control patents. These findings suggest that the effect of geography on knowledge transfers may be much smaller than the previous literature using citations suggests.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0234880
  9. Surg Neurol Int. 2020 ;11 169
    Ausman JI, Epstein N, West JL.
      Background: In regard to scientific information, are we effectively reaching the universe of physicians in the 21st century, all of whom have different backgrounds, practice environments, educational experiences, and varying degrees of research knowledge?Methods: A comparison of the top nine neurosurgery journals based on various popular citation indices and also on the digital metric, Readers (Users)/month, was compiled from available metrics and from internet sources.
    Results: Major differences in the ranking of the Readers (Users)/month metrics compared to ranking of the various citation indices were found. It is obvious that the citation indices do not measure the number of readers of a publication. Which metric should be used in judging the value of a scientific paper? The answer to that question relates to what the interest of the reader has in the scientific information. It appears that the academic scientist may have a different reason for reading a scientific publication than a physician caring for a patient.
    Conclusions: There needs to be more than one type of metric that measures the value and "Impact" of a scientific paper based on how physicians learn.
    Keywords:  Citation indices; Comparison publication metrics; How do physicians learn? Readers (Users) month
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.25259/SNI_199_2020
  10. J Med Internet Res. 2020 Jul 06. 22(7): e15607
    Bardus M, El Rassi R, Chahrour M, Akl EW, Raslan AS, Meho LI, Akl EA.
      BACKGROUND: Academics in all disciplines increasingly use social media to share their publications on the internet, reaching out to different audiences. In the last few years, specific indicators of social media impact have been developed (eg, Altmetrics), to complement traditional bibliometric indicators (eg, citation count and h-index). In health research, it is unclear whether social media impact also translates into research impact.OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on the impact of using social media on the dissemination of health research. The secondary aim was to assess the correlation between Altmetrics and traditional citation-based metrics.
    METHODS: We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that evaluated the use of social media to disseminate research published in health-related journals. We specifically looked at studies that described experimental or correlational studies linking the use of social media with outcomes related to bibliometrics. We searched the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), Excerpta Medica dataBASE (EMBASE), and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases using a predefined search strategy (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews: CRD42017057709). We conducted independent and duplicate study selection and data extraction. Given the heterogeneity of the included studies, we summarized the findings through a narrative synthesis.
    RESULTS: Of a total of 18,624 retrieved citations, we included 51 studies: 7 (14%) impact studies (answering the primary aim) and 44 (86%) correlational studies (answering the secondary aim). Impact studies reported mixed results with several limitations, including the use of interventions of inappropriately low intensity and short duration. The majority of correlational studies suggested a positive association between traditional bibliometrics and social media metrics (eg, number of mentions) in health research.
    CONCLUSIONS: We have identified suggestive yet inconclusive evidence on the impact of using social media to increase the number of citations in health research. Further studies with better design are needed to assess the causal link between social media impact and bibliometrics.
    Keywords:  Altmetrics; bibliometrics; journal impact factor; research; social media; translational medical research
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2196/15607
  11. J Behav Addict. 2020 Jul 07.
    Tran BX, Ha GH, Vu GT, Hoang CL, Nguyen SH, Nguyen CT, Latkin CA, Tam WW, Ho CSH, Ho RCM.
      Background and aims: Excessive use of electronic devices has become a major global problem. However, little is known about the development and current landscape of research concerning this field. This study aimed at exploring the overall publication trend and topics of research on the overuse of electronic devices and the Internet from 1971 to 2017.Methods: We systematically searched the Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus databases for published articles on the excessive use of electronic devices and the Internet. Data regarding the publication volume, international collaborations, and geographical locations were analyzed by bibliometrics analysis. Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) was undertaken to categorize publications into different research topics.
    Results: A total of 2,276 papers from the WOS and 600 papers from the Scopus were included. We found a dramatic increase in the number of scientific papers towards addiction to electronic devices and the Internet. The United State led in all publication parameters including the total number of papers and total citations. China, Korea and Taiwan were among the most prolific countries/regions. Smartphone addiction was the main concern, and the relationship between the overuse of electronic devices and the Internet and mental health issues have been highlighted. On the other hand, our study found a limited appearance of discussion on effective treatment and intervention.
    Discussion and Conclusion: The findings of this study call for more national and international cooperation in evaluating and intervening addiction to electronic devices and the Internet to gather more knowledge about this phenomenon and evaluate the effectiveness of treatment.
    Keywords:  Internet addiction; PIU; bibliometrics; gambling disorder; gaming disorder; text mining
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1556/2006.2020.00031
  12. J Public Health Res. 2020 Jun 04. 9(1): 1792
    Salod Z, Singh Y.
      The objective 1 of this study was to investigate trends in breast cancer (BC) prediction using machine learning (ML) publications by analysing country, first author, journal, institutional collaborations and co-occurrence of author keywords. The objective 2 was to provide a review of studies on BC prediction using ML and a blood analysis dataset (Breast Cancer Coimbra Dataset [BCCD]), and the objective 3 was to provide a brief review of studies based on BC prediction using ML and patients' fine needle aspirate cytology data (Wisconsin Breast Cancer Dataset [WBCD]). The design of this study was as follows: for objective 1: bibliometric analysis, data source PubMed (2015-2019); for objective 2: systematic review, data source: Google and Google Scholar (2018-2019); for objective 3: systematic review, data source: Google Scholar (2016-2019). The inclusion criteria for objective 1 were all publication results yielded from the searches. All English papers that had a 'PDF' option from the search results were included for objective 2. A sample of the 'PDF' English papers were included for objective 3. All 116 female patients from the BCCD, consisting of 64 positive BC patients and 52 controls were included in the study for objective 2. For the WBCD, all 699 female patients comprising of 458 with a benign BC tumour and 241 with a malignant BC tumour were included for objective 3. All 2928 publications were included for objective 1. The results showed that the United States of America (USA) produced the highest number of publications (n=803). In total, 2419 first authors contributed towards the publications. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment was the highest ranked journal. Institutional collaborations mainly occurred within the USA. The use of ML for BC screening and detection was the most researched topic. A total of 19 distinct papers were included for objectives 2 and 3. The findings from these studies were never presented to clinicians for validations. In conclusion, the use of ML for BC screening and detection is promising.
    Keywords:  Breast cancer; blood tests; cancer screening; fine needle aspiration; machine learning
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.4081/jphr.2020.1772
  13. J Cancer. 2020 ;11(16): 4823-4831
    Zhang T, Yin X, Yang X, Man J, He Q, Wu Q, Lu M.
      Background: Hundreds of studies have found that the microbiota contributes to the development of gastric cancer in the past two decades. This study aimed to access the research trends of microbiota and gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: Publications from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2019 were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection database and screened according to inclusion criteria. Different kinds of software, SPSS21.0, HistCite, VOSviewer, CiteSpace, and the online bibliometric analysis platform were used to evaluate and visualize the results. Results: A total of 196 publications were finally identified, and the annual number of publications showed an increasing trend. These publications were from 44 countries and the USA showed its dominant position in publication outputs, H-index, total citations, and international collaborations. The journal of Helicobacter was the most productive journal. Correa P and Peek RM published the most papers, and the most productive institution was Vanderbilt University. The keyword of "Helicobacter pylori" ranked first in research frontiers and appeared earlier, and the keyword of "microbiota" began to appear in the past 3 to 5 years. Conclusion: The annual number of publications would continue to grow. Besides the traditional Helicobacter pylori related researches, future research hotspots will focus on microbiota and its mechanism of action.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric Analysis; Gastric Cancer; Microbiota; Research trend
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7150/jca.44126
  14. Pan Afr Med J. 2020 ;35 99
    Kamadjeu R.
      Since its inception in 2008, the Pan African Medical Journal (PAMJ) enjoyed an exponential growth, not only in the number and geographical diversity of submissions received, but also in the range of services offered to researchers and professionals across the broad spectrum of biomedical and public health sciences. PAMJ in 2019 is: 2705 manuscripts submitted, a cumulative number of 13874 authors from 85 countries, 994 manuscripts accepted for publication and 774 articles published. The PAMJ in 2019 is also an editorial board of 15 and 46 dedicated reviewers to whom we extend our sincere appreciation.
    Keywords:  PAMJ; open access; publication; research
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2020.35.99.21683
  15. J Biomed Inform. 2020 Jul 02. pii: S1532-0464(20)30128-3. [Epub ahead of print]108 103500
    Gupta A, Katarya R.
      BACKGROUND: Real-time surveillance in the field of health informatics has emerged as a growing domain of interest among worldwide researchers. Evolution in this field has helped in the introduction of various initiatives related to public health informatics. Surveillance systems in the area of health informatics utilizing social media information have been developed for early prediction of disease outbreaks and to monitor diseases. In the past few years, the availability of social media data, particularly Twitter data, enabled real-time syndromic surveillance that provides immediate analysis and instant feedback to those who are charged with follow-ups and investigation of potential outbreaks. In this paper, we review the recent work, trends, and machine learning(ML) text classification approaches used by surveillance systems seeking social media data in the healthcare domain. We also highlight the limitations and challenges followed by possible future directions that can be taken further in this domain.METHODS: To study the landscape of research in health informatics performing surveillance of the various health-related data posted on social media or web-based platforms, we present a bibliometric analysis of the 1240 publications indexed in multiple scientific databases (IEEE, ACM Digital Library, ScienceDirect, PubMed) from the year 2010-2018. The papers were further reviewed based on the various machine learning algorithms used for analyzing health-related text posted on social media platforms.
    FINDINGS: Based on the corpus of 148 selected articles, the study finds the types of social media or web-based platforms used for surveillance in the healthcare domain, along with the health topic(s) studied by them. In the corpus of selected articles, we found 26 articles were using machine learning technique. These articles were studied to find commonly used ML techniques. The majority of studies (24%) focused on the surveillance of flu or influenza-like illness (ILI). Twitter (64%) is the most popular data source to perform surveillance research using social media text data, and Support Vector Machine (SVM) (33%) being the most used ML algorithm for text classification.
    CONCLUSIONS: The inclusion of online data in surveillance systems has improved the disease prediction ability over traditional syndromic surveillance systems. However, social media based surveillance systems have many limitations and challenges, including noise, demographic bias, privacy issues, etc. Our paper mentions future directions, which can be useful for researchers working in the area. Researchers can use this paper as a library for social media based surveillance systems in the healthcare domain and can expand such systems by incorporating the future works discussed in our paper.
    Keywords:  Health informatics; Machine learning; Outbreak detection; Social media; Surveillance systems
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbi.2020.103500
  16. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2020 Jul 10.
    Ota HCU, Smith BG, Alamri A, Robertson FC, Marcus H, Hirst A, Broekman M, Hutchinson P, McCulloch P, Kolias A.
      BACKGROUND: The Idea, Development, Exploration, Assessment and Long-term study (IDEAL) framework was created to provide a structured way for assessing and evaluating novel surgical techniques and devices.OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper was to investigate the utilization of the IDEAL framework within neurosurgery, and to identify factors influencing implementation.
    METHODS: A bibliometric analysis of the 7 key IDEAL papers on Scopus, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases (2009-2019) was performed. A second journal-specific search then identified additional papers citing the IDEAL framework. Publications identified were screened by two independent reviewers to select neurosurgery-specific articles.
    RESULTS: The citation search identified 1336 articles. The journal search identified another 16 articles. Following deduplication and review, 51 relevant articles remained; 14 primary papers (27%) and 37 secondary papers (73%). Of the primary papers, 5 (36%) papers applied the IDEAL framework to their research correctly; two were aligned to the pre-IDEAL stage, one to the Idea and Development stages, and two to the Exploration stage. Of the secondary papers, 21 (57%) explicitly discussed the IDEAL framework. Eighteen (86%) of these were supportive of implementing the framework, while one was not, and two were neutral.
    CONCLUSION: The adoption of the IDEAL framework in neurosurgery has been slow, particularly for early-stage neurosurgical techniques and inventions. However, the largely positive reviews in secondary literature suggest potential for increased use that may be achieved with education and publicity.
    Keywords:  Evidence; IDEAL framework; Innovation; Neurosurgery; Research; Surgery
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00701-020-04477-5
  17. Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Apr;18(2): e102622
    Bahadoran Z, Mirmiran P, Kashfi K, Ghasemi A.
      Citation, the act of properly referring to others' ideas, thoughts, or concepts, is a common and critical practice in scientific writing. Citations are used to give credit to own work, to support an argument, to acknowledge others' work, to distinguish other authors' ideas from one's work, and to direct readers to sources of information. A good citation adds to the scientific prestige of the paper and makes it more valuable to the reader. The citation has three basic elements: quoting from others, an in-text reference to the source, and bibliographic details of the source. Beyond technical skills, the citation needs an in-depth knowledge of the field and should follow basic rules, including the selection of relevant and valid sources, stating information/facts from others' work, and referring to others' work accurately and ethically. Several systems and styles are used to cite scientific sources; however, the most commonly used systems in medical sciences are 'author-date' systems (e.g., Harvard system) and numerical systems (e.g., Vancouver system). Here, we discuss how to make an accurate, complete, and ethical citation, and provide simple and practical guides to organize references in a scientific medical paper.
    Keywords:  Citation; Medical Scientific Journals; Reference; Scientific Writing
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5812/ijem.102622
  18. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Jul 04.
    Sharma AK, Kaur G.
      Ground level ozone is a major air pollutant with known toxic effects on humans. The research field is well established with many scientists from developed and developing countries contributing original research articles. Strict regulations for ozone air pollution are being implemented worldwide based on supporting scientific literature. In this scientometric analysis, we have analyzed the research trends in the field of ozone air pollution during 2011-2019. The collected SCOPUS data was analyzed using common scientometric analysis methods for known indicators to identify top ten rankings and scientific collaborations important for the field. Our result demonstrates that the USA is leading the field as USEPA and American regulatory authorities have funded most of the research. Two scientists, Russell A.G. and Schwartz J., working in American institutions, are leading with the most publications. Our assessment of ozone and PM together shows a significant impact on research direction in the last years to accommodate the study of both air pollutants together. In addition, we have analyzed the possible disease trends in the field for the last 3 years and identified that cardiovascular system, nervous system, and diabetes are upcoming disease areas that would be studied in the coming future.
    Keywords:  Co-author analysis; Disease trends; Ozone air pollution; Ozone and PM air pollution; Publication analysis; Scientific collaborations
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09941-4
  19. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2020 Jul 05. e13534
    Persson PB.
      Citations to Acta Physiologica increase dramatically, reflecting the quality of the studies published. The buildup of citations to Acta Physiologica since 2008 is seen in Figure 1. The 2019 ranking of Acta Physiologica remains constant, topping the list of those journals that publish articles from the entire field of physiology. When adding review journals and specialized journals in physiology (e.g., Journal of Pineal Research), Acta Physiologica is still the number eight of 81 journals in the physiology category. For the latest three years, the impact factor (2019: 5.54) is stable between five and six.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/apha.13534
  20. Pediatr Dermatol. 2020 Jul 09.
    Baker C, Dwan D, Fields A, Mann JA, Pace NC, Hamann CR.
      BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The representation of women among practicing dermatologists has increased over the last several decades. Here, we analyze the evolving representation of women in the Society for Pediatric Dermatology (SPD) and the Pediatric Dermatology Research Alliance (PeDRA), with particular focus on the role of women as society leaders, researchers, and annual meeting speakers.METHODS: A retrospective review of SPD and PeDRA professional society leaders (SPD presidents, PeDRA co-chairs, PeDRA executive committee members), grant recipients (pilot grant recipients, team/collaborative grant recipients, William Weston Research Grant recipients), and annual meeting speakers (named lecturers at the SPD Annual Meeting, plenary lecturers at the PeDRA Annual Conference) was performed. Authors of research articles in Pediatric Dermatology were reviewed at three-year intervals from 1983 through 2019. The percentage of women among all leadership, grant, authorship, and lectureship categories was analyzed over time.
    RESULTS: Women have represented 70% of SPD presidents since 2011 and 75% of PeDRA co-chairs since 2013. The percentage of women among first and senior authors of research articles in Pediatric Dermatology increased significantly from 1983 to 2019 (Cochran Armitage test for trend, P < .01), and women earned the majority of SPD/PeDRA pilot project grants (2008-2018), collaborative team grants (2016-2018), and William Weston Research Grants (1995-2015). At SPD Annual meetings from 2010 to 2019, women comprised 44% of named lecturers but accounted for approximately 78% of the pediatric dermatology workforce (P < .01).
    CONCLUSION: Despite the widespread influence of women in pediatric dermatology leadership and research, gender discrepancies remain among named lecturer positions at national pediatric dermatology meetings.
    Keywords:  gender; gender bias; pediatric dermatology; research; women representation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/pde.14266
  21. Turk J Surg. 2020 Mar;36(1): 9-14
    Ferhatoğlu MF, Kıvılcım T, Kartal A, Filiz Aİ, Kebudi A.
      Objectives: Setting up and advocating a thesis is mandatory at the end of the residency training program to become a specialist in general surgery according to the regulations on medical specialization in Turkey. Writing a thesis helps the resident to learn to ask structured questions, assembling the most accurate study design, managing the study process, collecting the results and building a conclusion with medical implications. In this descriptive study, we aimed to investigate the publication rates of the theses written in the field of general surgery and to assess the properties of the published theses.Material and Methods: We performed an online search on September 1, 2018, about the theses of general surgery residents on the website of National Thesis data center of Academic Educational Board in Turkey including theses of medical residents in university-affiliated hospitals and analyzed theses accomplished between 1998-2018. The publication status of the theses was assessed by the entry of author name, the title of the theses and keywords of the theses by using the search engines of PubMed, Google Scholar and Turkish Academic Network and Information Center Turkish Database (ULAKBIM). Data were presented in a descriptive form as absolute numbers and percentages.
    Results: Between 1998-2018, 1996 theses were completed. 393 (20.5%) of these were published in a journal, and 288 (14.4%) were published in a journal indexed in SCI/SCIE. According to research methodologies, 79.2% of the experimental studies were published in SCI/SCIE indexed journals.
    Conclusion: Publication rates of the theses in the field of general surgery are low as they are in other specialties of medicine. This descriptive study might give an idea about the low scientific publication rates of general surgery theses. Further studies are needed to understand the underlying factors, which are responsible for this scant scientific performance.
    Keywords:  Thesis; general surgery; publication; residency; surgical education
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5578/turkjsurg.4405
  22. J Clin Rheumatol. 2020 Jul 06.
    Zhong M, Xu C, Wu Y, Chen Q, Chen R.
      OBJECTIVES: Assessment of scientific productivity provides a macroscopic view of research activity in a specific field. However, no analyses of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have been published to date. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the characteristics of studies published on RA worldwide.METHODS: The Web of Science database was searched for articles on RA published between 2017 and 2019. Analysis parameters included the number of articles, number of times each publication was cited, country, journal, and research output adjusted by population and gross domestic product.
    RESULTS: Overall, 16,936 publications were identified. The United States was the largest contributor (17.71%), followed by China (17.17%), Japan (6.37%), the United Kingdom (5.82%), and Italy (4.76%). High-income economies (69.98%) ranked first in productivity, followed by middle- (30%) and low-income economies (0.02%). Significant correlations were found between research productivity and population (r = 0.461, p = 0.000), as well as gross domestic product (r = 0.786, p = 0.000). Publications from the United States received the highest number of total citations (21,669), followed by China (10,952) and the United Kingdom (7846). Austria had the highest average citations (16.18), followed by Norway (8.19) and the United Kingdom (7.98). When normalized by population, the leading country was Denmark, followed by the Netherlands and Sweden. When adjusted by gross domestic product, Denmark ranked first in publications on RA, followed by the Netherlands and Greece.
    CONCLUSION: The United States emerged as the largest contributor to the field of RA research. Countries with large populations and economies tended to have higher research productivity. Multiple countries in Europe performed better in research output when normalized by population and economy sizes.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1097/RHU.0000000000001475
  23. Data Brief. 2020 Aug;31 105908
    Minas JP, Simpson NC, Tacheva ZY.
      The Emergency Response Operations Management (EROM) Literature Sample is a collection of 644 papers winnowed from over 5,000 related articles through application of a binary classification tree, collecting the state-of-the-art in decision models of emergencies in progress. References are scraped from each of these 644 publications, to create a dataset describing a total of 14,821 papers linked by 23,175 citation relationships, the analysis of which is presented in, "Modeling Emergency Response Operations: A Theory Building Survey" in Computers and Operations Research[1]. Bibliographic research communities are identified within the data set by framing the task of network partitioning as a cluster ensemble problem from machine learning [2]. This data may be used in several ways, including as an extended reference section for [1], as all 644 papers studied could not be individually cited there. Other examples of potential reuse are further study of a particular research cluster, comparative study of the structural characteristics of this bibliographic network with literature in other fields, and as a test-bed for the further development of robust clustering algorithms.
    Keywords:  Bibliographic network; Citation analysis; Disaster management; Edge file; Emergency response; Literature sample
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105908
  24. J Surg Educ. 2020 Jul 07. pii: S1931-7204(20)30219-1. [Epub ahead of print]
    Mellia JA, Jou C, Rathi S, Perzia BM, Morel A, Azoury SC, Fischer JP.
      OBJECTIVE: With USMLE Step I score reports becoming pass/fail, research output may become a more important factor for applicants in the integrated plastic surgery match. The authors aim to assess the research output of successful applicants and bibliometric variables associated with matching at higher tier programs.DESIGN: A search of peer-reviewed publications up to or during September before the matriculant's match year was performed using PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus for each resident. Bibliometric variables were analyzed including those associated with matching at higher tier Doximity reputation/research programs.
    SETTING: University of Pennsylvania (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania).
    PARTICIPANTS: Integrated plastic surgery interns for the 2019 to 2020 and 2020 to 2021 academic years (n = 301).
    RESULTS: Three hundred one matriculants at 73 programs produced a total of 731 manuscripts. The mean number of publications and H-index per applicant was 2.43 ± 3.84 and 1.01 ± 1.30, respectively. The average and maximum journal impact factor was 2.8 ± 1.81 and 4.66 ± 5.59, respectively. H-index, total publications, plastic surgery-related and unrelated publications, and first-author studies were all associated with matching into both a higher ranked reputation and research tier program, respectively (p < 0.05). Highest impact factor publications were associated with matching at top tier research programs only (p < 0.05). Among students from US News Top 40 and non-Top 40 medical schools, total publications and first-author publications remained associated with matching at a higher tier reputation and research program (p < 0.05). However, plastic surgery-related publications were significantly linked to matching into a higher tier program for matriculants from non-Top 40 medical schools only (p < 0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS: Research productivity, particularly total publications and first-author publications, is associated with an increased likelihood of matching at a higher tier integrated plastic surgery residency. Regardless of their medical school's US News rank, students may gain a competitive edge in the match with increased research output.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric; Integrated; Match; Plastic surgery; Research; Tiers
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2020.06.026
  25. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jul 01. pii: E4729. [Epub ahead of print]17(13):
    Meseguer-Sánchez V, Abad-Segura E, Belmonte-Ureña LJ, Molina-Moreno V.
      Responsible higher education institutions have an impact on society and economic, environmental, and social development. These effects define the axes of the socially responsible management of the universities. The concept of university social responsibility (USR) manages these relationships to produce a positive impact on society through higher education, research, and the transfer of knowledge and technology, as well as education for sustainability. For this study, worldwide research into this subject was studied for the period 1970-2019. A bibliometric analysis of 870 articles was made, obtaining results for the scientific productivity of the journals, authors, institutions, and countries contributing to this research. The main category is business, management, and accounting. The most productive journal is the Business and Society Review, while the California Management Review is the most cited. The authors with the most articles are Stavnezer, Luo, and Lanero. The most productive institution is Wuhan University. The United States is the country with the most publications and citations, and the same country, together with the United Kingdom, make the most international contributions. Evidence shows growing worldwide interest in the economic and environmental impacts of USR. Future research should focus on analysing the links between the responsible and sustainable consumption of universities and their short-term financial, economic, and sustainable impacts.
    Keywords:  corporate sustainability; economic; environment; scientific production; sustainable development; university social responsibility
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17134729
  26. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(7): e0235385
    Waqas A, Zafar S, Lawlor DA, Wright J, Hafeez A, Ahmad I, Sikander S, Rahman A.
      The present study aims to: a) systematically map the of birth cohort studies from the South Asian region b) examine the major research foci and landmark contributions from these cohorts using reproducible scientometric techniques and c) offer recommendations on establishing new birth cohorts in Pakistan, building upon the strengths, weaknesses and gaps of previous cohorts. Bibliographic records for a total of 260 articles, published during through December 2018, were retrieved from the Web of Science (core database). All data were analysed using Microsoft Excel (2013), Web of Science platform and CiteSpace. A series of network analysis were then run for each time-period using the link reduction method and pathfinder network scaling. The co-cited articles were clustered into their homogeneous research clusters. The clusters were named using the Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI) method that utilized author keywords as source of names for these clusters. The scientometric analyses of original research output from these birth cohorts also paint a pessimistic landscape in Pakistan- where Pakistani sites for birth cohorts contributed only 31 publications; a majority of these utilized the MAL-ED birth cohort data. A majority of original studies were published from birth cohorts in India (156), Bangladesh (63), and Nepal (15). Out of these contributions, 31 studies reported data from multiple countries. The three major birth cohorts include prospective and multi-country MAL-ED birth cohort and The Pakistan Early Childhood Development Scale Up Trial, and a retrospective Maternal and infant nutrition intervention cohort. In addition to these, a few small-scale birth cohorts reported findings pertaining to neonatal sepsis, intrauterine growth retardation and its effects on linear growth of children and environmental enteropathy.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0235385
  27. Cureus. 2020 Jun 04. 12(6): e8441
    Atwan Y, Charron BP, Sidhu S, Cavanagh J, Degen R.
      Objective The Hirsch Index (h-index) and m-index are often utilized to assess academic productivity and have been widely found to have a positive association with academic promotion and grant selection. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between these indices and academic ranks among Canadian orthopaedic surgery faculty members. Methods Five hundred and sixty-seven Canadian orthopaedic surgery faculty members associated with residency training programs were included in the study. H-indices of individual faculty members were obtained through Elsevier's Scopus database. Faculty members' year of residency graduation was recorded from their respective licensing body database and was utilized as a surrogate for the start of their academic career to determine career duration and calculate the m-index. Faculty members were divided based on their academic rank (assistant, associate and full professors) and subspecialty. Results Increased h-index, m-index and long career duration were associated with increased academic rank, while gender did not demonstrate an association. Overall, males had a significantly higher h-index compared to females, but no significant difference was observed when comparing the m-index between genders. The m-index varied between subspecialties among senior faculty, but not among junior-ranked faculty. Conclusion Bibliometric academic productivity using h-index and m-index is associated with academic ranking among Canadian orthopaedic surgeons at training institutions. Although these indices may provide insight into the academic merits of faculty members, caution must be taken about utilizing it indiscriminately and their limitations must be strongly considered.
    Keywords:  academic medicine; academic promotion; bibliometrics; gender disparity; h index; orthopaedic surgery
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.8441