bims-evares Biomed News
on Evaluation of research
Issue of 2020‒02‒09
thirty-four papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society


  1. Gac Med Mex. 2020 ;156(1): 4-10
    Ruiz-Coronel A, Andrade JLJ, Carrillo-Calvet H.
      Introduction: Scientometrics analyzes scientific publications through bibliometric and computational techniques, whereby productivity and impact indicators are generated.Objective: To propose a multidimensional methodology in order to obtain the scientometric profile of the National Cancer Institute (INCan), Mexico, and rank it with regard to other national health institutions.
    Method: Using the LabSOM software and the ViBlioSOM methodology based on artificial neural networks, the INCan scientific production indexed in the Web of Science from 2007 to 2017 was analyzed. The multidimensional scientometric profile of the Institute was obtained and compared with that of other national health institutions.
    Results: In terms of productivity, INCan ranks fourth among the 10 Mexican public health institutions indexed in the Web of Science; in the normalized impact ranking, it ranks sixth. Although out of 1323 articles 683 (51.62 %) did not receive citations, 11 articles classified as excellent (0.83 %) obtained 24 % of 11,932 citations and, consequently, INCan normalized impact rate showed a mean productivity higher than the world mean.
    Conclusion: Multidimensional analysis with the proposed neural network enables obtaining a more reliable and comprehensive absolute and relative institutional scientiometric profile than that derived from measuring isolated variables.
    Keywords:  Investigación en sistemas de salud pública; Medición de resultados; Mexico; México; Outcome measure; Research in public health systems
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.24875/GMM.19005103
  2. J Adv Nurs. 2020 Feb 06.
    Nicoll LH, Oermann MH, Carter-Templeton H, Owens JK, Edie AH.
      AIMS: To analyze subsequent citations of 91 articles identified by editors as reflecting excellence in nursing literature and in a companion dataset of 82 other articles from the same journals; and to compare the concepts of reach, persistence and dissemination in these two datasets.DESIGN: A quantitative bibliometric analysis and qualitative thematic analysis were done between February - June 2019.
    DATA SOURCES: Ninety-one articles nominated by editors comprised the first dataset. A companion dataset was created by selecting articles (N = 82) from the same journals.
    REVIEW METHODS: Articles were assessed for type, focus, discipline, total number of authors and geographic location of the first author. Scopus was searched to obtain bibliographic information and subsequent second and third generation citations for all indexed articles.
    RESULTS: For the articles selected by the editors, 76 were indexed and 43 (56.5%) were cited at least once, resulting in 333 citations in the second and third generations. For the companion articles, 38 (of 78) were cited, with 175 subsequent citations. These findings are congruent with the prior study.
    CONCLUSION: Articles in nursing journals are being read and cited. The concepts of persistence, reach and dissemination are supported and their use in bibliometric analysis is warranted.
    IMPACT: This novel research highlights the global and interdisciplinary impact of a unique set of articles representing nursing and nursing specialty areas. All the articles in the virtual journal and companion dataset were from nursing journals, but dissemination was to other disciplines, primarily medicine, as well as nursing. Findings from this replication study continue the effort to document the rigour of content in the nursing literature; support its use to inform policy and practice at all levels; and offer evidence of excellence in content to inform nursing curricula.
    Keywords:  bibliometrics; citation analysis; dissemination; geographic distribution; nursing knowledge; persistence
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.14316
  3. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2020 Feb 07. 960327120903481
    Nascimento FA, Silva DME, Nunes HF, Parise MR.
      Genomic instability is a risk to organism health detected by methods such as the comet assay (CA). It is a highly sensitive and versatile method to detect low levels of DNA damage in a wide range of cells from humans as well as from other species as compared to other methods with the same proposal. CA is a powerful DNA damage analysis tool and its applicability extends to the genotoxicity analysis of, that is, drugs and carcinogenic substances. This study analyzed papers employing CA in the Scopus database in order to assess its scientific importance, employability, and trends by evaluating: number of articles per year, total citations and per year, country of publication and their clusters, clusters of authors, most frequently abstracts terms, name of journal, affiliations, country of publication, subject area, relevant keywords compared to citation clusters, and impact factor (IF) CiteScore. It was retrieved 13,828 articles from 1990 to 2018, with a peak in 2014 and a decline from 2015 to 2018. Four author clusters from China, United States, India, and Brazil were identified, countries presenting the greatest number of publications. China presented the most recent scientific advances in the field. It was also detected nine clusters of themes, and a positive correlation between publications, citations, and the IF. There are full employability and versatility in the use of the method. Currently, there is an advance in Chinese scientific production on the subject, and there is greater use of the method on oxidative damage researches.
    Keywords:  Comet assay; DNA damage; bibliometric; genomic instability; genotoxicity
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1177/0960327120903481
  4. World Neurosurg. 2020 Jan 29. pii: S1878-8750(20)30189-3. [Epub ahead of print]
    Xie L, Chen Z, Wang H, Zheng C, Jiang J.
      BACKGROUND: Atlantoaxial spine surgery is a challenge to spinal surgeons because of its proximity to neurovascular structures. This study aimed to identify and analyze the scientific publications in atlantoaxial spine surgery from different countries and institutions.METHODS: Clarivate Analytics Web of Science was used to search all articles in topic of atlantoaxial spine surgery. The annual research, countries, journals, authors, institutions, citation frequency, and journal metrics were extracted. These results from countries and hotspots (keywords in publications) were undergone cooccurrence analysis using VOSviewer. After that, the top 100 most cited articles were further analyzed.
    RESULTS: A total of 3161 papers were included. There existed an increasing trend in the number of publications on atlantoaxial spine surgery in recent years. Among all countries, the United States contributed the most publications. Seth Gordhandas Sundarda Medical College was the most contributive institution. Among all research categories, Fixation and fusion were the most common areas. The screw-rod system published in top cited article (cited 823 times) appeared to be the most popular fixation. With the development of C1 and C2 screw technology, screw-rod system is getting more and more popular.
    CONCLUSIONS: Atlantoaxial literature has grown continuously over the past years. The United States was the largest contributor in this field. Fixation and fusion were the most common areas and fixation related studies should be closely followed. Screw-rod system is getting more and more popular.
    Keywords:  Atlantoaxial; Bibliometric analysis; VOSviewer
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.01.171
  5. J Orthop. 2020 May-Jun;19:19 132-137
    Lum ZC, Pereira GC, Giordani M, Meehan JP.
      Introduction: As the research landscape evolves, we sought to investigate the current most cited Orthopaedic Surgery articles and compare these to previously cited articles.Methods: Web of Science database screened orthopaedic journal articles with comparison to previous data using multivariate regression analysis.
    Results: Rate of citations increased 172% within the last decade. Previous rank and citations within the last decade had a greater effect on contemporary rank (p = 0.084, p = 0.002, respectively).
    Conclusion: Trends in investigative research can shift by the next decade. Previous citation rank and citations in last decade contributed most to current rank.
    Keywords:  Most referenced orthopaedic research papers; Orthopaedic research; Top 100 orthopaedic articles; Top 100 orthopaedic papers; orthopedics
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jor.2019.11.039
  6. J Surg Educ. 2020 Jan 31. pii: S1931-7204(19)30901-8. [Epub ahead of print]
    Siegel N, Lopez J, Cho A, Lifchez SD.
      PURPOSE: Research output is 1 element of a multifactorial process that fellowships consider when evaluating applicants. Hand fellowships present a unique circumstance in which applicants from various specialties-plastic surgery, orthopedic surgery, or general surgery-may apply. This project aims to assess and compare the research output among current hand surgery fellows who received their residency training in plastic surgery vs. orthopedic surgery.METHODS: This project was a cross-sectional study of current hand surgery fellows for the 2018-2019 academic year affiliated with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-accredited hand surgery fellowship programs in the United States. Fellows were identified using departmental websites, and their bibliometric profiles were found on SCOPUS. The study variables collected were bibliometric (total number of publications, total number of citations, total number of first-author publications, maximum number of citations for a single work, h-index) and demographic (gender, training background). Descriptive analyses were performed as well as logistic regressions.
    RESULTS: According to National Resident Matching Program, 170 applicants successfully matched to hand surgery fellowships for the 2018 appointment year. A total of 125 (74%) hand surgery fellows were identified across 83 programs. Thirty-five fellows (28%) received their residency training in plastic surgery, 85 in orthopedic surgery (68%), and 5 in general surgery (4%). Fellows published a total of 436 peer-reviewed publications. Bibliometric measures of total number of publications, total citations, maximum citations for a single work, and h-index were significantly higher among fellows with a plastic surgery background than those with an orthopedic surgery background. Total publications, total citations, maximum citations, and h-index remained significant when controlling for gender and residency affiliation (academic vs. community).
    CONCLUSIONS: The majority of current hand fellows attended orthopedic residencies. However, fellows from plastic surgery residencies have higher research productivity than their orthopedic surgery counterparts.
    Keywords:  Interpersonal and Communication Skills; Medical Knowledge; Practice-Based Learning and Improvement; Professionalism; academic productivity; h-index; hand fellowship; number of citations; number of publications; quantitative metrics
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2019.12.015
  7. J Surg Res. 2020 Jan 31. pii: S0022-4804(19)30861-3. [Epub ahead of print]250 39-44
    Mullins CH, Boyd CJ, Lindeman B.
      BACKGROUND: Citation count is a common bibliometric tool used to determine the long-term impact and performance of journal articles. Many of the other potential factors associated with highly and lowly cited articles in the general surgery literature, however, remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to attempt to identify characteristics of articles that may predict or correlate with article citation counts and, consequently, article impact.METHODS: We identified articles from Annals of Surgery, British Journal of Surgery, and Journal of the American College of Surgeons between 1998 and 2008 that had 0-5 total citations. We then matched these articles to an identical number of the highest cited articles from these same journals for comparison. Student's t-tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum tests, chi-squared tests, and Fisher's exact tests were used to determine the significance of difference between data sets at a predetermined level of significance set to P < 0.05.
    RESULTS: Significant differences of article characteristics between the two cohorts included higher prevalence of clinical studies (P = 0.3919), multi-institutional (P = 0.0007) and multi-national (P = 0.0023) studies, surgical oncology (P < 0.0001) or hepatobiliary focus (P < 0.0001) and published in Annals of Surgery (P < 0.0001) for the highly cited cohort. Highly cited articles were also more likely to have larger sample sizes (P = 0.0009), more authors (P < 0.0001), presence of statistically significant results (P < 0.0001), more references (P < 0.0001), more tables (P < 0.0001), more figures (P = 0.0001), and higher word counts for manuscript (P < 0.0001), abstract (P < 0.0001), and title (P < 0.0001).
    CONCLUSIONS: There are a relatively small number of articles with 0-5 citations after 10 y for these major general surgery journals. This indicates that journals are consistently able to select articles that will be impactful in aiding future research. Certain factors, however, are associated with being highly cited as opposed to lowly cited, and an understanding of these factors can aid researchers and journals in designing and reporting future studies.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric; Citations; General surgery; Peer-review
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.12.014
  8. Urology. 2020 Jan 29. pii: S0090-4295(20)30101-1. [Epub ahead of print]
    Pace NM, Maganty A, Siripong N, Lee AJ, Huang D, Bandari J, Jacobs BL, Davies BJ.
      OBJECTIVES: To examine the distribution of industry payments to male and female academic urologists and the relationship between industry funding, academic rank and scholarly impact.METHODS: Academic urologists from 131 programs with publicly available websites were compiled. Gender, rank, fellowship training, and scholarly impact metrics were recorded. Data from the 2016 Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Open Payments database were paired with faculty names. Comparisons were made using Fisher's Exact, Wilcoxon Rank Sum and Spearman's Rank-Order tests. Multivariable logistic regression modeling identified predictors of receiving payments in the top quintile.
    RESULTS: Among 1,657 academic urologists, males comprised 84%. While there were no gender differences in the number of urologists listed in the Open Payments Database, males received more total funding (p<0.001) and higher median general payments per capita (p<0.03). Males also received higher proportions of research funding (p=0.002), speaker fees (p=0.03), education fees (p=0.03) and higher median consulting fees (p=0.003). Overall, males had higher scholarly impact (p<0.001), which correlated with total industry payments (rho=0.27, p<0.001). Predictors of accepting the top quintile payments include male gender, associate professorship and H-index score ≥ 10.
    CONCLUSIONS: Most academic urologists accepted at least one industry payment in 2016, but males received more funding than females. There is a positive correlation between total industry payments, H-index and total publications. More research is needed to understand why gender and scholarly productivity are associated with higher payouts. This is another important area that may influence career advancement and compensation for female urologists.
    Keywords:  academic careers; bibliometrics; drug Industry/economics; gender; urologists
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.urology.2020.01.022
  9. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Jan 29. pii: E830. [Epub ahead of print]17(3):
    Ma Q, Zhang Y.
      Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD), a major component of the hydrological cycle, has significant impacts on the sustainable development of the marine environment. This study aimed to examine the literature characteristics and research hotspots of SGD based on Web of Science's citation database from 1998-2019. With systematic bibliometric analysis, insights were made into multiple aspects including research output, subject categories, journals, countries/territories, institutions, authors, and hotspots and research trends. Results showed that the current amount of publications on SGD has increased exponentially. The characteristics of multi-subject, active international and inter-institutional collaborations were identified. There were 11 core journals publishing the research on SGD, and the number of covered journals increased linearly from 1998. USA had distinct advantages in publication outputs and took the core position in international collaborations. At present, the research hotspots of SGD mainly include the following: dynamics process and estimation of SGD with hydrogeological methods, tracer techniques, geochemical process in subterranean estuary, and dissolved material inputs to coastal waters via SGD. Citation analysis implied much development space in carbon flux transported by SGD and the implement of head as groundwater tracer. These results provided an instructive perspective of the present situation and future research direction on SGD.
    Keywords:  bibliometric; hydrological cycle; marine environment; submarine groundwater discharge (SGD)
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030830
  10. BMC Med Res Methodol. 2020 Feb 07. 20(1): 25
    Janssens ACJW, Gwinn M, Brockman JE, Powell K, Goodman M.
      BACKGROUND: We recently developed CoCites, a citation-based search method that is designed to be more efficient than traditional keyword-based methods. The method begins with identification of one or more highly relevant publications (query articles) and consists of two searches: the co-citation search, which ranks publications on their co-citation frequency with the query articles, and the citation search, which ranks publications on frequency of all citations that cite or are cited by the query articles.METHODS: We aimed to reproduce the literature searches of published systematic reviews and meta-analyses and assess whether CoCites retrieves all eligible articles while screening fewer titles.
    RESULTS: A total of 250 reviews were included. CoCites retrieved a median of 75% of the articles that were included in the original reviews. The percentage of retrieved articles was higher (88%) when the query articles were cited more frequently and when they had more overlap in their citations. Applying CoCites to only the highest-cited article yielded similar results. The co-citation and citation searches combined were more efficient when the review authors had screened more than 500 titles, but not when they had screened less.
    CONCLUSIONS: CoCites is an efficient and accurate method for finding relevant related articles. The method uses the expert knowledge of authors to rank related articles, does not depend on keyword selection and requires no special expertise to build search queries. The method is transparent and reproducible.
    Keywords:  Citation; Co-citation; Keywords; Literature search; Meta-analysis; Systematic review
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12874-020-0907-5
  11. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 Feb 04.
    Wong S, Mah AXY, Nordin AH, Nyakuma BB, Ngadi N, Mat R, Amin NAS, Ho WS, Lee TH.
      The rapidly increasing generation of municipal solid waste (MSW) threatens the environmental integrity and well-being of humans at a global level. Incineration is regarded as a technically sound technology for the management of MSW. However, the effective management of the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) ashes remains a challenge. This article presents the global dynamics of MSWI ashes research from 1994 to 2018 based on a bibliometric analysis of 1810 publications (research articles and conference proceedings) extracted from the Web of Science database, followed by a comprehensive summary on the research developments in the field. The results indicate the rapid growth of annual publications on MSWI ashes research, with China observed as the most productive country within the study period. Waste Management, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Chemosphere and Waste Management & Research, which accounted for 35.42% of documents on MSWI research, are the most prominent journals in the field. The most critical thematic areas on this topic are MSWI ashes characterisation, dioxin emissions from fly ash, valorisation of bottom ash and heavy metal removal. The evolution of MSWI ashes treatment technologies is also discussed, together with the challenges and future research directions. This is the first bibliometric analysis on global MSWI ashes research based on a sufficiently large dataset, which could provide new insights for researchers to initiate further research with leading institutions/authors and ultimately advance this research field.
    Keywords:  Circular economy; Closed-loop recycling; Microwave-assisted hydrothermal treatment; Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins; Polychlorinated dibenzofurans; Resource sustainability
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-07933-y
  12. J Med Internet Res. 2020 Jan 23. 22(1): e16816
    Wang J, Deng H, Liu B, Hu A, Liang J, Fan L, Zheng X, Wang T, Lei J.
      BACKGROUND: Natural language processing (NLP) is an important traditional field in computer science, but its application in medical research has faced many challenges. With the extensive digitalization of medical information globally and increasing importance of understanding and mining big data in the medical field, NLP is becoming more crucial.OBJECTIVE: The goal of the research was to perform a systematic review on the use of NLP in medical research with the aim of understanding the global progress on NLP research outcomes, content, methods, and study groups involved.
    METHODS: A systematic review was conducted using the PubMed database as a search platform. All published studies on the application of NLP in medicine (except biomedicine) during the 20 years between 1999 and 2018 were retrieved. The data obtained from these published studies were cleaned and structured. Excel (Microsoft Corp) and VOSviewer (Nees Jan van Eck and Ludo Waltman) were used to perform bibliometric analysis of publication trends, author orders, countries, institutions, collaboration relationships, research hot spots, diseases studied, and research methods.
    RESULTS: A total of 3498 articles were obtained during initial screening, and 2336 articles were found to meet the study criteria after manual screening. The number of publications increased every year, with a significant growth after 2012 (number of publications ranged from 148 to a maximum of 302 annually). The United States has occupied the leading position since the inception of the field, with the largest number of articles published. The United States contributed to 63.01% (1472/2336) of all publications, followed by France (5.44%, 127/2336) and the United Kingdom (3.51%, 82/2336). The author with the largest number of articles published was Hongfang Liu (70), while Stéphane Meystre (17) and Hua Xu (33) published the largest number of articles as the first and corresponding authors. Among the first author's affiliation institution, Columbia University published the largest number of articles, accounting for 4.54% (106/2336) of the total. Specifically, approximately one-fifth (17.68%, 413/2336) of the articles involved research on specific diseases, and the subject areas primarily focused on mental illness (16.46%, 68/413), breast cancer (5.81%, 24/413), and pneumonia (4.12%, 17/413).
    CONCLUSIONS: NLP is in a period of robust development in the medical field, with an average of approximately 100 publications annually. Electronic medical records were the most used research materials, but social media such as Twitter have become important research materials since 2015. Cancer (24.94%, 103/413) was the most common subject area in NLP-assisted medical research on diseases, with breast cancers (23.30%, 24/103) and lung cancers (14.56%, 15/103) accounting for the highest proportions of studies. Columbia University and the talents trained therein were the most active and prolific research forces on NLP in the medical field.
    Keywords:  clinical; electronic medical record; information extraction; medicine; natural language processing
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2196/16816
  13. BMC Complement Med Ther. 2020 Feb 07. 20(1): 39
    Huang L, Shi X, Zhang N, Gao Y, Bai Q, Liu L, Zuo L, Hong B.
      BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Over the years, traditional medicines for stroke treatment have undergone tremendous progress, but few bibliometric studies have been performed. This study explored the trends and issues relating to the application of traditional medicine in stroke research.METHODS: A bibliometric search was performed in the Web of Science Core Collection database to identify studies that investigated the application of traditional medicine in stroke management. CiteSpace VI and Excel 2016 were used to analyze information from the retrieved studies. Activity index and attractive index were used to explore the worldwide development modes.
    RESULTS: A total of 1083 English articles published between 2004 and 2018 were identified. Over the last 15 years, the developments in research occurred in three geographic clusters. The development modes were investigated and classified into 4 categories. In mainland China, the number and impact of research showed an increasing trend over the study period. The United States played a leading role in this topic. Three clusters of institutes and the majority of authors mainly came from South Korea, Taiwan and mainland China. Reperfusion injury and angiogenesis were identified as the potential topics likely to dominate future research in this field.
    CONCLUSION: The progress of studies on traditional medicine for stroke could be explained by the global attention to traditional medicine, the geospatial proximity for research collabration, and the increasing resources invested. Based on a large amount of existing research, researchers engaged in this topic should objectively consider the influential studies to identify and solve the common issues worldwide.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric analysis; Stroke; Traditional medicine; Trends; Web of science
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-020-2832-x
  14. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2020 Feb 07.
    Yeung AWK, Tzvetkov NT, Georgieva MG, Ognyanov IV, Kordos K, Jóźwik A, Kühl T, Perry G, Petralia MC, Mazzon E, Atanasov A.
      SIGNIFICANCE: Excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), and therefore, many scientific works were published on the impact of ROS on the development of prevalent NDs, such as Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Since quantitative and qualitative bibliometric analyses on this research area has not been done yet, the aim of the current work is to explore the scientific literature implying ROS in NDs and to identify the major contributors, mainstream research themes, and topics on the rise. Recent Advances: Overall, 22,885 publications were identified and analysed within the Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection electronic database. Most of the manuscripts were published in the 21st century. The publications were mainly related to the WoS categories Neurosciences and Biochemistry molecular biology. The United States is the major contributor, harbouring the most productive authors and institutions. China, South Korea, and India have emerged as upcoming major contributors in the 2010s.CRITICAL ISSUES: AD, PD, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were much more investigated than multiple sclerosis (MS) and Huntington's disease (HD). Vitamin E and curcumin were frequently mentioned as potential antioxidant therapeutics, but their efficacy in treating NDs requires more clinical studies, since the existing evidences were mainly from in vitro experiments and in vivo animal studies.
    FUTURE DIRECTIONS: Mitochondrial dysfunction, autophagy, and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 were among the author keywords with rising prevalence. Further research in these directions should advance our understanding of the mechanism and treatment of NDs.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1089/ars.2019.7952
  15. Anaesthesia. 2020 Feb 03.
    McHugh UM, Yentis SM.
      Which journals cite work published in anaesthetic journals is of potential interest to authors, editors and publishers. We analysed citations made in 2017-2018 for articles, reviews, editorials and letters published by 12 anaesthetic journals in 2016, using the Web of Science™ citation index platform. We analysed 12,544 citations made for 3518 items. Citations were most often made by specialist anaesthesia journals and critical care journals, and occurred most commonly in articles, followed by reviews, editorials and letters. The median (IQR [range]) number of citations made per item was 3.3 (2.6-4.1 [1.6-5.1]). The median (IQR [range]) number of journals that cited the 12 source journals was 302 (236-449 [139-671]). The median (IQR [range]) proportion of citations made by the same journal that published the items (i.e. 'self-citations') was 15% (11-17% [5-32%]). There were 1305/1932 (68%) citations made by North American journals for items published in North American journals and 1712/2063 (83%) citations made by European journals for items published in European journals, p < 0.0001. Our analysis may inform authors, editors and publishers where to submit work, what editorial policy to pursue and what journal strategy to follow, respectively.
    Keywords:  bibliometrics; citations; peer review; publications; scientometrics
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/anae.14933
  16. World Neurosurg. 2020 Jan 31. pii: S1878-8750(20)30191-1. [Epub ahead of print]
    Duy PQ, Paranjpe MD, Antwi P, Diab NS, Wang JK, Kim D, Moushey AM, David WB, Kapadia K, Agarwal AA, Huang J, Sheth AH, Mekbib K, Chen HA, Negoita S, Liu F, Takeo Y, Paranjpe I, Manna S, Mehta S, Gerrard JL.
      BACKGROUND: Research experience is believed to be an important component of the neurosurgery residency application process. One measure of research productivity is publication volume. The pre-residency publication volume of US neurosurgery interns and any potential association between applicant publication volume and the match results of top ranked residency programs has not been well-characterized.OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to characterize the pre-residency publication volume of U.S. neurosurgery residents in the 2018-2019 intern class using the Scopus database.
    METHODS: For each intern, we recorded the total number of publications, total number of first or last author publications, total number of neuroscience-related publications, mean number of citations per publication, and mean impact factor of the journal per publication. Pre-residency publication volumes of interns at the top 25 programs (based on a composite ranking score according to four different ranking metrics) were compared to those at all other programs.
    RESULTS: We found that 82% of neurosurgery interns included in the analysis (190 interns from 95 programs) had at least one publication. The average number of publications per intern among all programs was 6 ± 0.63 (mean ± SEM). We also found that interns at top-25 neurosurgery residency programs tended to have a higher number of publications (8.3 ± 1.2 vs 4.8 ± 0.7, P = 0.0137), number of neuroscience-related publications (6.8 ± 1.1 vs 4.1 ± 0.7, P = 0.0419), and mean number of citations per publication (9.8 ± 1.7 vs 5.7 ± 0.8, P = 0.0267) compared to interns at all other programs.
    CONCLUSION: Our results provide a general estimate of the pre-residency publication volume of U.S. neurosurgery interns and suggest a potential association between publication volume and matching into top-25 neurosurgery residency programs.
    Keywords:  Medical Education; Neurosurgery; Publications; Residency; Surgery
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2020.01.173
  17. JCO Glob Oncol. 2020 Feb;6 9-18
    Syrimi E, Lewison G, Sullivan R, Kearns P.
      This study sought to investigate the amount of global research activity and investment in pediatric cancer research, using publications as a proxy measure, and to understand geographical differences in research activity. To do this, we used a quantitative method-bibliometrics-to analyze Web of Science publications in the 10 years from 2007 to 2016. We found that global pediatric cancer research outputs have increased from 2,937 in 2007 to 4,513 in 2016, at an annual growth rate of 4.3%. This rate is slower than for both cancer research as a whole and general pediatric research. The increase in output was due almost entirely to China. International collaboration was similar to that in cancer research overall, with the highest levels among countries in close geographical proximity. Hematological and CNS childhood cancers are the main areas for research. Genetics and prognosis were the main research domains, and there was little work on radiotherapy or palliative care. In terms of citations, the best-performing countries were the Netherlands, the United States, and the United Kingdom. On the basis of estimates of the cost of research papers in different countries, the total world pediatric cancer research expenditure is estimated to have been 1.54 billion US dollars (USD) in 2013, and 1.79 billion USD in 2016. Our data suggest that current global policy toward pediatric cancer needs significant review and change to increase investments, balance research portfolios, and improve research that is relevant to low- and middle-income countries.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1200/JGO.19.00227
  18. Vox Sang. 2020 Feb 05.
    Fisher A, Wallis S, Hassall O, Martin R, Bates I.
      BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Children and pregnant women use 75% of the blood supply in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) but face widespread blood shortages. To increase safe blood supply, Africa-specific evidence and strengthened capacity for transfusion research are needed. Our study analysed seven years of SSA transfusion publications, compared researched topics against priorities and enumerated SSA transfusion research collaborations.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on research topic, journal type, authors' institutions and country were extracted from transfusion-related SSA articles published between 2008 and 14 and used to construct a quantitative, graphic visualization of collaborations. Research topics were compared to those identified as priorities for SSA blood services in 2008 and 2015.
    RESULTS: Of the 2176, 267 articles (average 38/year) met criteria for analysis. They involved 1245 authors, 673 institutions, 59 countries (35 SSA) and 1375 collaborations. About 41% were on transfusion-transmitted infections. About 34% were published in specialist transfusion journals. Only 7% involved exclusively collaborations within SSA. Two of the top fifteen institutions by publication quantity were from outside SSA.
    CONCLUSION: Despite a general paucity of SSA-relevant transfusion research, Francophone SSA was well-represented. Published research topics are not well matched to SSA research priorities; research on supply, distribution, financing and systems is particularly neglected. The study provides a baseline against which to track any refocusing of research activity to better meet SSA's needs. Transfusion research hubs within and beyond SSA have been identified as a springboard network for expanding SSA transfusion research capacity.
    Keywords:  Sub-Saharan Africa; blood transfusion; collaborations; research
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/vox.12884
  19. Bioinformatics. 2020 Feb 04. pii: btaa071. [Epub ahead of print]
    Naidu JS, Delano JD, Mathews S, Radivojac P.
      The importance of scientific conferences, symposia, workshops and satellite meetings is often discussed in scientific circles. When deciding where to submit a manuscript and present new findings, the quality of science and the opportunity to network with top researchers are of significant concern. To explore the question of the quality of science, we are interested in assessing the impact of primary research presented in the meetings in the field of bioinformatics and computational biology. We looked at five conferences with good reputation: Intelligent Systems for Molecular Biology (ISMB), Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing (PSB), Research in Computational Molecular Biology (RECOMB), European Conference on Computational Biology (ECCB) and the ACM Conference on Bioinformatics, Computational Biology, and Health Informatics (BCB). We collected all research papers published in these venues and extracted their citations. We then summarized these citations to quantify the long-term performance of an average paper, median paper, and median of the top 10 papers for each meeting in each year. Our results suggest that the original research presented in all conferences is influential, with ISMB being more impactful than ECCB and RECOMB, that themselves have comparable statistics. Despite some outstanding years and strong top papers, PSB ranked next, and ahead of BCB. Although citation-based measures of impact are imperfect, we submit that the results of our analyses provide a useful characterization of these venues.AVAILABILITY: https://github.com/predragradivojac/conferences.
    SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btaa071
  20. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(2): e0228613
    Partelow S, Hornidge AK, Senff P, Stäbler M, Schlüter A.
      Scientific agenda setting is critical at all levels of research, but can be strongly influenced by structural path dependencies of the science system itself. In this article we examine how knowledge production is shaped by interconnected path dependencies using the field of tropical marine sciences as a global case study. We use scientometric analysis methods on an original data set of 1328 peer-reviewed journal publications to examine publication trends including a co-authorship network analysis, links between author origin and research locations as well as a quantitative analysis of terminology use over space (i.e., region) and time. Scientometric findings are analytically discussed through a conceptual framework premised on theories of path dependency. Findings and critical analysis highlight how tropical marine science provides a prominent global example of how North American, European and Australian science programs predominantly shape knowledge production of the global science system, generating critical reflection on the path dependencies these create on current and likely future knowledge production and science agendas. Similar dependencies face other fields of science, and thus this study provides broadly relevant quantitative observational empirical findings supplemented with a critical social science analysis of how a transcultural Science and Technology Studies lens is useful for unpacking the webs of path dependencies driving, inhibiting and/ or shaping global knowledge production, placing meaning and context over observed empirical trends.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0228613
  21. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2020 Feb 06. pii: fnaa021. [Epub ahead of print]
    Thelwall MA.
      Immunology and microbiology research are essential for human and animal health. Unlike many other health fields, they do not usually centre around the curing or helping individual patients but focus on the microscopic scale instead. These fields are interesting from a gender perspective because two theories seeking to explain gender differences in career choices in the USA (people/things and communal/agentic goals) might produce conflicting expectations about their gender balances. This article assesses the gender shares of journal articles and gendered citation rates of five subfields of the Scopus Immunology and Microbiology broad category 1996-2014/18, for research with solely US author affiliations. Only Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology (38% female) had not reached gender parity in publishing by 2018. There was a female first author citation advantage in Parasitology but a disadvantage in Immunology. Immunology, Parasitology and Virology, had female last author citation disadvantages, but all gender effects were much smaller (<5%) than that of an extra author (10%-56%). Citation differences cannot therefore account for the current underrepresentation of women in senior roles.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; Citation analysis; Gender; Immunology; Research Evaluation; Science of Science
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/femsle/fnaa021
  22. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Feb 04. pii: E965. [Epub ahead of print]17(3):
    Jesus TS, Hoenig H, Landry MD.
      BACKGROUND: Health policy, systems and services research (HPSSR) is increasingly needed to enable better access to, and value of, rehabilitation services worldwide. We aim to quantify the growth of Rehabilitation HPSSR publications since 1990, compared to that of overall rehabilitation research and overall HPSSR.METHODS: Quantitative, comparative analysis of publication trends using the PubMed database and its indexation system. Comprehensive search filters, based on Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), were built and calibrated to locate research articles with content on HPSSR and rehabilitation of physical impairments. Additional filters were used for locating research publications declaring funding support, publications in rehabilitation journals, and finally publications focused on high-income (HICs) or low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The same approach was used for retrieving data on comparator fields-overall HPSSR and overall rehabilitation research. Linear regressions, with ANOVA, were used for analyzing yearly publication growths over the 28-year time frame.
    RESULTS: Rehabilitation HPSSR publications in PubMed have grown significantly from 1990 to 2017 in the percentage of all rehabilitation research (from 11% to 18%) and all HPSSR (from 2.8% to 3.9%; both p < 0.001). The rate of Rehabilitation HPSSR published in rehabilitation journals did not change significantly over time (p = 0.47). The rates of publications with declared funding support increased significantly, but such growth did not differ significantly from that of the comparator fields. Finally, LMICs accounted for 9.3% of the country-focused rehabilitation HPSSR since 1990, but this percentage value increased significantly (p < 0.001) from 6% in 1990 to 13% in 2017.
    CONCLUSION: Rehabilitation HPSSR publications, i.e., those indexed in PubMed with related MeSH terms, have grown in both absolute and relative values. Rehabilitation HPSSR publications focused on LMICs also grew significantly since 1990, but still remained a tiny portion of the Rehabilitation HPSSR publications with country-specific MeSH terms.
    Keywords:  PubMed; health policy; health services research; publications; rehabilitation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030965
  23. Biomed Res Int. 2020 ;2020 8691451
    Li D, Dai FM, Xu JJ, Jiang MD.
      Objectives: This work aims to comprehensively characterize hotspots and frontier landscapes concerning diabetes-specific distress from 2000 to 2018. Materials and Methods. Firstly, diabetes-specific distress-related literature was retrieved and downloaded from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC). Secondly, WoSCC self-contained toolkits and GraphPad Prism7 were conducted to analyze general characteristics, including literature products, countries, institutes, authors, and journal resource. Finally, CiteSpace V Toolkits was put forward to implement advanced analysis, consisting of keyword-term frequency and co-occurrence, references-cited frequency and co-occurrence, and burst detection for keyword terms and references cited, which uncovers the hotspots and frontiers of diabetes-specific distress.Results: After preprocessing, our study included a total of 1051 papers concerning diabetes-specific distress. Publication outputs increased smoothly year by year. Compared with other journals, diabetic medicine delivered the largest number of documents. The United States occupied the leading positions, and the most productive institution was the University of California System in terms of literature products. Fisher L. has the highest references-cited frequency. Prevalence of diabetes-specific distress, diabetes-specific distress and glycemic control, diabetes-specific distress and depression comorbidity, and diabetes-specific distress and risk factors were the research hotspots, whereas the measure of diabetes-specific distress and latent and serious/severe diabetes-specific distress was the research frontiers.
    Conclusions: Overall, our study may inspire researchers to show great interest in diabetes-specific distress in the next few years.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8691451
  24. JMIR Med Inform. 2020 Feb 04. 8(2): e11287
    Lyu X, Hu J, Dong W, Xu X.
      BACKGROUND: Precision medicine (PM) is playing a more and more important role in clinical practice. In recent years, the scale of PM research has been growing rapidly. Many reviews have been published to facilitate a better understanding of the status of PM research. However, there is still a lack of research on the intellectual structure in terms of topics.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the intellectual structure and evolutionary trends of PM research through the application of various social network analysis and visualization methods.
    METHODS: The bibliographies of papers published between 2009 and 2018 were extracted from the Web of Science database. Based on the statistics of keywords in the papers, a coword network was generated and used to calculate network indicators of both the entire network and local networks. Communities were then detected to identify subdirections of PM research. Topological maps of networks, including networks between communities and within each community, were drawn to reveal the correlation structure. An evolutionary graph and a strategic graph were finally produced to reveal research venation and trends in discipline communities.
    RESULTS: The results showed that PM research involves extensive themes and, overall, is not balanced. A minority of themes with a high frequency and network indicators, such as Biomarkers, Genomics, Cancer, Therapy, Genetics, Drug, Target Therapy, Pharmacogenomics, Pharmacogenetics, and Molecular, can be considered the core areas of PM research. However, there were five balanced theme directions with distinguished status and tendencies: Cancer, Biomarkers, Genomics, Drug, and Therapy. These were shown to be the main branches that were both focused and well developed. Therapy, though, was shown to be isolated and undeveloped.
    CONCLUSIONS: The hotspots, structures, evolutions, and development trends of PM research in the past ten years were revealed using social network analysis and visualization. In general, PM research is unbalanced, but its subdirections are balanced. The clear evolutionary and developmental trend indicates that PM research has matured in recent years. The implications of this study involving PM research will provide reasonable and effective support for researchers, funders, policymakers, and clinicians.
    Keywords:  correlation structure; coword analysis; evolution patterns; precision medicine; topics distribution
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2196/11287
  25. Pest Manag Sci. 2020 Feb 07.
    Hamm RL, Gregg A, Sparks TC.
      Intellectual property (IP) is an important consideration for entomological research and provides a means to capture value from new discoveries. Herein, we describe an analysis of more than 26,000 patent publications from 2007-2017 related to the field of entomology. These patents were divided among 8000 patent assignees; however, only 5% of the assignees had >10 patents. Corporations accounted for the largest share of patents (59%), with individuals (20%), academic institutions (17%) and government organizations (4%) making up the remaining segments. From 2007-2017 the number of entomological patents increased by 400%, with the largest number being from China. However, unlike patents from Europe, Japan or the US, which target a range of countries, the Chinese patents almost exclusively focus on China. Among the array of subjects covered are transgenic insects and plants, repellents, recombinant insect cells, with the highest proportion of patents focused on insecticides (39%), followed by insecticide mixtures (27%) and formulations (21%). The top 30 patent assignees included companies/ institutions from China (18), Europe (3), Japan (6) and the US (3). Among the top 12 entities, IP from the US assignees was distributed across insecticides, mixtures and insecticidal traits while those from China were more focused on mixtures. However, given expanding IP numbers from China it is expected that in the future there will be a greater impact on new insecticides and related technologies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Keywords:  Crop protection industry; Entomology; Insecticide formulations; Insecticides and insecticide mixtures; Patents
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.5780
  26. Niger J Clin Pract. 2020 Feb;23(2): 129-137
    Pascal Iloh GU, Amadi AN, Iro OK, Agboola SM, Aguocha GU, Chukwuonye ME.
      Background: Health research is an essential component of medical training, education, and practice and is fundamental in establishing the scientific basis of health care. Aim: The study was aimed at describing the attitude, practice, benefits, and barriers towards health research and publications in a cross-section of medical practitioners in Abia State, Nigeria.Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out on 210 medical practitioners in Abia State. Data collection was done using pretested, self-administered questionnaire that elicited information on attitude, practice, benefits, and barriers toward health research. Awareness of research misconduct, types of published research articles, and factors considered in selection of journals for publication of research were also studied.
    Results: The age of the participants ranged from 26 to 77 years. There were 173 (82.4%) men. The overall attitude toward research was moderate (x = 5.02 ± 0.96). All the respondents (100%) were involved in undergraduate research projects while 72 (34.3%) had at least one journal publication with the most commonly published articles being descriptive studies. The commonest barriers to research were financial and time constraints while the greatest benefits of research were advancement of medical knowledge and keeping practitioners abreast with evidence-based medicine. The commonest research misconduct was plagiarism while the most common factor considered in selection of journals for publication was article publication charges. Middle age group and years of practice more than 10 years were significantly associated with publication of journal articles (P < 0.05).
    Conclusion: This study has shown that the study participants had moderate positive attitude toward research with all the participants previously involved in undergraduate research and only one third had at least one journal publications. The commonest barriers were financial and time constraints and greatest benefits of health research was advancement of medical knowledge and keeping practitioners abreast with evidence-based medicine. Choice of journal for publications is preeminently determined by article publication charges. The most common article published and research misconduct was descriptive studies and plagiarism, respectively.
    Keywords:  Attitude; Nigeria; barriers; benefits; health research; misconduct; practice
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.4103/njcp.njcp_284_18
  27. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Feb 04. pii: E954. [Epub ahead of print]17(3):
    Kamiński M, Łoniewski I, Marlicz W.
      We aimed to rank the most common locations of pain among Google users globally and locally and analyze secular and seasonal trends in pain-related searches in the years 2004-2019. We used data generated by Google Trends (GT) to identify and analyze global interest in topics (n = 24) related to locations of pain and how these progressed over time. We analyzed secular trends and time series decomposition to identify seasonal variations. We also calculated the interest in all topics with reference to the relative search volume (RSV) of "Abdominal pain". Google users were most commonly interested in "Headache" (1.30 [times more frequently than "Abdominal pain"]), "Abdominal pain" (1.00), and "Back pain" (0.84). "Headache" was the most frequent search term in n = 41 countries, while "Abdominal pain" was the most frequent term in n = 27 countries. The interest in all pain-related topics except "Dyspareunia" increased over time. The sharpest increase was observed for "Abdominal pain" (5.67 RSV/year), and "Toothache" (5.52 RSV/year). Most of the topics revealed seasonal variations. Among pain-related topics, "Headache," "Abdominal pain," and "Back pain" interested most Google users. GT is a novel tool that allows retrospective investigation of complaints among Internet users.
    Keywords:  Abdominal pain; Google Trends; Internet; back pain; headache; knee pain; location; pain; ranking; toothache
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030954
  28. Acad Med. 2020 Feb 04.
    Zaorsky NG, O'Brien E, Mardini J, Lehrer EJ, Holliday E, Weisman CS.
      PURPOSE: Academic medical faculty members are assessed on their research productivity for hiring, promotion, grant, and award decisions. The current work systematically reviews, synthesizes, and analyzes the available literature on publication productivity by academic rank across medical specialties.METHOD: The authors searched PubMed for medical literature, including observational studies, published in English from 2005 to 2018, using the term "h-index," on July 1, 2018. Studies had to report on h-indices for faculty in academic medicine and, if available, other publication metrics, including number of citations, number of publications, and m-indices, stratified by academic rank. The DerSimonian and Laird method was used to perform meta-analyses for the primary (h-index) and secondary (m-index) outcome measures.
    RESULTS: The systematic review included 21 studies. The meta-analysis included 19 studies and data on 14,567 academic physicians. Both h- and m-indices increased with academic rank. The weighted random effects summary effect sizes for mean h-indices were 5.22 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.21-6.23, n = 6,609) for assistant professors, 11.22 (95% CI: 9.65-12.78, n = 3,508) for associate professors, 20.77 (95% CI: 17.94-23.60, n = 3,626) for full professors, and 22.08 (95% CI: 17.73-26.44, n = 816) for department chairs. Mean m-indices were 0.53 (95% CI: 0.40-0.65, n = 1,653) for assistant professors, 0.72 (95% CI: 0.58-0.85, n = 883) for associate professors, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.75-1.22, n = 854) for full professors, and 1.16 (95% CI: 0.81-1.51, n = 195) for department chairs.
    CONCLUSIONS: Both h- and m-indices increase with successive academic rank. There are unique distributions of these metrics among medical specialties. The h- and m- index should be used in conjunction with other measures of academic success to evaluate faculty members for hiring, promotion, grant, and award decisions.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000003185
  29. J Adv Nurs. 2020 Feb 05.
    Capilla-Díaz C, Durán-López MI, Martínez-Guerrero JM, Reina-Leal LM, Gómez-Urquiza JL, Gálvez-González M, Hueso-Montoro C.
      AIMS: The purpose of this paper was to perform a bibliometric analysis of the production of qualitative research in scientific journals through aggregation by levels and to identify factors of diversity, such as types of designs, in qualitative research on the experience of having an intestinal stoma between 2002 and 2018.DESIGN: Descriptive bibliometric study focused on the production of qualitative research on the subject of study, on three levels: micro, meso, and macro.
    METHODS: Databases such as PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, SciELO, CUIDEN, Lilacs and Google Scholar were used to collect the data, between August-November 2018.
    RESULTS: Nursing was the main area of knowledge. Brazil was the predominant country of origin. The most productive journal was the Journal of Wound, Ostomy & Continence Nursing. English and Portuguese were the main languages of scientific communication. The number of authors was typically between 2 and 6. Authors conducted descriptive and phenomenological studies.
    CONCLUSION: The present bibliometric study helps us map the qualitative research on the experiences of individuals with an intestinal stoma, as well as to understand patterns in the designs, methods, disciplines, and journals involved in this area of research. This will allow nurses to have a leading contribution to stoma care at their disposal.
    IMPACT: What problem did the study address? This study sought to analyses the production of original qualitative research that explored the perspectives of people with intestinal stoma from 2002 to 2018. What were the main findings? Nursing is the most concerned field about qualitative research on experiences of people with intestinal stoma. It also remarked that there were many philosophies, designs, methods, techniques, and types of analysis used. Where and on whom will the research have an impact? Nurse researchers need to publish their findings and align their research interests to meet national health priorities.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; Nursing; Nursing Research; Ostomy; Qualitative Research
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1111/jan.14321
  30. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2020 Jan;6(1): 20-24
    Lobl M, Grinnell M, Higgins S, Yost K, Grimes P, Wysong A.
      Background: Despite a substantial increase in the number of women matriculating into medical school, a gender gap still exists with respect to academic leadership positions. This gap is apparent in the field of dermatology, particularly in the composition of dermatology journal editorial boards. To address this gap, we must first acknowledge its existence, examine potential reasons for its existence, and propose strategies to narrow the gap.Objective: Our objective is to determine the representation of women as editors in dermatology journals.
    Methods: A comprehensive search was performed for dermatology journals indexed in Medline, Journal Citation Reports, Scopus, and Embase in August, September, and October 2018. The editorial board of each journal was analyzed for the number and percentage of male and female editors in four different positions. We verified the accuracy of editorial boards listed on publisher websites by emailing administrative personnel. We also recorded the number of years from terminal degree for editorial board members of the 10 journals with the highest impact factors using SCImago Journal Rankings.
    Results: Women occupied 18% of editor-in-chief positions, 36% of deputy editor roles, 22% of overall editorial board positions, and 22% of other board roles. The average number of years since terminal degree was not statistically different between women and men, with women averaging 30.2 years and men averaging 28.0 years since completion of terminal degree (p = .27).
    Conclusions: Our findings suggest that women are underrepresented as editors at all levels in dermatology journals. This supports prior findings reporting a minority of women in academic leadership roles. Thus, although women have made major advancements in the medical field over the past century, there remains room for progress with regard to equal representation in academic leadership roles, including editorial positions, professorships, and department chair roles.
    Keywords:  Academic medicine; Editorial boards; Women in medicine
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijwd.2019.09.002