bims-evares Biomed News
on Evaluation of research
Issue of 2020‒01‒19
eighteen papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society

  1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2020 Jan 14. pii: 201914370. [Epub ahead of print]
    Krenn M, Zeilinger A.
      The vast and growing number of publications in all disciplines of science cannot be comprehended by a single human researcher. As a consequence, researchers have to specialize in narrow subdisciplines, which makes it challenging to uncover scientific connections beyond the own field of research. Thus, access to structured knowledge from a large corpus of publications could help push the frontiers of science. Here, we demonstrate a method to build a semantic network from published scientific literature, which we call SemNet We use SemNet to predict future trends in research and to inspire personalized and surprising seeds of ideas in science. We apply it in the discipline of quantum physics, which has seen an unprecedented growth of activity in recent years. In SemNet, scientific knowledge is represented as an evolving network using the content of 750,000 scientific papers published since 1919. The nodes of the network correspond to physical concepts, and links between two nodes are drawn when two concepts are concurrently studied in research articles. We identify influential and prize-winning research topics from the past inside SemNet, thus confirming that it stores useful semantic knowledge. We train a neural network using states of SemNet of the past to predict future developments in quantum physics and confirm high-quality predictions using historic data. Using network theoretical tools, we can suggest personalized, out-of-the-box ideas by identifying pairs of concepts, which have unique and extremal semantic network properties. Finally, we consider possible future developments and implications of our findings.
    Keywords:  computer-inspired science; machine learning; metascience; quantum physics; semantic network
  2. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Jan 13.
    Rees CA, Keating EM, Dearden KA, Haq H, Robison JA, Kazembe PN, Bourgeois FT, Niescierenko M.
      Academic global health collaborations have the potential to improve joint understanding of health issues in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Our objective was to elucidate perceptions of benefits and challenges of academic global health collaborations as well as areas for improving collaborative research conducted in LMICs. This cross-sectional, mixed-methods study surveyed investigators' perceptions of benefits and challenges of pediatric academic global health collaborations. Authors of articles from four pediatric journals reporting pediatric research conducted in LMICs published between 2006 and 2015 were surveyed. Responses of LMIC investigators were compared with those of investigators in high-income countries (HICs). Responses to open-ended questions were analyzed using a combined thematic and content analysis approach. Of 1,420 potential respondents, 252 (17.7%) responded to the survey. Collaborative research with investigators from other countries was perceived as beneficial by 88.5% of respondents (n = 223), although this perception was more common among HIC respondents (n = 110, 94.0%) than LMIC respondents (n = 113, 83.7%) (p = 0.014). Sixty-seven percent (n = 170) of respondents perceived that HIC investigators had set the research agenda in work conducted in a LMIC. Respondents identified several critical factors to improve academic global health collaborations, including research capacity building, communication, and early involvement of LMIC investigators with shared decision-making during study conception and grant writing. Pediatric academic global health collaboration was widely perceived as positive. However, despite calls for capacity building and locally generated research ideas, many respondents felt that HIC investigators set the research agenda for work conducted in LMICs. This study provides suggestions for improving collaboration among pediatric academicians globally.
  3. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2020 Jan 16. 17(1): 7
    Koorts H, Naylor PJ, Laws R, Love P, Maple JL, van Nassau F.
      BACKGROUND: Ineffective research-practice translation is a major challenge to population health improvement. This paper presents an international perspective on the barriers and facilitators associated with the uptake of and engagement in Dissemination and Implementation (D&I) research in the fields of physical activity and nutrition.METHODS: A mixed methods study involving participants from the International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity (ISBNPA) network. Participants completed an online survey (May-July 2018) and/or participated in a focus group during the annual ISBNPA conference (June 2018). Descriptive statistics were generated for quantitative online and pre-focus group survey data. Fisher's exact tests investigated associations of (i) length of time in academia, (ii) career stage and (iii) country of work, and agreement with 'perceptions of D&I'. Qualitative data were analysed thematically.
    RESULTS: In total, 141 participants responded to the survey (76% female, 21% aged 35-39 years, 14 countries represented) and 25 participated in focus groups (n = 3). Participants self-identified as having knowledge (48%), skills (53%) and experience supporting others (40%) to conduct D&I research. The majority (96%) perceived D&I was important, with 66% having organizational support for D&I, yet only 52% reported prioritizing D&I research. Perceptions of D&I differed by length of time in academia, career stage and country of work. Barriers included: (i) lack of D&I expertise; (ii) lack of organisational support/value for D&I; (iii) embedded scientific beliefs/culture; (iv) methodological challenges with D&I research; (v) funding/publishing priorities and; (vi) academic performance structures. Facilitators included: (i) increased presence/value of D&I; (ii) collective advocacy; (iii) organisational support for D&I; (iv) recruitment of D&I scientists and; (v) restructure of academic performance models, funding/publishing criteria.
    CONCLUSIONS: Individual, organisational and system-wide factors hindered academics' engagement with and support for D&I research, which was perceived to reduce opportunities for research-practice translation. Factors were mostly consistent across countries and individual career stages/time spent in academia. Embedding D&I early within academic training, and system-wide reorientation of academic performance and funding structures to promote and facilitate D&I research, are some of the necessary actions to reduce the research-practice gap. Consistent with public health more broadly, these changes are long overdue in the fields of physical activity and nutrition.
    Keywords:  Academia; Barriers; Dissemination; Facilitators; Implementation; Nutrition; Physical activity; Real-world; Translation
  4. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2020 Jan 15. pii: S1544-3191(19)30609-0. [Epub ahead of print]
    Sarna KV, Griffin T, Tarlov E, Gerber BS, Gabay MP, Suda KJ.
      OBJECTIVE: To investigate the proportions and trends in gender ratios of journal editorial boards in medicine, nursing, and pharmacy from 1995 to 2016.DESIGN: This was a pooled cross-sectional evaluation of 21 high-impact medical, nursing, and pharmacy journals.
    SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: The gender composition of editorial boards for each discipline was obtained. Gender expression was based on the person's name or other information available on the Internet.
    OUTCOME MEASURES: The proportion of all editorial board member positions, including editorial leadership positions, occupied by the underrepresented gender, and trends over time were measured.
    RESULTS: A total of 5309 editorial board members and 312 editorial leadership positions were identified. From 1995 to 2016, women remained underrepresented across medicine and pharmacy journal editorial boards, whereas men remained underrepresented across nursing journal editorial boards. However, there were statistically significant increases in the representation of the underrepresented gender on editorial boards across all disciplines. Medicine was the only discipline to experience a statistically significant increase in the underrepresented gender of the editorial board being appointed to a leadership position; the proportion of women increased from 3% in 1995 to 35% in 2016.
    CONCLUSION: The gender gap in medicine and pharmacy journals appears to be narrowing. Although men continue to lag behind women in nursing journals, they are and have been overrepresented when considering the proportion of men practicing in the field. Overall, continued efforts are needed to resolve gender inequities in academic health sciences.
  5. Am J Health Promot. 2020 Feb;34(2): 127-131
    Terry PE.
      Each year, the editorial team of the American Journal of Health Promotion selects our "Best of List" of health promotion science from the prior year. This editorial features the Editor's picks, the Editor in Chief's favorites, and other award categories for the research and writing published in 2019 in this journal. Our criteria for selection include such factors as: whether the study addresses a topic of timely importance in health promotion, the research question is clearly stated and the methodologies used are well executed, whether the paper is often cited and downloaded, whether the study findings offer a unique contribution to the literature, and whether the paper is well written and enjoyable to read. Awardees in 2019 shared study findings that demonstrated the vital role of health policies in affecting behaviors and offered new insights into how to engage voices from communities, how intervention dose and reach impact outcomes, and how to better engage the most difficult to reach.
    Keywords:  best practices; best science; health disparities; health promotion; research methods
  6. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes. 2020 Jan 10. pii: S1865-9217(19)30200-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    Eckle VS, Zacharowski K, Koch T, Meybohm P.
      BACKGROUND: As a part of the German academic system the scientific habilitation is a significant individual qualification in research and teaching. In a pilot project, we recently reported the number of habilitations in anesthesiology, visceral surgery, gynecology and internal medicine. Here, we analyze habilitations from 13 additional clinical specialties.METHODS: Habilitations in clinical specialties published in the German Medical Journal (Dtsch Arztebl) between 2010 and 2017 were quantitatively analyzed. For data validation, the dean offices of all German medical schools were requested to forward all accomplished habilitations. The percentage of women and the numbers with respect to the specialty were analyzed for each university hospital. Data are presented as medians (interquartile ranges).
    RESULTS: In this study, 2,264 accomplished habilitations were analyzed. Annually, 45 (36-56) habilitations were reported in orthopedic/trauma surgery, 40 (36-48) in radiology and 37 (29-46) in neurology, while the medians in the other analyzed specialties were lower. The highest percentage of women earning a habilitation degree was reported for pediatrics (37 %), dermatology (33 %), and ophthalmology (32 %).
    CONCLUSIONS: Here, the output of completed habilitations from 13 medical specialties was analyzed for each German medical school. As a habilitation stands for a sustainable scientific contribution, this study may help to identify further career development needs for junior and for female scientists.
    Keywords:  Frauenanteil; Habilitation; Neurologie; Neurology; Percentage of female scientists; Radiologie; Radiology; Trauma surgery; Unfallchirurgie
  7. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2020 Jan 13.
    Gregory J, Welliver S, Chong J.
      BACKGROUND: Classical machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) articles have rapidly captured the attention of the radiology research community and comprise an increasing proportion of articles submitted to JMRI, of variable reporting and methodological quality.PURPOSE: To identify the most frequent reviewer critiques of classical ML and DL articles submitted to JMRI.
    STUDY TYPE: Qualitative thematic analysis.
    POPULATION: In all, 1396 manuscript journal articles submitted to JMRI for consideration in 2018, with thematic analysis performed of reviewer critiques of 38 artificial intelligence (AI) articles, comprised of 24 ML and 14 DL articles, from January 9, 2018 to June 2, 2018.
    ASSESSMENT: After identifying and sampling ML and DL articles, and collecting all reviews, qualitative thematic analysis was performed to identify major and minor themes of reviewer critiques.
    STATISTICAL TESTS: Descriptive statistics provided of article characteristics, and thematic review of major and minor themes.
    RESULTS: Thirty-eight articles were sampled for thematic review: 24 (63.2%) focused on classical ML and 14 (36.8%) on DL. The overall acceptance rate of classical ML/DL articles was 28.9%, similar to the overall 2017-2019 acceptance rate of 23.1-28.1%. These articles resulted in 72 reviews analyzed, yielding a total 713 critiques that underwent formal thematic analysis consensus encoding. Ten major themes of critiques were identified, with 1-Lack of Information as the most frequent, comprising 268 (37.6%) of all critiques. Frequent minor themes of critiques concerning ML/DL-specific recommendations included performing basic clinical statistics such as to ensure similarity of training and test groups (N = 26), emphasizing strong clinical Gold Standards for the basis of training labels (N = 19), and ensuring strong radiological relevance of the topic and task performed (N = 16).
    DATA CONCLUSION: Standardized reporting of ML and DL methods could help address nearly one-third of all reviewer critiques made.
    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Technical Efficacy Stage: 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2020.
    Keywords:  artificial intelligence; machine learning; thematic analysis
  8. Eval Program Plann. 2019 Dec 20. pii: S0149-7189(19)30202-2. [Epub ahead of print]79 101769
    Bührer S, Frietsch R.
      This article examines whether two of the major German flagship programmes to increase the participation of female researchers in the German science system, the "Women Professorship Programme" and the "Pact for Research and Innovation", have actually increased the number of women, especially in leadership positions. In a second step, we analyse whether such an assumed increase influences the publication patterns of authors with German affiliation. This article is based on literature and desk research as well as bibliometric analysis using Scopus. The most important result is that the number of women in research has indeed increased significantly in recent years and that, accordingly, more women are the (co)authors of scientific publications. In particular, it can be seen that quality indicators such as citations and excellence rates are high for female authors. This enables us to show that more women in the science system not only bring about a "gain in justice", but also a concrete scientific benefit.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; Gender equality; Research and innovation policy
  9. Fam Pract. 2020 Jan 14. pii: cmz091. [Epub ahead of print]
    Sebo P, Maisonneuve H, Fournier JP.
      BACKGROUND: Many studies examined gender inequalities in research, but only a few data are available for general biomedical journals. We assessed the prevalence of female first authorship in general biomedical journals and examined its variations across a number of author, article and journal characteristics.METHODS: This study was nested within a larger project designed to analyze the bibliometric characteristics of scientific articles. We retrieved 767 randomly selected articles published in 2016 in high impact factor journals of primary healthcare (n = 9) and general internal medicine (n = 9). We extracted the following data: author (gender, number of publications and affiliation of the first author), paper (number of authors, number of participants and study design) and journal characteristics (journal discipline and 2015 impact factor). We compared the proportion of articles authored by women and men using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions adjusted for intra-cluster correlations.
    RESULTS: The female authorship proportion was 48% (63% for primary healthcare and 33% for general internal medicine, P-value < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, women published fewer articles (<5 versus >15 publications: OR 1.6 [95% CI 1.1-2.4]), were more often affiliated with institutions in the Western world (OR 2.2 [95% CI 1.2-3.9]), were more likely to publish qualitative studies (versus systematic reviews or experiments: OR 2.7 [95% CI 1.5-4.8]) and to publish in primary healthcare journals (OR 1.7 [95% CI 1.1-2.7]).
    CONCLUSIONS: The underrepresentation of women in articles published by general internal medicine journals, in articles from the non-Western world and in systematic reviews and trials should be addressed.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric study; family medicine; female authorship proportion; gender gap; general internal medicine; primary health care
  10. Brain Sci. 2020 Jan 10. pii: E41. [Epub ahead of print]10(1):
    Haustein S, Vellino A, D'Angiulli A.
      We performed a bibliometric analysis of the peer-reviewed literature on vividness between 1900 and 2019 indexed by the Web of Science and compared it with the same analysis of publications on consciousness and mental imagery. While we observed a similarity between the citation growth rates for publications about each of these three subjects, our analysis shows that these concepts rarely overlap (co-occur) in the literature, revealing a surprising paucity of research about these concepts taken together. A disciplinary analysis shows that the field of Psychology dominates the topic of vividness, even though the total number of publications containing that term is small and the concept occurs in several other disciplines such as Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence. The present findings suggest that without a coherent unitary framework for the use of vividness in research, important opportunities for advancing the field might be missed. In contrast, we suggest that an evidence-based framework (such as the bibliometric analytic methods as exemplified here) will help to guide research from all disciplines that are concerned with vividness and help to resolve the challenge of epistemic incommensurability amongst published research in multidisciplinary fields.
    Keywords:  bibliometrics; consciousness; map of science; mental imagery; term co-occurrence; vividness
  11. J Ultrasound Med. 2020 Jan 16.
    Balica A, Kohut A, Tsai TJ, Groszmann YS, Brandt JS.
      OBJECTIVES: A bibliometric analysis of articles in the Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine (JUM) identified the journals' most impactful articles.METHODS: A bibliometric analysis of citation classics that were published in the JUM from its inception in 1982 to 2019 was performed. All citation classics, defined as articles cited 100 or more times, were evaluated for the number of citations, citations per year, publication year, subspecialty, design, and country of origin. Characteristics were compared before and after 1998 by the Mann-Whitney test for unpaired data and 2-sample z tests of sample proportions. The Kruskal-Wallis test for nonparametric continuous data was used to compare the median number of citations per year by decade of publication.
    RESULTS: A total of 7868 articles were published in the JUM between 1982 and 2019; 54 (0.7%) were citation classics. The median citation classics year of publication was 1998 (interquartile range [IQR], 1991-2003). Most citation classics originated from the United States (36 of 54 [66.7%]), were observational (47 of 54 [87%]), and were related to obstetric and gynecologic topics (16 of 54 [29.6%]). Citation classics after 1998 received significantly more citations per year (9.3 versus 4.7; P < .001), with no other differences noted. The median number of citations per year increased for each decade, with medians of 4 citations (IQR, 3.6-4.7) in 1982 to 1991 and 11.2 citations (IQR, 9-13.9) in 2002 to 2012 (P < .001).
    CONCLUSIONS: This list provides insight into the most influential articles that were published in the JUM. Most citation classics were observational, were from the United States, and covered obstetric and gynecologic topics. Citation classics received more citations per year after 1998.
    Keywords:   Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine; bibliometric analysis; citation analysis; citation classics; top cited
  12. Arch Microbiol. 2020 Jan 11.
    Roth JCG, Hoeltz M, Benitez LB.
      Considering the potential use of lignocellulosic biomass residues in microbial cultures to produce cellulases, the objective of this research was to investigate trends and discussions regarding scientific research conducted in this field through a bibliometric and scientometric analysis. Using the Elsevier Scopus database and VOSviewer software, scientific papers published between 2007 and 2018 were investigated. The results showed that the production of cellulases is related to obtaining xylanases and glucose. Obtaining of bioethanol and determining cellulolytic and xylanase activities were the relevant indicators for the use of these enzymes. China, India and Brazil are countries with a high number of publications in this field, most likely due to investments made between 2015 and 2017. This analysis showed that research on the use of lignocellulosic residues is focused on obtaining biofuels through enzymatic hydrolysis.
    Keywords:  Bibliometry; Biofuels; Biomass; Microbial cellulase
  13. J Healthc Eng. 2019 ;2019 1649363
    Chen D, Zhang R, Zhao H, Feng J.
      The International Classification of Diseases (ICD), which is used to group and report health conditions and factors, provides a basis for healthcare statistics. The 11th revision of the ICD (ICD-11) released by the World Health Organization provides stakeholders with novel perspectives on solving the complexity of critical problems in medical informatics. This study conducts a bibliometric analysis of research published over the period of 1989-2018 to examine the development of ICD-related research and its trends. First, over 4000 ICD-related papers spanning the 30-year period are retrieved from the Web of Science database. Then, based on the meta data of the selected papers, time trend analysis is performed to examine the development of different ICD revisions. Finally, the keywords and topics of these papers are analyzed and visualized using VOSViewer and CiteSpace. Our findings indicate that ICD-11-related research has grown rapidly in recent years compared with studies on ICD-9 and ICD-10. Moreover, the most popular research directions of ICD-11 include the topics psychiatry, psychology, information science, library science, and behavioral science. In terms of perspectives, information system-related research is more common than big data- and knowledge discovery-related work. However, the popularity of big data- and knowledge discovery-related developments has grown in recent years. The use of ICD-11 facilitates the development of medical informatics from the perspectives of information systems, big data, and knowledge discovery.
  14. Int J Surg. 2020 Jan 08. pii: S1743-9191(20)30003-0. [Epub ahead of print]
    He L, Fang H, Wang X, Wang Y, Ge H, Li C, Chen C, Wan Y, He H.
      BACKGROUND: The purpose of this bibliometric analysis was to identify and assess the 100 most-cited articles (T100 articles) on urological surgery.METHODS: The Web of Science (WoS) Core Collection database was used to investigate the T100 articles in the field of urological surgery. Different aspects of the T100 articles, including the countries, journals, authors, and topics, were analyzed.
    RESULTS: The number of citations of T100 articles published between 1989 and 2016 ranged from 334 to 2189. The T100 articles originated from 28 countries, with more than half originating from the USA (n =80). Professor Bill-Axelson A from Uppsala University Hospital published the largest number of T100 articles as the first author (4) and as a coauthor (1). The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center from the USA is the top institution with the most T100 articles in the field of urological surgery. The special journal Journal of Urology published 41 of the T100 articles, which had a total of 19780 citations.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our study analyzed the 100 most-cited articles in the field of urological surgery. The USA is the dominant country in terms of the number of T100 articles, scientists and institutions. Surgery related to urological cancer has garnered the most academic attention, especially prostate cancer and renal cancer.
    Keywords:  Bibliometric analysis; Citation; Prostatectomy; Urological surgery
  15. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2020 Jan 09. pii: S1525-8610(19)30838-2. [Epub ahead of print]
    Yang M, Tan L, Li W.
  16. World Neurosurg. 2020 Jan 14. pii: S1878-8750(20)30034-6. [Epub ahead of print]
    Akmal M, Hasnain N, Rehan A, Iqbal U, Hashmi S, Fatima K, Farooq MZ, Khosa F, Siddiqi J, Khan MK.
    Keywords:  GBM; Glioblastoma; Glioblastoma Multiforme; bibliometric analysis