bims-evares Biomed News
on Evaluation of research
Issue of 2019‒11‒10
27 papers selected by
Thomas Krichel
Open Library Society


  1. Stud Hist Philos Sci. 2019 Oct;pii: S0039-3681(18)30119-5. [Epub ahead of print]77 29-38
    Anzola D.
      This article addresses knowledge transfer dynamics in agent-based computational social science. The goal of the text is twofold. First, it describes the tensions arising from the convergence of different disciplinary traditions in the emergence of this new area of study and, second, it shows how these tensions are dealt with through the articulation of distinctive practices of knowledge production and transmission. To achieve this goal, three major instances of knowledge transfer dynamics in agent-based computational social science are analysed. The first instance is the emergence of the research field. Relations of knowledge transfer and cross-fertilisation between agent-based computational social science and wider and more established disciplinary areas: complexity science, computational science and social science, are discussed. The second instance is the approach to scientific modelling in the field. It is shown how the practice of agent-based modelling is affected by the conflicting coexistence of shared methodological commitments transferred from both empirical and formal disciplines. Lastly, the third instance pertains internal practices of knowledge production and transmission. Through the discussion of these practices, the tensions arising from converging dissimilar disciplinary traditions in agent-based computational social science are highlighted.
    Keywords:  Agent-based modelling; Complexity science; Discipline-building; Interdisciplinarity; Scientific models; Social simulation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shpsa.2018.05.001
  2. Stud Hist Philos Sci. 2019 Oct;pii: S0039-3681(17)30332-1. [Epub ahead of print]77 64-80
    Herfeld C, Doehne M.
      How do scientific innovations spread within and across scientific communities? In this paper, we propose a general account of the diffusion of scientific innovations. This account acknowledges that novel ideas must be elaborated on and conceptually translated before they can be adopted and applied to field-specific problems. We motivate our account by examining an exemplary case of knowledge diffusion, namely, the early spread of theories of rational decision-making. These theories were grounded in a set of novel mathematical tools and concepts that originated in John von Neumann and Oskar Morgenstern's Theory of Games and Economic Behavior (1944/1947) and subsequently spread widely across the social and behavioral sciences. Introducing a network-based diffusion measure, we trace the spread of those tools and concepts into distinct research areas. We furthermore present an analytically tractable typology for classifying publications according to their roles in the diffusion process. The proposed framework allows for a systematic examination of the conditions under which scientific innovations spread within and across preexisting and newly emerging scientific communities.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.shpsa.2017.12.001
  3. PLoS One. 2019 ;14(11): e0224541
    Eykens J, Guns R, Rahman AIMJ, Engels TCE.
      In this article we discuss the five yearly screenings for publications in questionable journals which have been carried out in the context of the performance-based research funding model in Flanders, Belgium. The Flemish funding model expanded from 2010 onwards, with a comprehensive bibliographic database for research output in the social sciences and humanities. Along with an overview of the procedures followed during the screenings for articles in questionable journals submitted for inclusion in this database, we present a bibliographic analysis of the publications identified. First, we show how the yearly number of publications in questionable journals has evolved over the period 2003-2016. Second, we present a disciplinary classification of the identified journals. In the third part of the results section, three authorship characteristics are discussed: multi-authorship, the seniority-or experience level-of authors in general and of the first author in particular, and the relation of the disciplinary scope of the journal (cognitive classification) with the departmental affiliation of the authors (organizational classification). Our results regarding yearly rates of publications in questionable journals indicate that awareness of the risks of questionable journals does not lead to a turn away from open access in general. The number of publications in open access journals rises every year, while the number of publications in questionable journals decreases from 2012 onwards. We find further that both early career and more senior researchers publish in questionable journals. We show that the average proportion of senior authors contributing to publications in questionable journals is somewhat higher than that for publications in open access journals. In addition, this paper yields insight into the extent to which publications in questionable journals pose a threat to the public and political legitimacy of a performance-based research funding system of a western European region. We include concrete suggestions for those tasked with maintaining bibliographic databases and screening for publications in questionable journals.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224541
  4. Eur Urol Focus. 2019 Nov 05. pii: S2405-4569(19)30337-2. [Epub ahead of print]
    Sathianathen NJ, Lane R, Condon B, Murphy DG, Lawrentschuk N, Weight CJ, Lamb AD.
      BACKGROUND: The scientific impact of published articles has traditionally been measured as citation counts. However, there has been a shift in academia to a digitalized age in which research is widely read, disseminated, and discussed online. As part of this shift, each published article has a digital footprint.OBJECTIVE: To develop a urology social media score (#UroSoMe_Score) to predict citation counts from measures of online attention for urological articles.
    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We included articles published between June 2016 and June 2017 in the top ten highest-impact urology journals. We obtained data on the online attention received by each of these articles from Altmetric Explorer and 2-yr citation counts from Scopus.
    OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: We created a multivariable linear model using the forward stepwise regression method based on the Akaike information criterion to determine the best-fitting model using online sources of attention to predict 2-yr citation count.
    RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: We included a total of 2033 urology articles. The median weighted Altmetric score for the articles included was 4 (interquartile range [IQR] 2-11). The median number of citations for all articles included was 7 (IQR 3-14). There was an association between Altmetric score and 2-yr Scopus citation count (p < 0.001) but the adjusted R2 value for this model was only 0.013. Our stepwise regression model revealed that citations could be predicted from a model comprising the following sources of online attention: policy documents, Google+, blogs, videos, Wikipedia, Twitter, and Q&A. The adjusted R2 value for the #UroSoMe_Score model was 0.14, which is superior to the full Altmetric score.
    CONCLUSIONS: The #UroSoMe_Score can be used to predict 2-yr citation counts for urological publications on the basis of online metrics.
    PATIENT SUMMARY: Online measures of attention can be used to predict citation counts and thus the scientific impact of an article. Our #UroSoMe_Score can be used in such a manner specifically for the urological literature. Outliers may still be present especially for popular topics that receive online attention but are not heavily cited.
    Keywords:  Social media; citation analysis
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euf.2019.10.015
  5. BMC Med Educ. 2019 Nov 04. 19(1): 402
    Imam Z, Cappell MS.
      BACKGROUND: Gastroenterology fellowship candidates may strive to improve their qualifications for this extremely competitive fellowship.OBJECTIVE: To analyze whether extreme competitiveness of gastroenterology fellowship positions has affected fellowship interview selection by statistically analyzing 13 parameters of interviewees to identify statistically significant time changes during last 10 years.
    METHODS: Retrospective time-trend-analyses (performed 2018) on thirteen prospectively-obtained-parameters of 47 interviewees (2009-2011) vs. 53 interviewees (2016-2018) for gastroenterology fellowship.
    SETTING: William-Beaumont-Hospital, Royal-Oak: academic fully-accredited gastroenterology fellowship, teaching hospital of Oakland-University-William-Beaumont-School-of-Medicine, tertiary-care hospital, GI fellowship since 1973.
    RESULTS: Statistically significant increases occurred from 2009 to 2011 vs. 2016-2018 in number of publications, including mean number of: abstracts (1.69 ± 0.37 vs. 7.54 ± 1.16, p < 0.0001); peer-reviewed articles (1.48 ± 0.30 vs. 6.13 ± 1.29, p < 0.0001); and total publications (3.17 ± 0.48 vs. 12.76 ± 1.99, p < 0.0001). Increased publications were associated with graduating from foreign medical schools (correlation coefficient = 0.26, p = .03), and were, surprisingly, correlated with lower letters-of-recommendation-scores (Kruskal-Wallis-statistic = 5.82, p = .002). USMLE-Step-1 scores significantly increased from 2009 to 2011 to 2016-2018 (235 ± 14.1 vs. 244.9 ± 13.5, p = 0.001) (previously reported finding). Nine other parameters did not significantly change with time.
    CONCLUSIONS: Current report of >four-fold-increase in publications by gastroenterology fellowship interviewees at one academic-medical-center is novel. Increased focus on scholarship by applicants may be explained by their having only three parameters to improve their credentials during residency: publications, letters-of-recommendation, and honors awarded during residency (other parameters determined before residency and immutable). Current findings may benefit medical residents/medical-residency-program-directors by focusing more on publications for applications. Association between research productivity and medical promotions likely strongly motivates medical research of residents and may motivate academic faculty. Increased exposure to research/publications may improve the clinical acumen of GI fellowship applicants by enhancing their skills in critically reading the medical literature.
    Keywords:  Academic medicine; Application (applicants); Fellowship selection (match); Gastroenterology (GI) fellowship; Medical publications; Medical research; Medical residents; Mentorship; Scholarly activity
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-019-1841-2
  6. Clin Res Cardiol. 2019 Nov 04.
    Scholz SS, Dillmann M, Flohr A, Backes C, Fehlmann T, Millenaar D, Ukena C, Böhm M, Keller A, Mahfoud F.
      AIMS: We aimed at developing a structured study protocol utilizing the bibliographic web-application science performance evaluation (SciPE) to perform comprehensive scientometric analyses.METHODS AND RESULTS: Metadata related to publications derived from online databases were processed and visualized by transferring the information to an undirected multipartite graph and distinct partitioned sets of nodes. Also, institution-specific data were normalized and merged allowing precise geocoordinate positioning, to enable heatmapping and valid identification. As a result, verified, processed data regarding articles, institutions, journals, authors gender, nations and subject categories can be obtained. We recommend including the total number of publications, citations, the population, research institutions, gross domestic product, and the country-specific modified Hirsch Index and to form corresponding ratios (e.g., population/publication). Also, our approach includes implementation of bioinformatical methods such as heatmapping based on exact geocoordinates, simple chord diagrams, and the central implementation of specific ratios with plain visualization techniques.
    CONCLUSION: This protocol allows precise conduction of contemporaneous scientometric analyses based on bioinformatic and meta-analytical techniques, allowing to evaluate and contextualize scientific efforts. Data presentation with the depicted visualization techniques is mandatory for transparent and consistent analyses of research output across different nations and topics. Research performance can then be discussed in a synopsis of all findings.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; Bibliometry; Meta-analysis; Research assessment; Scientometry
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00392-019-01568-x
  7. Eur Ann Otorhinolaryngol Head Neck Dis. 2019 Nov 04. pii: S1879-7296(19)30170-X. [Epub ahead of print]
    Laccourreye O, Lisan Q, Bonfils P, Garrel R, Jankowski R, Karkas A, Leboulanger N, Makeieff M, Righini C, Vincent C, Martin C.
      OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the use of P-values and the terms "significant", "non-significant" and "suggestive" in Abstracts in the European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head & Neck Diseases.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive articles accepted for publication during the period January 2016 - February 2019 were systematically reviewed. Main goal: descriptive analysis of the citation of P-values and use of the terms "significant", "non-significant" and "suggestive" in Abstracts. Secondary goal: analytic study of: (i) correlations between citation of a P-value and the main characteristics of authors and topics; and (ii) misuse of the terms "significant", "non-significant" and "suggestive" with respect to cited P-values, and correlations with author and topic characteristics.
    RESULTS: In all, 91 articles were included. P-values and the terms "significant", "non-significant" and "suggestive" were cited in 35.1%, 41.7%, 10.9% and 0% of Abstracts, respectively. Citing a P-value did not significantly correlate with author or topic characteristics. There were discrepancies between the terms "non-significant", "significant" and "suggestive" and P-values given in the body of the article in 57.1% of Abstracts, with 30.7% overestimation and 25.2% underestimation of results, without significant correlation with author or topic characteristics.
    CONCLUSION: Authors, editors and reviewers must pay particular attention to the spin resulting from inappropriate use of the terms "significant", "non-significant" and "suggestive" in Abstracts of articles submitted to the European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head & Neck Diseases, to improve the rigor, quality and value of the scientific message delivered to the reader.
    Keywords:  Medical writing; P value; Scientific report; Significant; Spin.; Statistics; Suggestive
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anorl.2019.10.008
  8. Arch Iran Med. 2019 Oct 01. 22(10): 606-611
    Massarrat S.
      The aim of this study was to assess the current applicability of articles that show important advances in medicine. The recruited papers include those published fifty years ago in the most respected journals in the USA, England and Germany. Using PubMed Central citations since 2010, original articles closely related to papers published in 1966 in the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM), the Lancet and the Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift (DMW) were identified. In the NEJM, there were 163 observational articles, 18 clinical, and 117 case reports. In the Lancet, there were 390 observational articles, 29 diagnostic, 82 therapeutic, 38 animal, 28 in vitro studies and 61 case reports. In the DMW, there were 77 observational articles, 39 therapeutic, 28 diagnostic, 7 animal, 4 in vitro, 9 other studies and 57 case reports. The number of highly relevant articles still currently cited were determined as 12/298 (4%) in the NEJM, 11/ 628 (1.7%) in the Lancet and 1/221 (0.45%) in the DMW (0.45%). It was concluded that "halfhundred years impact index" should be regarded as a measure of 'relevance and quality over time'. Combined with impact factor, it could be a better indicator for importance of scientific journals.
    Keywords:  Journal impact factor; Medicine; Publications
  9. Nature. 2019 Nov;575(7781): 32-34
    Gates AJ, Ke Q, Varol O, Barabási AL.
      
    Keywords:  Publishing; Research data; Research management
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-019-03308-7
  10. Cardiovasc Res. 2019 Nov 07. pii: cvz272. [Epub ahead of print]
    Small HY, Guzik TJ.
      
    Keywords:  Diabetes; Hot topics; Impact factor; Non-coding RNA
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvz272
  11. J Med Internet Res. 2019 Nov 01. 21(11): e15511
    Tran BX, Nghiem S, Sahin O, Vu TM, Ha GH, Vu GT, Pham HQ, Do HT, Latkin CA, Tam W, Ho CSH, Ho RCM.
      BACKGROUND: Artificial intelligence (AI)-based technologies develop rapidly and have myriad applications in medicine and health care. However, there is a lack of comprehensive reporting on the productivity, workflow, topics, and research landscape of AI in this field.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the global development of scientific publications and constructed interdisciplinary research topics on the theory and practice of AI in medicine from 1977 to 2018.
    METHODS: We obtained bibliographic data and abstract contents of publications published between 1977 and 2018 from the Web of Science database. A total of 27,451 eligible articles were analyzed. Research topics were classified by latent Dirichlet allocation, and principal component analysis was used to identify the construct of the research landscape.
    RESULTS: The applications of AI have mainly impacted clinical settings (enhanced prognosis and diagnosis, robot-assisted surgery, and rehabilitation), data science and precision medicine (collecting individual data for precision medicine), and policy making (raising ethical and legal issues, especially regarding privacy and confidentiality of data). However, AI applications have not been commonly used in resource-poor settings due to the limit in infrastructure and human resources.
    CONCLUSIONS: The application of AI in medicine has grown rapidly and focuses on three leading platforms: clinical practices, clinical material, and policies. AI might be one of the methods to narrow down the inequality in health care and medicine between developing and developed countries. Technology transfer and support from developed countries are essential measures for the advancement of AI application in health care in developing countries.
    Keywords:  applications; artificial intelligence; bibliometric; latent Dirichlet allocation; medicine; scientometric
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2196/15511
  12. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 Nov 06.
    Miao L, Ji J, Wan L, Zhang J, Yin L, Pu Y.
      Recently, there has been increased studies in noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). We aimed to make an overview of research trends and genetic polymorphisms for NIHL from 2009 to 2018 with VOSviewer software. A total of 2391 papers were identified for research trends analysis in NIHL and 33 studies identified for a brief review of genetic polymorphisms in human NIHL. The number of publications has been increasing over the past decade. The journal Hearing Research published the most articles (218). The USA contributed the largest number of papers (1042; 43.58%), with the most citations (18,987) and the highest H-index (60). The University of Washington was the most contributive institution. Liberman MC published the most articles (32), and Kujawa SG possessed the highest co-citations (584). Except for high-frequency keywords identified by the software, "prevalence," "oxidative stress," "hair cells," and "cochlear implant" were also the latest research frontiers. HSPA1A rs1043618, HSPA1L rs2227956, PON2 rs12026 and rs7785846, SOD2 rs2855116, KCNE1 rs2070358, KCNQ4 rs34287852, GJB2 rs3751385, PCDH15 rs7095441 and rs11004085, GRHL2 rs1981361, ITGA8 rs10508489, MYH14 rs667907, and POU4F3 rs891969 were the research hotspots and were replicated in independent samples. Inflammation response underlying NIHL has emerged and should be considered as a pioneering field in the future for the prevention of NIHL and conservation of hearing.
    Keywords:  Bibliometrics; Noise-induced hearing loss; Overview; Polymorphism; VOSviewer; WoSCC
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-019-06470-7
  13. Front Psychol. 2019 ;10 2197
    Aryadoust V, Tan HAH, Ng LY.
      A recent review of the literature concluded that Rasch measurement is an influential approach in psychometric modeling. Despite the major contributions of Rasch measurement to the growth of scientific research across various fields, there is currently no research on the trends and evolution of Rasch measurement research. The present study used co-citation techniques and a multiple perspectives approach to investigate 5,365 publications on Rasch measurement between 01 January 1972 and 03 May 2019 and their 108,339 unique references downloaded from the Web of Science (WoS). Several methods of network development involving visualization and text-mining were used to analyze these data: author co-citation analysis (ACA), document co-citation analysis (DCA), journal author co-citation analysis (JCA), and keyword analysis. In addition, to investigate the inter-domain trends that link the Rasch measurement specialty to other specialties, we used a dual-map overlay to investigate specialty-to-specialty connections. Influential authors, publications, journals, and keywords were identified. Multiple research frontiers or sub-specialties were detected and the major ones were reviewed, including "visual function questionnaires", "non-parametric item response theory", "valid measures (validity)", "latent class models", and "many-facet Rasch model". One of the outstanding patterns identified was the dominance and impact of publications written for general groups of practitioners and researchers. In personal communications, the authors of these publications stressed their mission as being "teachers" who aim to promote Rasch measurement as a conceptual model with real-world applications. Based on these findings, we propose that sociocultural and ethnographic factors have a huge capacity to influence fields of science and should be considered in future investigations of psychometrics and measurement. As the first scientometric review of the Rasch measurement specialty, this study will be of interest to researchers, graduate students, and professors seeking to identify research trends, topics, major publications, and influential scholars.
    Keywords:  Rasch measurement; Scientometrics; burst; co-citation analysis; review
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02197
  14. Med J Islam Repub Iran. 2019 ;33 84
    Rezaei H, Yousefi A, Larijani B, Dehnavieh R, Rezaei N, Kazemi M, Adibi P.
      Background: Forecasting is the process of predicting future behavior. In reviewing databases, no predicted value associated with international collaboration publications in Iran was found. Thus, the present study aimed at forecasting Iran's international collaborative articles in medical sciences. Methods: The number of Iran's articles and international collaborative articles in medical sciences written over 56 years was extracted from SCOPUS. Data were extracted from 1960 up to 2016. The time series method was used for forecasting using the Minitab software Version 17. Results: There was no increase in the number of medical articles from Iran from 1960 to 2001. However, the data showed incremental growth between 2001 and 2016. This was similar to Iran's medical sciences international collaboration articles. In 2016, the percentage of Iran's international collaboration articles was 15.2, which is expected to reach 19.9 in 2025. Conclusion: An investigation was performed on the number of international collaboration articles in the field of medical sciences in Iran. Future trends show an incremental growth. The number of Iran's articles can be increased with international cooperation. However, an increase or decrease in Iran's articles without international cooperation has to be investigated.
    Keywords:  Forecasting; International cooperation; Interrupted time series analysis; Iran; Medicine
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.34171/mjiri.33.84
  15. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2019 Nov 02. pii: rapm-2019-100806. [Epub ahead of print]
    Karri J, Navarro SM, Duong A, Tang T, Abd-Elsayed A.
      BACKGROUND: Given the readily increasing membership of the pain physician community, efforts toward correcting notable gender disparities are instrumental. The under-representation of women is particularly prevalent within leadership roles in academic medicine, thought to be driven largely by diminished research efforts. Consequently, we aimed to characterize gender differences among the highest impact pain literature.METHODS: The 20 highest cited articles per year from 2014 to 2018 were extracted from each of seven impactful journals affiliated to the largest pain medicine societies. Collected data from each article included genders of the first and last authors, the number of citations accumulated and the journal impact factor at the time of publication.
    RESULTS: Across all considered literature, female authors were surprisingly not under-represented when considering the national prevalence of female pain physicians. However, more in-depth analysis found trends toward significance to suggest that female authorship was relatively diminished within more impactful and higher cited literature. When exploring gender-gender collaboration patterns, we found that male authors were favored over female counterparts with statistical significance; it must be noted that this likelihood analysis and preference toward male authors may be statistically obfuscated by the high prevalence of male authors. Nonetheless, these findings help to quantify overt, demonstrated disparity patterns. Of note, this inequity may also be fully secondary to the lower number of female pain physicians and/or those involved in research endeavors and decreased number of submissions from female physicians. Establishing gender discrimination patterns as causal factors in such disparities can be extremely challenging to determine.
    CONCLUSION: In our analysis of authorship between genders within the context of pain medicine literature, we found trends, although non-significant, toward women being lesser represented in the more impactful literature. We suggest that these inequities are possibly resultant of a markedly small and outnumbered female pain physician membership that has yet to achieve a critical mass and possible implicit gender biases that may restrict female authorship. However, further exploration and analysis of this issue are necessary to more clearly illuminate which systemic deficits exist and how they may, in turn, be corrected with cultural and macroscopic organizational-driven change.
    Keywords:  chronic pain; history; interventional pain management; pain medicine
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1136/rapm-2019-100806
  16. J Clin Rheumatol. 2019 Nov 01.
    Lerman TT, Reitblat O, Reitblat T.
      BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between research productivity in the field of rheumatology and various updated economic indicators of Countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).METHODS: The number of documents published, number of citable documents, number of citations, citations per document, and the H-index for the 36 OECD countries in the field of rheumatology between 1996 and 2017 were obtained from the The Scimago Journal and Country rank source. The recent data regarding gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, total health spending as percent of GDP, and the gross domestic expenditure on research and development as percent of GDP were collected from the World Bank, OECD, and United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization Web sites, accordingly. The relationship between economic indicators and scientific productivity for each of the OECD countries was analyzed.
    RESULTS: A total of 132,314 documents were analyzed. A moderate to strong significance correlation was found between health expenditure and the number of documents published (r = 0.67, p < 0.001), number of citable documents (r = 0.68, p < 0.001), number of citation (r = 0.76, p < 0.001), and H-index (r = 0.77, p < 0.001).
    CONCLUSIONS: This study provides a current highlight on the relationship between academic productivity in rheumatology and economic indicators of OECD countries. We showed a positive moderate to strong significant correlation between total health expenditure as percent of GDP and different bibliometric indicators, implying another possible advantage of national investment in this filed.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1097/RHU.0000000000001182
  17. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2019 Nov 01.
    Hiller KP, Boulos A, Tran MM, Cruz AI.
      BACKGROUND: The gender gap among authors publishing research in journals is narrowing in general medicine and various medical and surgical subspecialties. However, little is known regarding the gender gap among authors publishing research in orthopaedic journals.QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) What is the proportion of women first and last authors of original research articles in three high-impact orthopaedic journals from 2006 to 2017? (2) What is the proportion women first authors of original research by orthopaedic subspecialty from 2006 to 2017?
    METHODS: A sample of original research publications from the even numbered months of issues of Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research® (CORR®), the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, American volume (JBJS), and the American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM) were examined from 2006 to 2017. These journals were selected because of their clinical relevance, target audience, and relatively high impact factors. Over the studied period, a single author extracted and reviewed pertinent data, including the gender of the first and last authors and the primary subspecialty of the research article. The senior author refereed disputes regarding the primary subspecialty of each included article. The proportion of women first and last authors in each journal was compared between 2006 to 2017 using chi-square analysis. The proportion of women first authors according to orthopaedic subspecialty in which an article primarily focused its study was also compared between 2006 to 2017 using chi-square analysis.
    RESULTS: Data were collected from 6292 articles, 13% (800) of which were first-authored by women and 10% (604) of which were last-authored by women. From 2006 to 2017, the overall percentage of women first authors in the examined journals increased (from 11% in 2006 to 17% in 2017; odds ratio 1.6563 [95 % CI 1.4945 to 1.8356]; p < 0.001). Overall across the period studied, the percentage of women first authors in JBJS was 14% while 12% of first authors in CORR and AJSM were women. Regarding subspecialty, the percentage of women first authorship ranged from 9% in the shoulder subspecialty to 21% in pediatric orthopaedics across all three journals.
    CONCLUSIONS: There has been an increase in the percentage of women first authors in articles published in three high-impact orthopaedic journals from 2006 to 2017. This observed increase is encouraging in terms of promoting gender diversity in orthopaedics and may be reflective of a modest increase in the number of women entering the orthopaedic workforce.
    CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Between 2006 and 2017, the overall number of women first authors in CORR, JBJS, and AJSM modestly increased. This may suggest a nascent narrowing of the gender gap in orthopaedics. Although this is a welcome finding in terms of promoting and encouraging gender diversity in this man-dominated field, the overall percentage of women authorship remains modest, at best. Future investigations should examine whether the modest increase in women first authorship over time found in this study translates into an increased percentage of senior/last authorship in the future, as this may have implications for women orthopaedic workforce retention.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1097/CORR.0000000000001043
  18. Can Urol Assoc J. 2019 Nov 05.
    Ilin J, Langlois E, Jalal S, Khosa F.
      INTRODUCTION: Increasing female matriculation into medical school has shown an increase in women training in academic urology, but gender disparity still exists within this male-dominated field. This study aims to evaluate publication productivity and rank differences of Canadian female and male academic urologists.METHODS: The Canadian Residency Matching Service (CaRMS) was used to compile a list of 12 Canadian accredited urology programs. Using each institution's website, faculty members' names, genders, academic positions, and leadership ranks were noted. SCOPUS© was consulted to tabulate the number of documents published, citations, and h-index of each faculty member. To account for temporal bias associated with the h-index, the m-quotient was also computed.
    RESULTS: There was a significantly higher number of men (164, 88.17%) among academic faculty than women (22, 11.83%). As academic rank increased, the proportion of female urologists decreased. Overall, male urologists had higher academic ranks, h-index values, number of publications, and citations (p=0.038, p=0.0038, p=0.0011, and p=0.014, respectively). There was an insignificant difference between men and women with respect to their m-quotient medians (p=0.25).
    CONCLUSIONS: There is an increasing number of women completing residency in urology, although there are disproportionally fewer female urologists at senior academic positions. Significant differences were found in the h-index, publication count, and citation number between male and female urologists. When using the m-quotient to adjust for temporal bias, no significant differences were found between the gender in terms of academic output.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5489/cuaj.6117
  19. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2019 Nov;pii: S0889-5406(19)30583-9. [Epub ahead of print]156(5): 663-674.e1
    Aura-Tormos JI, García-Sanz V, Estrela F, Bellot-Arcís C, Paredes-Gallardo V.
      INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to analyze articles published in orthodontic journals included in Journal Citation Reports (JCR) to determine current trends in orthodontic publishing.METHODS: Articles included in orthodontic journals in 2016 JCR and published during 2007-2017 were selected. After applying inclusion criteria, author-based parameters (article title, first author's name, institution and sex, number of authors, number of affiliations, first author's origin, and geographic origin), article-based parameters (article type, main topic, and research design), and the number of cites and self-cites were registered for each article.
    RESULTS: A total of 7119 articles were analyzed, and 842 different centers and 4483 different authors were identified. The percentage of female authors showed a tendency to increase over the decade; the most productive country was the United States (17.4%). Bone anchorage was the most recurrent topic (7.2%). More than three-fourths of articles (80.8%) proceeded from orthodontic departments belonging to public institutions, with a decreasing trend in nonacademic or private affiliations. Positive and negative correlations were found to exist between citation counts and other variables.
    CONCLUSIONS: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Angle Orthodontist, and European Journal of Orthodontics were the 3 main journals with regard to production volume, with the United States being the most productive country. The most recurrent topic was bone anchorage, and most of the studies were research articles with observational cross-sectional design. Study design, geographic origin of the articles, article type, and the main subject of the article may be predictive of citation numbers.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2019.01.019
  20. PLoS One. 2019 ;14(11): e0224629
    Amaya E, Mougenot B, Herrera-Añazco P.
      OBJECTIVE: To determine the presence of a gender gap in the scientific production among Peruvian physicians and analyze either gap is associated with the presence of observable factors or the presence of prejudices against female physicians.METHODS: We analyzed data from the National Survey of User Satisfaction in Health 2016, a nationally representative survey that collected information about medical professionals working in health institutions in Peru. The outcome of interest was the number of publications in indexed journals. We estimated the gender gap in scientific production using the Oaxaca-Blinder (OB) decomposition method.
    RESULTS: From the 2216 physicians surveyed, 252 reported published at least one article in an indexed journal. From physicians with scientific production, 37.7% were women. The analysis of OB decomposition showed a gap of 2.11 indexed publications, disfavoring female physicians (p<0.01). Likewise, the explained component was 1.36 publications, representing 64.5% of the total gap (p<0.05).
    CONCLUSIONS: There is a gender gap in the number of publications in indexed journals among Peruvian physicians. This gap is mainly explained by observable factors, such as the years of medical practice, being an accredited researcher and being a professor.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0224629
  21. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2019 Nov 06. 1-7
    Qamar SR, Khurshid K, Jalal S, McInnes MDF, Probyn L, Finlay K, Hague CJ, Hibbert RM, Joshi M, Rybicki FJ, Harris A, Nicolaou S, Khosa F.
      OBJECTIVE. Underrepresentation of women in the top hierarchy of academic medicine exists despite women comprising more than half of the medical school graduates and residency positions. The purpose of this study is to analyze and quantify the relationship of gender, research productivity, and career advancement in Canadian academic radiology departments. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Seventeen academic radiology departments with affiliated residency programs in Canada were searched for publicly available data on faculty to generate a database for gender and academic profiles of the radiologists. Bibliometric data were collected using Scopus archives. The associations of gender, academic ranks, and leadership positions were assessed, and a p value of ≤ 0.05 was defined as significant. Significant variables were analyzed using a multivariate linear regression model. RESULTS. Of 1266 faculty members, gender information and academic rank were available for 932 faculty members: 597 (64.05%) were men and 335 (35.95%) were women (χ2 = 21.82; p < 0.0001). Of a total of 563 assistant professors, 331 (58.79%) were men and 232 (41.21%) were women; of 258 associate professors, 177 (68.60%) were men and 81 (31.40%) were women; and of 111 professors, 89 (80.18%) were men and 22 (19.82%) were women. The gender gap widens at higher academic ranks, displaying a threefold drop in the ratio of women holding the rank of full professor (6.57%) compared with 14.91% male professors; 29.55% of women radiologists have first-in-command leadership positions compared with 70.45% of men. A comparable or higher h-index is noted for women Canadian radiologists after adjusting for number of citations, number of publications, and years of active research. CONCLUSION. Canadian academic radiology departments have fewer women radiologists in senior faculty and leadership positions. Our study results show that Canadian female radiologists at the professor level have more publications than their male counterparts.
    Keywords:  Canadian radiologists; academic radiology; gender disparity; women radiologists
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.2214/AJR.18.20992
  22. Tunis Med. 2019 Oct;97(10): 1160-1168
    Nouira S, Melki S, Nouira H, Ben Abdelaziz A, Azzaza M, El Mhamdi S, Ben Abdelaziz A.
      OBJECTIVE: To describe both editorial and thematic profile of biomedical publications related to the theme «Ramadan and Health», indexed in «Medline» database till December 31th 2018.METHODS: This is a bibliometric study via «Medline» database using the following documentation query: «Fasting» [Majr] AND («Islam» [Majr] OR Ramadan [All Fields]). Data was collected through the «Medline» Material Safety Data Sheets from the NLM Library. Publications' themes have been defined by major descriptors (Majr). The generic descriptor corresponded to the Majr word hierarchically superior in the «Medline» Mesh descriptor thesaurus.
    RESULTS: A total of 508 articles were captured, of which 13% were reviews and 5% were randomized controlled trials. These publications were published by 272 journals belonging to 38 countries, and signed by 108 authors in first position and 398 in last position. The number of major descriptors used to index these publications related to «Ramadan and Health» was 484. Endocrine System Diseases (Diabetes mellitus) and Human Activities (Exercise) were the main major generic keywords, indexing respectively 28% and 20% of this literature.
    CONCLUSION: «Ramadan and Health» is increasingly, a theme of scientific and biomedical research of great interest worldwide in order to manage health problems, especially diabetes mellitus. Expanding the scope of its applications to other global burden of disease's areas would be useful.
  23. Aten Primaria. 2019 Nov 01. pii: S0212-6567(19)30393-2. [Epub ahead of print]
    López-Torres Hidalgo J, Párraga Martínez I, Martín Álvarez R, Tranche Iparraguirre S.
      OBJECTIVE: To describe the Spanish scientific production of primary care during 2013-2017 and analyze their geographical distribution, impact factor, areas of research and involvement of different institutional sectors.DESIGN: Observational study bibliometric.
    PARTICIPANTS: The study focused on publications indexed in Medline.
    MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Journal and year of publication, first/last author, workplace and autonomous community. Later, articles were classified according to their content. The impact factor was obtained from the basis of bibliometric analysis Journal Citation Reports.
    RESULTS: Using search criteria, were selected 980 documents. The transiency rate was 78,8%. The highest proportion of articles (43.2%) came from health centers, but we observed an increase of the articles from units or research institutes (14.9% in 2013, 19.1% in 2017). Of the total, 63.3% were classified as "clinical aspects", 19.3% were published in the journal Atención Primaria, 40.6% in foreign journals and 72.4% in journals with impact factor, being this proportion significantly lower (p <0.001) in those coming from health centers (59.6%) or teaching units/management/health services (70.0%) with respect to those originated in research units/institutes (93.1%) or in universities (89.0%). In relation to population (articles/100.000 inhab.), the most productive communities were Cataluña (4.2), Aragón (3.9), e Islas Baleares (3.3).
    CONCLUSIONS: In primary care publications there is great diversity in both research areas such as in journals where published. Most are from health centers, treat clinical aspects and published in Spanish journals. Differences in the volume of scientific production between regions are observed.
    Keywords:  Atención primaria; Bibliometrics; Bibliometría; Evaluación de la investigación en salud; Health research evaluation; Primary Health Care
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aprim.2019.08.002
  24. PeerJ. 2019 ;7 e7992
    Cai X, Zhou C, Zhou L, Xu Q.
      Background: Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is a recently discovered cytokine that plays a role in immune suppression and has therefore been the subject of a great deal of research. A bibliometric analysis of the global research concerning IL-35, however, is rare.Objectives: The aim of this research was to assess the international scientific output of IL-35 research and explore its hotspots and frontiers from 2009 to 2018 by bibliometric analysis.
    Methods: Publications about IL-35 research from 2009 to 2018 were retrieved from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC). Citespace V was used to analyze years, journals, countries, research institutions, areas of exploration, research hotspots, and trends of publication.
    Results: We retrieved a total of 416 publications and observed a trend of publications increasing over the past decade. Original articles (351) were the most frequently occurring document type. The largest number of publications belonging to one country and one institution, respectively, was China (202) and Tianjin Medical University (17). Trending keywords may indicate frontier topics, including "infectious tolerance," "autoimmune," and "central nervous system."
    Conclusion: This study provides valuable information on the study of IL-35 so that researchers may identify new research fields.
    Keywords:  Autoimmune; Bibliometric analysis; Central nervous system; CiteSpace; IL-35; Infectious tolerance
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.7992
  25. Cureus. 2019 Aug 29. 11(8): e5524
    Whitney E, Mahato D, Odell T, Khan YR, Siddiqi J.
      Craniectomy is a life-saving procedure used in the setting of traumatic brain injury, stroke and increased intracranial pressure. The purpose of this study was to analyze and determine the most influential articles and authors in the field of craniectomy. Our study presents an analysis of the articles that include the word "craniectomy" or "hemicraniectomy" in the title and a detailed analysis of the top 100-cited articles in that selection. This search provided insight into how this procedure was initially documented and how it has been utilized over the years. We used the SCOPUS database to search "craniectomy OR hemicraniectomy" in the article title. We then sorted the top 100 most-cited articles. Bibliometric analysis was performed. An H-index was presented with each author. The citation count ranged from 71 to 5310. The most published author was Werner Hacke, a German researcher (n=6). The highest quantity of influential work was published in 2006 and 2007 (n=9/yr). The United States published the most articles (n=42). The Journal of Neurosurgery published 21 of the top 100 most-cited articles. The chronological timeline shows the evolution of decompression as it related to both stroke and trauma. It demonstrated that well-cited articles acted as turning points to direct further scientific endeavors while highlighting the hard work of certain authors. There is, to the best of our knowledge, a shortage of literature on a bibliometric analysis regarding the term craniectomy. Thus, the current bibliometric study was undertaken to highlight the work of authors who have advanced knowledge about this procedure. It provides an analysis of the top 100-cited articles with craniectomy in the title with dates ranging from 1892 to 2016. A review of its publication history shows how interventions in this field have advanced over the last several decades.
    Keywords:  bibliometric analysis; brain trauma; craniectomy; decompressive hemicraniectomy; middle cerebral artery infarct; trephination
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.5524
  26. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2019 Nov 15. 44(22): 1593-1598
    Das JP, Aherne E, Kavanagh E.
      STUDY DESIGN: A bibliometric review of the literature.OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the most highly cited articles relating to imaging of the spine and to analyze the most influential papers and evolving trends in spinal imaging research.
    SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Spinal imaging is being performed with increasing frequency and is an essential step in the diagnosis and treatment planning of spinal pathology. A comprehensive review of the most influential articles in spinal imaging has not been performed, until now.
    METHODS: A selection of search terms and keywords were inputted into the "Web of Science" database and the most highly cited articles in spinal imaging were selected from high impact factor journals. The top 100 articles were analyzed for year of publication, authorship, publishing journals, institution and country of origin, subject matter, article type, and level of evidence. In addition to total citation count, the number of annual citations was also calculated. Citation counts from Scopus and Google Scholar were also obtained for comparison across other citation index platforms.
    RESULTS: The most highly cited articles in spinal imaging were published over 30 years, between 1983 and 2013. Total citation count ranged from 98 to 1243 with annual citation count ranging from 3.8 to 91.8. The greatest number of highly cited articles was produced in the United States (n = 49), involved magnetic resonance (n = 73) or multimodal (n = 17) imaging and focused on the lumbar spine (n = 42). The journals that contributed the most articles were Spine and Radiology each publishing 26 articles.
    CONCLUSION: Our study provided an extensive list of the most historically significant spinal imaging articles, acknowledging the key contributions made to the advancement of this specialist field.
    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 5.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1097/BRS.0000000000003131