bims-ershed Biomed News
on ER Stress in Health and Diseases
Issue of 2022‒06‒19
three papers selected by
Matías Eduardo González Quiroz
Worker’s Hospital

  1. Brain Pathol. 2022 Jun 15. e13084
      Patients suffering from immune-mediated necrotizing myopathies (IMNM) harbor, the pathognomonic myositis-specific auto-antibodies anti-SRP54 or -HMGCR, while about one third of them do not. Activation of chaperone-assisted autophagy was described as being part of the molecular etiology of IMNM. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)-stress accompanied by activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) often precedes activation of the protein clearance machinery and represents a cellular defense mechanism toward restoration of proteostasis. Here, we show that ER/SR-stress may be part of the molecular etiology of IMNM. To address this assumption, ER/SR-stress related key players covering the three known branches (PERK-mediated, IRE1-mediated, and ATF6-mediated) were investigated on both, the transcript and the protein levels utilizing 39 muscle biopsy specimens derived from IMNM-patients. Our results demonstrate an activation of all three UPR-branches in IMNM, which most likely precedes the activation of the protein clearance machinery. In detail, we identified increased phosphorylation of PERK and eIF2a along with increased expression and protein abundance of ATF4, all well-documented characteristics for the activation of the UPR. Further, we identified increased general XBP1-level, and elevated XBP1 protein levels. Additionally, our transcript studies revealed an increased ATF6-expression, which was confirmed by immunostaining studies indicating a myonuclear translocation of the cleaved ATF6-form toward the forced transcription of UPR-related chaperones. In accordance with that, our data demonstrate an increase of downstream factors including ER/SR co-chaperones and chaperones (e.g., SIL1) indicating an UPR-activation on a broader level with no significant differences between seropositive and seronegative patients. Taken together, one might assume that UPR-activation within muscle fibers might not only serve to restore protein homeostasis, but also enhance sarcolemmal presentation of proteins crucial for attracting immune cells. Since modulation of ER-stress and UPR via application of chemical chaperones became a promising therapeutic treatment approach, our findings might represent the starting point for new interventional concepts.
    Keywords:  ER-stress; HMGCR; IMNM; SRP; UPR; auto-antibodies
  2. Nature. 2022 Jun 15.
    Keywords:  Diseases; History
  3. Cell Death Discov. 2022 Jun 17. 8(1): 292
      Ubiquitination is a critical biological process in post-translational modification of proteins and involves multiple signaling pathways in protein metabolism, apoptosis, DNA damage, cell-cycle progression, and cancer development. Deubiquitinase, a specific enzyme that regulates the ubiquitination process, is also thought to be closely associated with the development and progression of various cancers. In this article, we systematically review the emerging role of the deubiquitinase ubiquitin-specific peptidase 11 (USP11) in many cancer-related pathways. The results show that USP11 promotes or inhibits the progression and chemoresistance of different cancers, including colorectal, breast, ovarian, and hepatocellular carcinomas, via deubiquitinating several critical proteins of cancer-related pathways. We initially summarize the role of USP11 in different cancers and further discuss the possibility of USP11 as a therapeutic strategy.