bims-ershed Biomed News
on ER Stress in Health and Diseases
Issue of 2022‒04‒10
four papers selected by
Matías Eduardo González Quiroz
Worker’s Hospital

  1. Front Pharmacol. 2022 ;13 806240
      The ER stress and Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) component inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α) has been linked to inflammation and lipid mediator production. Here we report that the potent IRE1α inhibitor, KIRA6, blocks leukotriene biosynthesis in human phagocytes activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) or thapsigargin (Tg). The inhibition affects both leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and cysteinyl leukotriene (cys-LTs) production at submicromolar concentration. Macrophages made deficient of IRE1α were still sensitive to KIRA6 thus demonstrating that the compound's effect on leukotriene production is IRE1α-independent. KIRA6 did not exhibit any direct inhibitory effect on key enzymes in the leukotriene pathway, as assessed by phospholipase A2 (PLA2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), LTA4 hydrolase (LTA4H), and LTC4 synthase (LTC4S) enzyme activity measurements in cell lysates. However, we find that KIRA6 dose-dependently blocks phosphorylation of p38 and ERK, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that have established roles in activating cytosolic PLA2α (cPLA2α) and 5-LOX. The reduction of p38 and ERK phosphorylation is associated with a decrease in cPLA2α phosphorylation and attenuated leukotriene production. Furthermore, KIRA6 inhibits p38 activity, and molecular modelling indicates that it can directly interact with the ATP-binding pocket of p38. This potent and unexpected, non-canonical effect of KIRA6 on p38 and ERK MAPKs and leukotriene biosynthesis may account for some of the immune-modulating properties of this widely used IRE1α inhibitor.
    Keywords:  IRE1α; KIRA6; MAPKs; inflammation; leukotrienes
  2. Biomed Pharmacother. 2022 Mar 31. pii: S0753-3322(22)00270-0. [Epub ahead of print]149 112881
      Mibefradil and NNC-55-0396, tetralol derivatives with a proven -ability to block T-type calcium channels in excitable cells, reduce cancer cell viability in vitro, causing cell death. Furthermore, they reduce tumor growth in preclinical models of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), a brain tumor of poor prognosis. Here we found that GBM cells treated with cytotoxic concentrations of NNC-55-0396 paradoxically increased cytosolic calcium levels through the activation of inositol triphosphate receptors (IP3R) and ER stress. We used pharmacological inhibitors and gene silencing to dissect the cell death pathway stimulated by NNC-55-0396 in GBM cell lines and biopsy-derived cultures. Calcium chelation or IP3R inhibition prevented NNC-55-0396-mediated cytotoxicity, indicating that ER calcium efflux is the cause of cell death. Upstream of calcium mobilization, NNC-55-0396 activated the IRE1α arm of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) resulting in the nuclear translocation of pro-apoptotic CHOP. Consistent with these findings, silencing IRE1α or JNK1 rescued the cell death elicited by NNC-55-0396. Therefore, we demonstrate that activation of IRE1α and calcium signaling accounts for the cytotoxicity of NNC-55-0396 in GBM cells. The delineation of the signaling pathway that mediates the abrupt cell death triggered by this compound can help the development of new therapies for GBM.
    Keywords:  Calcium; Cell death; ER stress; Glioblastoma
  3. J Immunol. 2022 Apr 04. pii: ji2100466. [Epub ahead of print]
      The mechanism regulating the life span of short-lived plasma cells (SLPCs) remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrated that the EP4-mediated activation of AKT by PGE2 was required for the proper control of inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase endoribonuclease-1α (IRE1α) hyperactivation and hence the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis in IgM-producing SLPCs. Disruption of the PGE2-EP4-AKT signaling pathway resulted in IRE1α-induced activation of JNK, leading to accelerated death of SLPCs. Consequently, Ptger4-deficient mice (C57BL/6) exhibited a markedly impaired IgM response to T-independent Ags and increased susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection. This study reveals a highly selective impact of the PGE2-EP4 signal on the humoral immunity and provides a link between ER stress response and the life span of SLPCs.
  4. Sci Rep. 2022 Apr 06. 12(1): 5760
      To combat the various DNA lesions and their harmful effects, cells have evolved different strategies, collectively referred as DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR largely relies on intranuclear protein networks, which sense DNA lesions, recruit DNA repair enzymes, and coordinates several aspects of the cellular response, including a temporary cell cycle arrest. In addition, external cues mediated by the surface EGF receptor (EGFR) through downstream signaling pathways contribute to the cellular DNA repair capacity. However, cell cycle progression driven by EGFR activation should be reconciled with cell cycle arrest necessary for effective DNA repair. Here, we show that in damaged cells, the expression of Mig-6 (mitogen-inducible gene 6), a known regulator of EGFR signaling, is reduced resulting in heightened EGFR phosphorylation and downstream signaling. These changes in Mig-6 expression and EGFR signaling do not occur in cells deficient of Mre-11, a component of the MRN complex, playing a central role in double-strand break (DSB) repair or when cells are treated with the MRN inhibitor, mirin. RNAseq and functional analysis reveal that DNA damage induces a shift in cell response to EGFR triggering that potentiates DDR-induced p53 pathway and cell cycle arrest. These data demonstrate that the cellular response to EGFR triggering is skewed by components of the DDR, thus providing a plausible explanation for the paradox of the known role played by a growth factor such as EGFR in the DNA damage repair.