bims-ershed Biomed News
on ER Stress in Health and Diseases
Issue of 2021‒08‒29
three papers selected by
Matías Eduardo González Quiroz
Worker’s Hospital

  1. Cell Death Differ. 2021 Aug 27.
      Mounting evidence indicates that immunogenic therapies engaging the unfolded protein response (UPR) following endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress favor proficient cancer cell-immune interactions, by stimulating the release of immunomodulatory/proinflammatory factors by stressed or dying cancer cells. UPR-driven transcription of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines exert beneficial or detrimental effects on tumor growth and antitumor immunity, but the cell-autonomous machinery governing the cancer cell inflammatory output in response to immunogenic therapies remains poorly defined. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of cancer cells responding to immunogenic or weakly immunogenic treatments. Bioinformatics-driven pathway analysis indicated that immunogenic treatments instigated a NF-κB/AP-1-inflammatory stress response, which dissociated from both cell death and UPR. This stress-induced inflammation was specifically abolished by the IRE1α-kinase inhibitor KIRA6. Supernatants from immunogenic chemotherapy and KIRA6 co-treated cancer cells were deprived of proinflammatory/chemoattractant factors and failed to mobilize neutrophils and induce dendritic cell maturation. Furthermore, KIRA6 significantly reduced the in vivo vaccination potential of dying cancer cells responding to immunogenic chemotherapy. Mechanistically, we found that the anti-inflammatory effect of KIRA6 was still effective in IRE1α-deficient cells, indicating a hitherto unknown off-target effector of this IRE1α-kinase inhibitor. Generation of a KIRA6-clickable photoaffinity probe, mass spectrometry, and co-immunoprecipitation analysis identified cytosolic HSP60 as a KIRA6 off-target in the IKK-driven NF-κB pathway. In sum, our study unravels that HSP60 is a KIRA6-inhibitable upstream regulator of the NF-κB/AP-1-inflammatory stress responses evoked by immunogenic treatments. It also urges caution when interpreting the anti-inflammatory action of IRE1α chemical inhibitors.
  2. J Biomed Nanotechnol. 2021 Jul 01. 17(7): 1349-1363
      Despite the widespread use of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs), their metabolic impact and mechanisms of action have not been well studied. Exposure to SiNPs induces insulin resistance (IR) in hepatocytes by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress via inositol-requiring protein 1α (IRE1α) activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK). It has been well established that stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD1) and its major product oleic acid elicited beneficial effects in restoring ER homeostasis. However, the potential coordination of SCD1 and IRE1α in determining SiNP regulation of insulin signaling is unclear. Herein, we investigated the effects of SCD1 and oleic acid on IR induced by SiNPs or thapsigargin in hepatocytes. SCD1 overexpression or oleic acid efficiently reversed SiNP-induced ER stress and IR, whereas the effects of thapsigargin treatment could not be restored. Thapsigargin diminished SCD1 protein levels, leading to the accumulation of IRE1α and sustained activation of the IRE1α/JNK pathway. Moreover, knockdown of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) upstream of SCD1 suppressed SiNP-induced SCD1 expression, rescued the activated IRE1α, and inhibited insulin signaling but was not able to restore the effects of thapsigargin. Collectively, downregulation of SCD1 and excess accumulation of IRE1α protein prevented the beneficial effects of exogenous oleic acid on IR induced by ER stress. Our results provide valuable mechanistic insights into the synergic regulation of IR by SiNPs and ER stress and suggest a combinational strategy to restore ER homeostasis by targeting SCD1 and IRE1α proteins, as well as supplementation of unsaturated fatty acids.
  3. J Cell Sci. 2021 Jan 15. pii: jcs248658. [Epub ahead of print]134(2):
      Pharmacological manipulation of lysosome membrane integrity or ionic movements is a key strategy for probing lysosomal involvement in cellular processes. However, we have found an unexpected inhibition of store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) by these agents. Dipeptides [glycyl-L-phenylalanine 2-naphthylamide (GPN) and L-leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester] that are inducers of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP) uncoupled endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-store depletion from SOCE by interfering with Stim1 oligomerization and/or Stim1 activation of Orai. Similarly, the K+/H+ ionophore, nigericin, that rapidly elevates lysosomal pH, also inhibited SOCE in a Stim1-dependent manner. In contrast, other strategies for manipulating lysosomes (bafilomycin A1, lysosomal re-positioning) had no effect upon SOCE. Finally, the effects of GPN on SOCE and Stim1 was reversed by a dynamin inhibitor, dynasore. Our data show that lysosomal agents not only release Ca2+ from stores but also uncouple this release from the normal recruitment of Ca2+ influx.
    Keywords:  Ca2+; GPN; LMP; Lysosome; Orai1; Stim1