bims-ershed Biomed News
on ER Stress in Health and Diseases
Issue of 2021‒04‒04
fifteen papers selected by
Matías Eduardo González Quiroz
Worker’s Hospital

  1. Cells. 2021 Mar 04. pii: 550. [Epub ahead of print]10(3):
      Most Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are redundant for normal cell division. Here we tested whether these redundancies are maintained during cell cycle recovery after a DNA damage-induced arrest in G1. Using non-transformed RPE-1 cells, we find that while Cdk4 and Cdk6 act redundantly during normal S-phase entry, they both become essential for S-phase entry after DNA damage in G1. We show that this is due to a greater overall dependency for Cdk4/6 activity, rather than to independent functions of either kinase. In addition, we show that inactivation of pocket proteins is sufficient to overcome the inhibitory effects of complete Cdk4/6 inhibition in otherwise unperturbed cells, but that this cannot revert the effects of Cdk4/6 inhibition in DNA damaged cultures. Indeed, we could confirm that, in addition to inactivation of pocket proteins, Cdh1-dependent anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/CCdh1) activity needs to be inhibited to promote S-phase entry in damaged cultures. Collectively, our data indicate that DNA damage in G1 creates a unique situation where high levels of Cdk4/6 activity are required to inactivate pocket proteins and APC/CCdh1 to promote the transition from G1 to S phase.
    Keywords:  CDK4; CDK6; CDKs; DNA damage; G1; cell cycle; checkpoint; recovery
  2. Cell Struct Funct. 2021 Mar 26.
      Dysfunction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), so-called ER stress, is accompanied with accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER. Eukaryotic cells commonly have an ER-located transmembrane protein, Ire1, which triggers cellular protective events against ER stress. In animal cells, PERK and ATF6 also initiate the ER-stress response. As a common strategy to control the activity of these ER-stress sensors, an ER-resident molecular chaperone, BiP, serves as their negative regulator, and dissociates from them in response to ER stress. Although it sounds reasonable that unfolded proteins and Ire1 compete for BiP association, some publications argue against this competition model. Moreover, yeast Ire1 (and possibly also the mammalian major Ire1 paralogue IRE1α) directly detects ER-accumulated unfolded proteins, and subsequently oligomerizes for its further activation. Apart from protein misfolding, the saturation of membrane phospholipids is another outcome of ER-stressing stimuli, which is sensed by the transmembrane domain of Ire1. This review describes the canonical and up-to-date insights concerning stress-sensing and regulatory mechanisms of yeast Ire1 and metazoan ER-stress sensors.Key words: endoplasmic reticulum, stress, unfolded protein response, molecular chaperone.
    Keywords:  endoplasmic reticulum; molecular chaperone; stress; unfolded protein response
  3. Free Radic Biol Med. 2021 Mar 30. pii: S0891-5849(21)00191-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      Hyperoxaluria is one of the leading causes of calcium oxalate stone formation in the kidney. Since hyperoxaluria produces Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress in the kidney, it is thus likely that the adaptive unfolded protein response might affect the mitochondrial population as ER and mitochondria share close physical and functional interactions mandatory for several biological processes. Thus this work was designed to study the putative effects of endoplasmic reticulum stress on the renal mitochondria during hyperoxaluria-induced nephrolithiasis. The results showed that hyperoxaluria induced an ER stress led to the unfolded protein response in the renal tissue of experimental rats. Hampered mitochondrion functioning was detected with decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and upsurged mitochondria calcium. These changes in the mitochondria function and ER stress are preceded by apoptosis. The expression of Sigma-1 receptor protein found in the Mitochondria associated ER membranes, the connecting link between ER and mitochondria was found to decrease in the hyperoxaluric rats. Inhibition of ER stress by 4-Phenylbutyric acid prevented the decrease in mitochondria membrane potential and increase in mitochondria calcium observed in hyperoxaluric rats. Also, it restored the protein expression of the sigma-1 receptor protein. On the other hand, N-acetyl cysteine had a nominal impact on the reduction of the ER stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. In conclusion, our data showed that hyperoxaluria induces renal ER stress which triggers mitochondria dysfunction, might be via alteration in the sigma-1 receptor protein in the mitochondria-associated ER membranes, which leads to apoptosis, renal injury, and calcium oxalate crystal deposition.
    Keywords:  4-Phenyl butyric acid; Endoplasmic reticulum; Hyperoxaluria; Mitochondria; Nephrolithiasis; Oxidative stress
  4. Eur J Pharmacol. 2021 Mar 30. pii: S0014-2999(21)00226-0. [Epub ahead of print] 174073
      The aim of our work was to study effect of antidepressant imipramine on both thapsigargin- and tunicamycin-induced ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. ER stress in SH-SY5Y cells was induced by either tunicamycin or thapsigargin in the presence or absence of imipramine. Cell viability was tested by the MTT assay. Splicing of XBP1 mRNA was studied by RT-PCR. Finally, expression of Hrd1 and Hsp60 was determined by western blot analysis. Our findings provide evidence that at high concentrations imipramine potentiates ER stress-induced death of SH-SY5Y cells. The effect of imipramine on ER stress-induced death of SH-SY5Y cells was stronger in combination of imipramine with thapsigargin. In addition, we have found that treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with imipramine in combination of either thapsigargin or tunicamycin is associated with the alteration of ER stress-induced IRE1α-XBP1 signalling. Despite potentiation of ER stress-induced XBP1 splicing, imipramine suppresses both thapsigargin- and tunicamycin-induced expression of Hrd1. Finally, imipramine in combination with thapsigargin-but not tunicamycin-aggravates ER stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction without significant impact on intracellular mitochondrial content as indicated by the unaltered expression of Hsp60. Our results indicate the possibility that chronic treatment with imipramine might be associated with a higher risk of development and progression of neurodegenerative disorders, in particular those allied with ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction like Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease.
    Keywords:  cell death; endoplasmic reticulum; imipramine; mitochondria; neurodegenerative disorders; unfolded protein response
  5. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2021 Apr 01. 1-6
      BACKGROUND: Under various physiological conditions, endoplasmic reticulum stress can induce apoptotic cell death, leading to brain and retinal neuronal cell death, but the relations of ER stress-induced apoptosis and the nerve growth factor's therapeutic effect in Glaucoma optic neuropathy still unclear.METHODS: An endoplasmic reticulum stress model was established in ganglion cells using TG, the endoplasmic reticulum stress inducer. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to detect the protective effect of NGF on retinal ganglion cells. Western blot was used to detect apoptosis-related proteins Bcl-2, Bad and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins GRP78, IRE1, JNK and CHOP.
    RESULTS: MTT assay and flow cytometry showed NGF can protect the apoptosis of ganglion cells. Western blot analysis showed the level of pro-apoptotic protein Bad was decreased and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was increased after NGF treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced proteins GRP78, IRE1, JNK and CHOP are counter- acted by NGF.
    CONCLUSION: NGF protects retinal ganglion cells related to inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress by inhibiting IRE1-JNK-CHOP signaling pathway.
    Keywords:  IRE1-JNK-CHOP; Nerve growth factor; apoptosis; endoplasmic reticulum stress; retinal ganglion cells
  6. Pharmaceuticals (Basel). 2021 Mar 08. pii: 232. [Epub ahead of print]14(3):
      Obesity and diabetes are linked to an increased prevalence of kidney disease. Endoplasmic reticulum stress has recently gained growing importance in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes-related kidney disease. Melatonin, is an important anti-obesogenic natural bioactive compound. Previously, our research group showed that the renoprotective effect of melatonin administration was associated with restoring mitochondrial fission/fusion balance and function in a rat model of diabesity-induced kidney injury. This study was carried out to further investigate whether melatonin could suppress renal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and the downstream unfolded protein response activation under obese and diabetic conditions. Zücker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and lean littermates (ZL) were orally supplemented either with melatonin (10 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day) (M-ZDF and M-ZL) or vehicle (C-ZDF and C-ZL) for 17 weeks. Western blot analysis of ER stress-related markers and renal morphology were assessed. Compared to C-ZL rats, higher ER stress response associated with impaired renal morphology was observed in C-ZDF rats. Melatonin supplementation alleviated renal ER stress response in ZDF rats, by decreasing glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), phosphoinositol-requiring enzyme1α (IRE1α), and ATF6 levels but had no effect on phospho-protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) level. In addition, melatonin supplementation also restrained the ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway, as indicated by decreased pro-apoptotic proteins phospho-c-jun amino terminal kinase (JNK), Bax, and cleaved caspase-3, as well as by upregulation of B cell lymphoma (Bcl)-2 protein. These improvements were associated with renal structural recovery. Taken together, our findings revealed that melatonin play a renoprotective role, at least in part, by suppressing ER stress and related pro-apoptotic IRE1α/JNK signaling pathway.
    Keywords:  diabesity; endoplasmic reticulum stress; kidney; melatonin
  7. Methods Mol Biol. 2021 ;2267 217-226
      Mitotic catastrophe is an oncosuppressive mechanism that drives cells toward senescence or death when an error occurs during mitosis. Eukaryotic cells have developed adaptive signaling pathways to cope with stress. The phosphorylation on serine 51 of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF2α) is a highly conserved event in stress responses, including the one that is activated upon treatment with mitotic catastrophe inducing agents, such as microtubular poisons or actin blockers. The protocol described herein details a method to quantify the phosphorylation of eIF2α by high-throughput immunofluorescence microscopy. This method is useful to capture the 'integrated stress response', which is characterized by eIF2α phosphorylation in the context of mitotic catastrophe.
    Keywords:  Endoplasmic reticulum; Immunofluorescence; Mitotic catastrophe; eIF2α
  8. Biomaterials. 2021 Mar 24. pii: S0142-9612(21)00113-7. [Epub ahead of print]272 120757
      Transplantation is the most effective, and sometimes the only resort for end-stage organ failure. However, allogeneic graft suffers greatly from lymphocyte-mediated immunorejection, which bears close relationship with a hyperactivation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response in host lymphocytes, especially in CD8+ T cells (T-8). Therefore, regulating lymphocytic ER unfolded protein response (UPR) might be a potential therapeutic breakthrough in alleviating graft rejection. Here, ER-targetable liposome is prepared via the surface modification of ER-targeting peptide (Pardaxin), which efficiently loads and directly delivers small molecule inhibitor of UPR sensor IRE1α into the ER of lymphocytes, inducing a systemic immunosuppression that facilitates tumorigenesis and metastasis in the tumor inoculation challenge in vivo. And in vitro, a stage-differential dependency of IRE1α in the phase transition of T-8 is identified. Specifically, inhibiting IRE1α at the early responding stages of T-8, especially at the activation phase, results in a shrunk proliferation, impaired effector function, and limited memory commitment, which might contribute centrally to the induced overall immunosuppression. Based on this, a classical acute rejection model, murine full-thickness trunk skin allograft that primary arises from the hyperactivity of T-lymphocyte, is used. Results suggest that lymphocytic IRE1α inactivation attenuates transplant rejection and prolongs graft survival, with a limited effector function and memory commitment of host T-8. Moreover, an even higher immunosuppressive effect is obtained when IRE1α inhibition is used in combination with immunosuppressant tacrolimus (FK506), which might owe to a synergistic regulation of inflammatory transcription factors. These findings provide a deeper insight into the biological polarization and stress response of lymphocytes, which might guide the future development of allogeneic transplantation.
    Keywords:  Allograft rejection; CD8(+) T cells; ER-targeting; IRE1α; Immunosuppression; Lymphocyte
  9. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2021 Mar 29. 9603271211003634
      Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) is a toxic chemical that causes liver injury. CCl4 triggers endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR triggers autophagy to deal with the damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of baicalein, derived from Scutellaria baicalensis, on CCl4-induced liver damage concerning ER stress and autophagy. Two groups of Wistar albino rats (n = 7/groups) were treated with 0.2 ml/kg CCl4 for 10 days with and without baicalein. Histological and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, autophagy, and ER stress markers measurements were carried out to evaluate the effect of baicalein. Histological examinations showed that baicalein reduced liver damage. TEM analysis indicated that baicalein inhibited ER stress and triggered autophagy. CCl4-induced elevation of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), glucose-regulating protein 78 (GRP78), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), inositol requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), pancreatic ER kinase (PERK), and active/spliced form of X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1s) ER stress markers were decreased by baicalein. Baicalein also increased the autophagy-related 5 (ATG5), Beclin1, and Microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3-phosphatidylethanolamine-conjugated form (LC3-II) autophagy marker levels. In conclusion, baicalein reduced the CCl4-induced liver damage by inhibiting ER stress and the trigger of autophagy.
    Keywords:  Baicalein; CCl4; autophagy; endoplasmic reticulum stress; hepatic damage
  10. Cells. 2021 Mar 16. pii: 657. [Epub ahead of print]10(3):
      The maintenance of cellular homeostasis involves the participation of multiple organelles. These organelles are associated in space and time, and either cooperate or antagonize each other with regards to cell function. Crosstalk between organelles has become a significant topic in research over recent decades. We believe that signal transduction between organelles, especially the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, is a factor that can influence the cell fate. As the cellular center for protein folding and modification, the endoplasmic reticulum can influence a range of physiological processes by regulating the quantity and quality of proteins. Mitochondria, as the cellular "energy factory," are also involved in cell death processes. Some researchers regard the ER as the sensor of cellular stress and the mitochondria as an important actuator of the stress response. The scientific community now believe that bidirectional communication between the ER and the mitochondria can influence cell death. Recent studies revealed that the death signals can shuttle between the two organelles. Mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) play a vital role in the complex crosstalk between the ER and mitochondria. MAMs are known to play an important role in lipid synthesis, the regulation of Ca2+ homeostasis, the coordination of ER-mitochondrial function, and the transduction of death signals between the ER and the mitochondria. Clarifying the structure and function of MAMs will provide new concepts for studying the pathological mechanisms associated with neurodegenerative diseases, aging, and cancers. Here, we review the recent studies of the structure and function of MAMs and its roles involved in cell death, especially in apoptosis.
    Keywords:  Ca2+; MAMs; apoptosis; endoplasmic reticulum; mitochondria
  11. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 626229
      Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide. As a common characteristic of cancer, hypoxia is associated with poor prognosis due to enhanced tumor malignancy and therapeutic resistance. The enhanced tumor aggressiveness stems at least partially from hypoxia-induced genomic instability. Therefore, a clear understanding of how tumor hypoxia induces genomic instability is crucial for the improvement of cancer therapeutics. This review summarizes recent developments highlighting the association of tumor hypoxia with genomic instability and the mechanisms by which tumor hypoxia drives genomic instability, followed by how hypoxic tumors can be specifically targeted to maximize efficacy.
    Keywords:  DNA damage repair; DNA damage response; HIF-1α; cancer therapeutic resistance; conceptual lethality; genomic instability; tumor hypoxia
  12. Cancers (Basel). 2021 Mar 10. pii: 1198. [Epub ahead of print]13(6):
      Reticulocalbin 1 (RCN1) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-residing protein, involved in promoting cell survival during pathophysiological conditions that lead to ER stress. However, the key upstream receptor tyrosine kinase that regulates RCN1 expression and its potential role in cell survival in the glioblastoma setting have not been determined. Here, we demonstrate that RCN1 expression significantly correlates with poor glioblastoma patient survival. We also demonstrate that glioblastoma cells with expression of EGFRvIII receptor also have high RCN1 expression. Over-expression of wildtype EGFR also correlated with high RCN1 expression, suggesting that EGFR and EGFRvIII regulate RCN1 expression. Importantly, cells that expressed EGFRvIII and subsequently showed high RCN1 expression displayed greater cell viability under ER stress compared to EGFRvIII negative glioblastoma cells. Consistently, we also demonstrated that RCN1 knockdown reduced cell viability and exogenous introduction of RCN1 enhanced cell viability following induction of ER stress. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that the EGFRvIII-RCN1-driven increase in cell survival is due to the inactivation of the ER stress markers ATF4 and ATF6, maintained expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and reduced activity of caspase 3/7. Our current findings identify that EGFRvIII regulates RCN1 expression and that this novel association promotes cell survival in glioblastoma cells during ER stress.
    Keywords:  EGFRvIII; ER stress; RCN1; apoptosis; glioblastoma
  13. Elife. 2021 Mar 31. pii: e65620. [Epub ahead of print]10
      It has become evident that activation of heterotrimeric G-proteins by cytoplasmic proteins that are not GPCRs plays a role in physiology and disease. Despite sharing the same biochemical Guanine-nucleotide Exchange Factor (GEF) activity as GPCRs in vitro, the mechanisms by which these cytoplasmic proteins trigger G-protein-dependent signaling in cells have not been elucidated. Heterotrimeric G-proteins can give rise to two active signaling species, Gα-GTP and dissociated Gβγ, with different downstream effectors, but how non-receptor GEFs affect the levels of these two species in cells is not known. Here, a systematic comparison of GPCRs and three unrelated non-receptor proteins with GEF activity in vitro (GIV/Girdin, AGS1, and Ric-8A) revealed high divergence in their contribution to generating Gα-GTP and free Gβγ in cells directly measured with live-cell biosensors. These findings demonstrate fundamental differences in how receptor and non-receptor G-protein activators promote signaling in cells despite sharing similar biochemical activities in vitro.
    Keywords:  biochemistry; cell biology; chemical biology; human
  14. Methods Mol Biol. 2021 ;2267 181-190
      Critical to tumor surveillance in eukaryotic cells is the ability to perceive and respond to DNA damage. p53, fulfills its role as "guardian of the genome" by either arresting cells in the cell cycle in order to allow time for repair of DNA damage or regulating a process of programmed cell death known as apoptosis. This process will eliminate cells that have suffered severe damage from intrinsic or extrinsic factors such as X-ray irradiation or chemotherapeutic drug treatments that include doxorubicin, etoposide, cisplatin, and methotrexate. Assays designed to specifically detect cells undergoing programmed cell death are essential in defining the tissue specific responses to tumor therapy treatment, tissue damage, or degenerative processes. This chapter will delineate the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end labeling) assay that is used for the rapid detection of 3' OH ends of DNA that are generated during apoptosis.
    Keywords:  Apoptosis; DNA damage; Doxorubicin; Immunofluorescence; TUNEL assay; X-ray irradiation; p53
  15. STAR Protoc. 2021 Mar 19. 2(1): 100388
      Endothelial tip cells (ETCs) located at growing blood vessels display high morphological dynamics and associated intracellular Ca2+ activities with different spatiotemporal patterns during migration. Examining the Ca2+ activity and morphological dynamics of ETCs will provide an insight for understanding the mechanism of vascular development in organs, including the brain. Here, we describe a method for simultaneous monitoring and relevant analysis of the Ca2+ activity and morphology of growing brain ETCs in larval zebrafish. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Liu et al. (2020).
    Keywords:  Cell biology; Microscopy; Model organisms; Neuroscience