bims-empneu Biomed News
on Exercise and Molecular Pathways Involved in Neuroprotection
Issue of 2021‒04‒25
four papers selected by
Navabeh Zare-Kookandeh
Victoria University

  1. Sci Rep. 2021 Apr 21. 11(1): 8599
      This study examined the effects of a nine-week intervention of four different high-intensity training modalities [high-intensity functional training (HIFT), high-intensity interval training (HIIT), high-intensity power training (HIPT), and high-intensity endurance training (HIET)] on the resting concentration of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF). In addition, we evaluated the BDNF responses to Graded Exercise Test (GXT) and Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) in men. Thirty-five healthy individuals with body mass index 25.55 ± 2.35 kg/m2 voluntarily participated in this study and were randomly assigned into four training groups. During nine-weeks they completed three exercise sessions per week for one-hour. BDNF was analyzed before and after a GXT and WAnT in two stages: (stage 0-before training and stage 9-after nine weeks of training). At stage 0, an increase in BDNF concentration was observed in HIFT (33%; p < 0.05), HIPT (36%; p < 0.05) and HIIT (38%; p < 0.05) after GXT. Even though HIET showed an increase in BDNF (10%) this was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). At stage 9, higher BDNF levels after GXT were seen only for the HIFT (30%; p < 0.05) and HIIT (18%; p < 0.05) groups. Reduction in BDNF levels were noted after the WAnT in stage 0 for HIFT (- 47%; p < 0.01), HIPT (- 49%; p < 0.001), HIET (- 18%; p < 0.05)], with no changes in the HIIT group (- 2%). At stage 9, BDNF was also reduced after WAnT, although these changes were lower compared to stage 0. The reduced level of BDNF was noted in the HIFT (- 28%; p < 0.05), and HIPT (- 19%;p < 0.05) groups. Additionally, all groups saw an improvement in VO2max (8%; p < 0.001), while BDNF was also correlated with lactate and minute ventilation and selected WAnT parameters. Our research has shown that resting values of BDNF after nine weeks of different forms of high-intensity training (HIT) have not changed or were reduced. Resting BDNF measured at 3th (before GXT at stage 9) and 6th day after long lasting HITs (before WAnT at stage 9) did not differed (before GXT), but in comparison to the resting value before WAnT at the baseline state, was lower in three groups. It appears that BDNF levels after one bout of exercise is depended on duration time, intensity and type of test/exercise.
  2. Med Sci Monit. 2021 Apr 21. 27 e929609
      BACKGROUND A lack of physical exercise, a critical aspect of a healthy lifestyle, contributes to several cerebral diseases, such as cognitive impairment, Parkinson disease (PD), and Alzheimer disease (AD). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of physical exercise on cerebral disease via released extracellular vesicles (EVs). MATERIAL AND METHODS Short-term high-intensity treadmill exercise was applied to assess the effect of physical activity on EVs in the serum and brain tissue. Immunofluorescence staining and western blot analysis were used to analyze biomarkers of EVs, including TSG101, HSC70, and CD63. Nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) was used to analyze the size and concentration of EVs. RESULTS Short-term high-intensity exercise increased the number of neuronal EVs in the brain. In the peripheral blood serum, the level of HSC70 showed a temporary increase after exercise and quickly returned to the normal level, whereas the levels of CD63 and TSG101 showed no obvious change in response to physical exercise. In brain tissue, the levels of HSC70 and TSG101 increased dramatically after exercise, while the level of CD63 remained unchanged. The concentration of EVs was significantly increased after exercise, while the mean diameter of the EVs showed no significant change. The levels of ceramide were significantly increased after exercise, and quickly returned to normal levels. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that the secretion of EVs in the brain and blood is a transitory response to physical exercise and is dependent on ceramide synthesis.
  3. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2021 ;17 1057-1067
      Background: Electroacupuncture (EA) is a form of physical therapy that has been widely used in clinical practice in China. Post-stroke depression (PSD) is the most common neuropsychiatric complication after stroke. EA has been shown to have beneficial effects on PSD patients. However, the potential mechanism underlying the protective effects of EA on PSD remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) signaling pathway participates in the therapeutic effects of EA in a rat PSD model.Methods: Experimental PSD was induced by combining middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with chronic unpredictable mild stimulation (CUMS) in adult male rats. Bodyweight gain, neurological score, sucrose preference, and open field test were determined at 0, 7, 14, and 35 days after completing MCAO. The protein expressions of tPA, precursor BDNF (proBDNF), mature BDNF (mBDNF), and TrkB were measured by immunofluorescence and Western blot analysis. The tPA inhibitor plasminogen inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) was used to explore whether tPA plays a crucial role in the protective effects of EA on PSD.
    Results: Compared with the sham rats, the PSD rats showed decreased bodyweight, deteriorated neurological score, and significant depressive-like behaviors. EA remarkably reversed bodyweight loss, neurological deficit, and depressive-like behaviors in PSD rats. Immunofluorescence staining and Western blot analysis showed that PSD-induced decreased expression of tPA, mBDNF, and TrkB were prevented by EA. Furthermore, we found that the effects of EA against PSD-induced depressive-like behaviors were abolished by PAI-1, the specific inhibitor of tPA.
    Conclusion: Our results suggest that the improvement in depressive-like behaviors induced by EA is likely achieved via activation of the tPA/BDNF/TrkB pathway.
    Keywords:  chronic unpredictable mild stimulation; depressive-like behaviors; electroacupuncture; poststroke depression; tPA/BDNF/TrkB
  4. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2021 Apr 22.
      Studies show aerobic exercise increases irisin and leads to health benefits. The impact of circuit training (CT) on irisin in overweight younger and older adults is unknown. The objectives were to determine whether, during an acute bout of CT, changes in irisin differed between overweight younger and older adults, and if irisin is associated with body composition, fitness level, or muscle strength. Inactive, overweight adults aged between 19-35 (25.9 ± 5.0; n=15) and 60-75 years old (67.7 ± 4.1; n=14) participated in this study. The primary exposure variable was an acute bout of CT (12-15 repetitions; 65-70% of 1-repetition maximum; 3 loops). The primary outcome measure was the concentration of irisin determined by ELISA before, during, and after exercise. Repeated measures analyses showed no effect of time on irisin levels during acute CT, and no interaction effect between age and time (p >0.05). No associations were observed between changes in irisin and body composition, fitness, or strength (p >0.05). In conclusion, acute CT doesn't increase irisin in overweight individuals, nor is irisin associated with the measured outcomes. Further studies are needed to elucidate the release of irisin by different types of exercise across the lifespan. NCT03715088 NOVELTY: • Younger and older adults show a similar irisin response to an acute bout of circuit training. • Irisin response is not associated with measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, nor muscle strength.