bims-cytox1 Biomed News
on Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1
Issue of 2022‒05‒01
four papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University

  1. Cell Stress. 2022 Apr;6(4): 45-60
      Glioblastoma (GBM) is a fatal disease with recurrences often associated with radioresistance. Although often effective at treating newly diagnosed GBM, increasing evidence suggests that radiotherapy-induced alterations in tumor metabolism promote GBM recurrence and aggressiveness. Using isogenic radiosensitive and radioresistant GBM cell lines and patient-derived xenolines, we found that acquired radioresistance is associated with a shift from a glycolytic metabolism to a more oxidative metabolism marked by a substantial increase in the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex cytochrome c oxidase (CcO). This elevated CcO activity was associated with a switch in the isoform expression of the CcO regulatory subunit COX4, from COX4-2 to COX4-1, assembly of CcO-containing mitochondrial supercomplexes (SCs), and reduced superoxide (O2 •-) production. Overexpression of COX4-1 in the radiosensitive cells was sufficient to promote the switch from glycolytic to oxidative metabolism and the incorporation of CcO into SCs, with a concomitant reduction in O2 •- production. Conversely, silencing of COX4-1 expression in normally radioresistant cells reduced CcO activity, promoted the disassembly of mitochondrial SCs, and increased O2 •- production. Additionally, gain or loss of COX4-1 expression was sufficient to induce the radioresistant or radiosensitive phenotype, respectively. Our results demonstrate that COX4-1 promotes SC assembly in GBM cells, and SC assembly may in turn regulate the production of reactive oxygen species and thus the acquisition of radioresistance in GBM.
    Keywords:  COX4; GBM; cytochrome c oxidase; mitochondria; radioresistance; supercomplexes; superoxide
  2. Cell Rep Methods. 2021 May 24. 1(1): 100002
      Mitochondria sustain the energy demand of the cell. The composition and functional state of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system are informative indicators of organelle bioenergetic capacity. Here, we describe a highly sensitive and reproducible method for a single-cell quantification of mitochondrial CI- and CIV-containing respiratory supercomplexes (CI∗CIV-SCs) as an alternative means of assessing mitochondrial respiratory chain integrity. We apply a proximity ligation assay (PLA) and stain CI∗CIV-SCs in fixed human and mouse brains, tumorigenic cells, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and iPSC-derived neural precursor cells (NPCs), and neurons. Spatial visualization of CI∗CIV-SCs enables the detection of mitochondrial lesions in various experimental models, including complex tissues undergoing degenerative processes. We report that comparative assessments of CI∗CIV-SCs facilitate the quantitative profiling of even subtle mitochondrial variations by overcoming the confounding effects that mixed cell populations have on other measurements. Together, our PLA-based analysis of CI∗CIV-SCs is a sensitive and complementary technique for detecting cell-type-specific mitochondrial perturbations in fixed materials.
    Keywords:  brain; in-situ imaging analysis; mitochondria; mitochondrial diseases; mitochondrial dysfunction; mitochondrial respiratory supercomplexes; proximity ligation assay
  3. Annu Rev Biomed Data Sci. 2022 Apr 26.
      The formation of protein complexes is crucial to most biological functions. The cellular mechanisms governing protein complex biogenesis are not yet well understood, but some principles of cotranslational and posttranslational assembly are beginning to emerge. In bacteria, this process is favored by operons encoding subunits of protein complexes. Eukaryotic cells do not have polycistronic mRNAs, raising the question of how they orchestrate the encounter of unassembled subunits. Here we review the constraints and mechanisms governing eukaryotic co- and posttranslational protein folding and assembly, including the influence of elongation rate on nascent chain targeting, folding, and chaperone interactions. Recent evidence shows that mRNAs encoding subunits of oligomeric assemblies can undergo localized translation and form cytoplasmic condensates that might facilitate the assembly of protein complexes. Understanding the interplay between localized mRNA translation and cotranslational proteostasis will be critical to defining protein complex assembly in vivo. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Data Science, Volume 5 is August 2022. Please see for revised estimates.
  4. STAR Protoc. 2022 Jun 17. 3(2): 101322
      Mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) dysfunction is linked to mitochondrial disease as well as other common conditions such as diabetes, neurodegeneration, cancer, and aging. Thus, the evaluation of MRC enzymatic activities is fundamental for diagnostics and research purposes on experimental models. Here, we provide a verified and reliable protocol for mitochondria isolation from various D. melanogaster samples and subsequent measurement of the activity of MRC complexes I-V plus citrate synthase (CS) through UV-VIS spectrophotometry. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Brischigliaro et al. (2021).
    Keywords:  Cell separation/fractionation; Metabolism; Model Organisms; Protein Biochemistry