bims-cytox1 Biomed News
on Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1
Issue of 2022‒03‒20
three papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University

  1. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2022 ;10 786268
      Mitochondria are complex organelles containing 13 proteins encoded by mitochondrial DNA and over 1,000 proteins encoded on nuclear DNA. Many mitochondrial proteins are associated with the inner or outer mitochondrial membranes, either peripherally or as integral membrane proteins, while others reside in either of the two soluble mitochondrial compartments, the mitochondrial matrix and the intermembrane space. The biogenesis of the five complexes of the oxidative phosphorylation system are exemplars of this complexity. These large multi-subunit complexes are comprised of more than 80 proteins with both membrane integral and peripheral associations and require soluble, membrane integral and peripherally associated assembly factor proteins for their biogenesis. Mutations causing human mitochondrial disease can lead to defective complex assembly due to the loss or altered function of the affected protein and subsequent destabilization of its interactors. Here we couple sodium carbonate extraction with quantitative mass spectrometry (SCE-MS) to track changes in the membrane association of the mitochondrial proteome across multiple human knockout cell lines. In addition to identifying the membrane association status of over 840 human mitochondrial proteins, we show how SCE-MS can be used to understand the impacts of defective complex assembly on protein solubility, giving insights into how specific subunits and sub-complexes become destabilized.
    Keywords:  OXPHOS (oxidative phosphorylation); carbonate extraction; membrane protein; mitochondria; proteomic analyses; respiratory chain assembly
  2. Annu Rev Biochem. 2022 Feb 14.
      Mitochondria are central to energy production, metabolism and signaling, and apoptosis. To make new mitochondria from preexisting mitochondria, the cell needs to import mitochondrial proteins from the cytosol into the mitochondria with the aid of translocators in the mitochondrial membranes. The translocase of the outer membrane (TOM) complex, an outer membrane translocator, functions as an entry gate for most mitochondrial proteins. Although high-resolution structures of the receptor subunits of the TOM complex were deposited in the early 2000s, those of entire TOM complexes became available only in 2019. The structural details of these TOM complexes, consisting of the dimer of the β-barrel import channel Tom40 and four α-helical membrane proteins, revealed the presence of several distinct paths and exits for the translocation of over 1,000 different mitochondrial precursor proteins. High-resolution structures of TOM complexes now open up a new era of studies on the structures, functions, and dynamics of the mitochondrial import system. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry, Volume 91 is June 2022. Please see for revised estimates.
  3. FEBS Open Bio. 2022 Mar 18.
      Mutations in genes encoding cytochrome c oxidase (COX; mitochondrial complex IV) subunits and assembly factors (e.g., SCO1, SCO2, COA6) are linked to severe metabolic syndromes. Notwithstanding that SCO2 is under transcriptional control of tumour suppressor p53, the role of mitochondrial complex IV dysfunction in cancer metabolism remains obscure. Herein, we demonstrate that the loss of SCO2 in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells leads to significant metabolic and signaling perturbations. Specifically, abrogation of SCO2 increased NAD+ regenerating reactions and decreased glucose oxidation through citric acid cycle while enhancing pyruvate carboxylation. This was accompanied by a reduction in amino acid levels and the accumulation of lipid droplets. In addition, SCO2 loss resulted in hyperactivation of the IGF1R/AKT axis with paradoxical downregulation of mTOR signaling which was accompanied by increased AMPK activity. Accordingly, abrogation of SCO2 expression appears to increase the sensitivity of cells to IGF1R and AKT, but not mTOR inhibitors. Finally, the loss of SCO2 was associated with reduced proliferation and enhanced migration of HCT116 cells. Collectively, herein we describe potential adaptive signaling and metabolic perturbations triggered by mitochondrial complex IV dysfunction.
    Keywords:  AKT; AMPK; SCO2; cytochrome C oxidase; mTOR; metabolism; mitochondrial dysfunction