bims-cytox1 Biomed News
on Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1
Issue of 2022‒01‒30
five papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University

  1. Front Physiol. 2021 ;12 806426
      The vast majority of mitochondrial proteins are encoded in the nuclear genome and synthesized on cytosolic ribosomes as precursor proteins with specific mitochondrial targeting signals. Mitochondrial targeting signals are very diverse, however, about 70% of mitochondrial proteins carry cleavable, N-terminal extensions called presequences. These amphipathic helices with one positively charged and one hydrophobic surface target proteins to the mitochondrial matrix with the help of the TOM and TIM23 complexes in the outer and inner membranes, respectively. Translocation of proteins across the two mitochondrial membranes does not take place independently of each other. Rather, in the intermembrane space, where the two complexes meet, components of the TOM and TIM23 complexes form an intricate network of protein-protein interactions that mediates initially transfer of presequences and then of the entire precursor proteins from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membrane. In this Mini Review, we summarize our current understanding of how the TOM and TIM23 complexes cooperate with each other and highlight some of the future challenges and unresolved questions in the field.
    Keywords:  TIM23 complex; TOM complex; TOM-TIM23 contacts; intermembrane space; mitochondria; precursor transfer; presequence pathway; protein translocation
  2. J Biochem. 2022 Jan 26. pii: mvac005. [Epub ahead of print]
      In addition to the cytoplasmic translation system, eukaryotic cells house additional protein synthesis machinery in mitochondria. The importance of this in organello translation is exemplified by clinical pathologies associated with mutations in mitochondrial translation factors. Although a detailed understanding of mitochondrial translation has long been awaited, quantitative, comprehensive, and spatiotemporal measurements have posed analytic challenges. The recent development of novel approaches for studying mitochondrial protein synthesis has overcome these issues and expands our understanding of the unique translation system. Here, we review the current technologies for the investigation of mitochondrial translation and the insights provided by their application.
    Keywords:  FUNCAT; Mitochondria; Mitoribosome; Ribosome profiling; Translation
  3. J Vis Exp. 2022 Jan 07.
      Mitochondria are key metabolic and regulatory organelles that determine the energy supply as well as the overall health of the cell. In skeletal muscle, mitochondria exist in a series of complex morphologies, ranging from small oval organelles to a broad, reticulum-like network. Understanding how the mitochondrial reticulum expands and develops in response to diverse stimuli such as alterations in energy demand has long been a topic of research. A key aspect of this growth, or biogenesis, is the import of precursor proteins, originally encoded by the nuclear genome, synthesized in the cytosol, and translocated into various mitochondrial sub-compartments. Mitochondria have developed a sophisticated mechanism for this import process, involving many selective inner and outer membrane channels, known as the protein import machinery (PIM). Import into the mitochondrion is dependent on viable membrane potential and the availability of organelle-derived ATP through oxidative phosphorylation. Therefore its measurement can serve as a measure of organelle health. The PIM also exhibits a high level of adaptive plasticity in skeletal muscle that is tightly coupled to the energy status of the cell. For example, exercise training has been shown to increase import capacity, while muscle disuse reduces it, coincident with changes in markers of mitochondrial content. Although protein import is a critical step in the biogenesis and expansion of mitochondria, the process is not widely studied in skeletal muscle. Thus, this paper outlines how to use isolated and fully functional mitochondria from skeletal muscle to measure protein import capacity in order to promote a greater understanding of the methods involved and an appreciation of the importance of the pathway for organelle turnover in exercise, health, and disease.
  4. J Vector Borne Dis. 2021 Apr-Jun;58(2):58(2): 106-114
      BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The present study proposed a series of computational techniques such as homology modelling, molecular simulation, and molecular docking to be performed to explore the structural features and binding mechanism of Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX1) protein with known inhibitors.METHODS: Elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of COX1 protein was carried out by using MODELLER software. The modelled protein was validated using GROMACS, structural qualitative tools and web servers. Finally the model was docked with carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) using Auto Dock Tools.
    RESULTS: The three-dimensional structure of mitochondrial transmembrane protein COX1 was built using homology modelling based on high-resolution crystal structures of Bos taurus. Followed by inserting the lipid bilayer, molecular dynamics simulation was performed on the modelled protein structure. The modelled protein was validated using qualitative structural indices. Known inhibitors such as carbon monoxide (CO) and nitric oxide (NO) inhibit their active binding sites of mitochondrial COX1 and the inhibitors were docked into the active site of attained model. A structure-based virtual screening was performed on the basis of the active site inhibition with best scoring hits. The COX1 model was submitted and can be accessible from the Model Archive site through the following link
    INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION: Structural characterization and active site identification can be further used as target for the planning of potent mosquitocidal compounds, thereby assisting the information in the field of research.
    Keywords:  Cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX1); Gremlin; Homology modelling; Modeller; Molecular Dynamics simulations; Molecular docking studies
  5. Mol Biol Cell. 2022 Jan 26. mbcE21030143
      Assembly of the dimeric complex III (CIII2) in the mitochondrial inner membrane is an intricate process, in which several accessory proteins are involved as assembly factors. Despite numerous studies, this process is yet to be fully understood. Here we report the identification of human OCIAD2 (Ovarian Carcinoma Immunoreactive Antigen domain containing protein 2) protein as an assembly factor for CIII2. OCIAD2 was found deregulated in several carcinomas and also in some neurogenerative disorders, however its non-pathological role had not been elucidated.  We have shown that OCIAD2 localizes to mitochondria and interacts with electron transport chain (ETC) proteins. Complete loss of OCIAD2 using gene editing in HEK293 cells resulted in abnormal mitochondrial morphology, a substantial decrease of both CIII2 and supercomplex III2+IV, and reduction in CIII enzymatic activity. Identification of OCIAD2 as a protein required for assembly of functional CIII2 provides a new insight into the biogenesis and architecture of the ETC. Elucidating the mechanism of OCIAD2 action is important both for the understanding of cellular metabolism and for an understanding of its role in malignant transformation.