bims-cytox1 Biomed News
on Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1
Issue of 2022‒01‒02
four papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University

  1. Elife. 2021 Dec 31. pii: e68213. [Epub ahead of print]10
      Human mitochondria express a genome that encodes thirteen core subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). These proteins insert into the inner membrane co-translationally. Therefore, mitochondrial ribosomes engage with the OXA1L-insertase and membrane-associated proteins, which support membrane insertion of translation products and early assembly steps into OXPHOS complexes. To identify ribosome-associated biogenesis factors for the OXPHOS system, we purified ribosomes and associated proteins from mitochondria. We identified TMEM223 as a ribosome-associated protein involved in complex IV biogenesis. TMEM223 stimulates the translation of COX1 mRNA and is a constituent of early COX1 assembly intermediates. Moreover, we show that SMIM4 together with C12ORF73 interacts with newly synthesized cytochrome b to support initial steps of complex III biogenesis in complex with UQCC1 and UQCC2. Our analyses define the interactome of the human mitochondrial ribosome and reveal novel assembly factors for complex III and IV biogenesis that link early assembly stages to the translation machinery.
    Keywords:  assembly; biochemistry; cell biology; chemical biology; mitochondria; oxidative phosphorylation; ribosome; translation
  2. Mol Genet Metab. 2021 Dec 18. pii: S1096-7192(21)01191-4. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondrial disease diagnosis requires interrogation of both nuclear and mitochondrial (mtDNA) genomes for single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number alterations, both in the proband and often maternal relatives, together with careful phenotype correlation. We developed a comprehensive mtDNA sequencing test ('MitoGenome') using long-range PCR (LR-PCR) to amplify the full length of the mtDNA genome followed by next generation sequencing (NGS) to accurately detect SNVs and large-scale mtDNA deletions (LSMD), combined with droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) for LSMD heteroplasmy quantification. Overall, MitoGenome tests were performed on 428 samples from 394 patients with suspected or confirmed mitochondrial disease. The positive yield was 11% (43/394), including 34 patients with pathogenic or likely pathogenic SNVs (the most common being m.3243A > G in 8/34 (24%) patients), 8 patients with single LSMD, and 3 patients with multiple LSMD exceeding 10% heteroplasmy levels. Two patients with both LSMD and pathogenic SNV were detected. Overall, this LR-PCR/NGS assay provides a highly accurate and comprehensive diagnostic method for simultaneous mtDNA SNV detection at heteroplasmy levels as low as 1% and LSMD detection at heteroplasmy levels below 10%. Inclusion of maternal samples for variant classification and ddPCR to quantify LSMD heteroplasmy levels further enables accurate pathogenicity assessment and clinical correlation interpretation of mtDNA genome sequence variants and copy number alterations.
    Keywords:  Heteroplasmy; Mitochondrial genome; Multiple deletions; Single large-scale deletion; mtDNA mutation
  3. Int J Biol Macromol. 2021 Dec 24. pii: S0141-8130(21)02714-8. [Epub ahead of print]198 26-36
      Solvent additives, including NaCl, arginine hydrochloride (ArgHCl), glycine and sucrose, are used to enhance protein stability or reduce protein aggregation. Here, we studied the effects of these additives on proteins using agarose native gel electrophoresis. Since these additives are used at relatively high concentration, we first confirmed that they do not interfere with the performance of the native gel electrophoresis. Agarose native gel electrophoresis showed that aggregation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) induced by heating was slightly reduced by NaCl and ArgHCl. On the contrary, glycine and sucrose had marginal effects. ArgHCl and NaCl promoted heat aggregation of monoclonal antibody (mAb), while glycine and sucrose stabilized the native mAb. Arginine methyl ester inhibited heat aggregation of lysozyme and, to a much lesser extent, BSA. These results show that agarose native gel electrophoresis can be used to analyze the effects of solvent additives on proteins subjected to heat stresses. SYPRO Orange that stains only unfolded proteins confirmed unfolded structures of soluble aggregates.
    Keywords:  Agarose native gel; Arginine; Soluble aggregates
  4. Diabetes. 2021 Oct 21. pii: db210316. [Epub ahead of print]
      Increased oxidative stress in glomerular endothelial cells (GEnCs) contributes to early diabetic kidney disease (DKD). While mitochondrial respiratory complex IV activity is reduced in DKD, it remains unclear whether this is a driver or a consequence of oxidative stress in GEnCs. Synthesis of cytochrome C oxidase 2 (SCO2), a key metallochaperone in the electron transport chain, is critical to the biogenesis and assembly of subunits required for functional respiratory complex IV activity. Here, we investigated the effects of Sco2 hypomorphs (Sco2KO/KI, Sco2KI/KI), with a functional loss of SCO2, in the progression of DKD using a murine model of Type II Diabetes Mellitus, db/db mice. Diabetic Sco2KO/KI and Sco2KI/KI hypomorphs exhibited a reduction in complex IV activity, but an improvement in albuminuria, serum creatinine, and histomorphometric evidence of early DKD as compared to db/db mice. Single-nucleus RNA sequencing with gene set enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes in the endothelial cluster of Sco2KO/KI;db/db mice demonstrated an increase in genes involved in VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling and reduced oxidative stress as compared to db/db mice. These data suggest that reduced complex IV activity due to a loss of functional SCO2 might be protective in GEnCs in early DKD.