bims-cytox1 Biomed News
on Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1
Issue of 2021‒12‒26
four papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University

  1. Antioxidants (Basel). 2021 Dec 05. pii: 1950. [Epub ahead of print]10(12):
      SURF1 encodes the assembly factor for maintaining the antioxidant of cytochrome c oxidase (COX) stability in the human electron respiratory chain. Mutations in SURF1 can cause Leigh syndrome (LS), a subacute neurodegenerative encephalopathy, characterized by early onset (infancy), grave prognosis, and predominant symptoms presenting in the basal ganglia, thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and peripheral nerves. To date, more than sixty different SURF1 mutations have been found to cause SURF1-associated LS; however, the relationship between genotype and phenotype is still unclear. Most SURF1-associated LS courses present as typical LS and cause early mortality (before the age of ten years). However, 10% of the cases present with atypical courses with milder symptoms and increased life expectancy. One reason for this inconsistency may be due to specific duplications or mutations close to the C-terminus of the SURF1 protein appearing to cause less protein decay. Furthermore, the treatment for SURF1-associated LS is unsatisfactory. A ketogenic diet is most often prescribed and has proven to be effective. Supplementing with coenzyme Q and other cofactors is also a common treatment option; however, the results are inconsistent. Importantly, anti-epileptic drugs such as valproate-which cause mitochondrial dysfunction-should be avoided in patients with SURF1-associated LS presenting with seizures.
    Keywords:  Leigh syndrome; complex IV assembly; mitochondrial disorders
  2. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2021 Dec;86(12): 1607-1623
      Cytochrome c oxidase 6B1 (COX6B1) is one of the less characterized subunits of the mitochondrial electron transport chain complex IV (CIV). Here, we studied the pathobiochemical and respiratory functions of Cox12 (yeast ortholog of COX6B1) using Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 (cox12Δ) cells deficient by the Cox12 protein. The cells exhibited severe growth deficiency in the respiratory glycerol-ethanol medium, which could be reverted by complementation with the yeast COX12 or human COX6B1 genes. Cox12 with arginine 17 residue substituted by histidine (R17H) or cysteine (R17C) (mutations analogous to those observed in human patients) failed to complement the loss of Cox12 function. When cox12Δ cells were grown in rich respiratory/fermentative galactose medium, no changes in the expression of individual respiratory chain subunits were observed. Blue native PAGE/Western blotting analysis using antibodies against Rip1 and Cox1, which are specific components of complexes III (CIII) and IV (CIV), respectively, revealed no noticeable decrease in the native CIII2CIV2 and CIII2CIV1 supercomplexes (SCs). However, the association of the respiratory SC factor 2 (Rcf2) and Cox2 subunit within the SCs of cox12Δ cells was reduced, while the specific activity of CIV was downregulated by 90%. Both basal respiration and succinate-ADP stimulated state 3 respiration, as well as the mitochondrial membrane potential, were decreased in cox12Δ cells. Furthermore, cox12Δ cells and cells synthesizing Cox12 mutants R17H and R17C showed higher sensitivity to the H2O2-induced oxidative stress compared to the wild-type (WT) cells. In silico structural modeling of the WT yeast SCs revealed that Cox12 forms a network of interactions with Rcf2 and Cox2. Together, our results establish that Cox12 is essential for the CIV activity.
    Keywords:  Cox12; complex IV; cytochrome c oxidase 6B1; supercomplexes
  3. Mol Genet Metab Rep. 2022 Mar;30 100830
      We report a novel pathogenic variant (c.223G > C; p.Gly75Arg) in the gene encoding the small mitoribosomal subunit protein mS34 in a long-surviving patient with Leigh Syndrome who was genetically diagnosed at age 34 years. The patient presented with delayed motor milestones and a stepwise motor deterioration during life, along with brain MRI alterations involving the subcortical white matter, deep grey nuclei and in particular the internal globi pallidi, that appeared calcified on CT scan. The novel variant is associated with a reduction of mS34 protein levels and of the OXPHOS complex I and IV subunits in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the case. This study expands the number of variants that, by affecting the stability of the mitoribosome, may cause an OXPHOS deficiency in Leigh Syndrome and reports, for the first time, an unusual long survival in a patient with a homozygous MRPS34 pathogenic variant.
  4. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021 ;9 795685
      Mitochondria contain two membranes, the outer and inner membrane. The outer membrane fulfills crucial functions for the communication of mitochondria with the cellular environment like exchange of lipids via organelle contact sites, the transport of metabolites and the formation of a signaling platform in apoptosis and innate immunity. The translocase of the outer membrane (TOM complex) forms the entry gate for the vast majority of precursor proteins that are produced on cytosolic ribosomes. Surveillance of the functionality of outer membrane proteins is critical for mitochondrial functions and biogenesis. Quality control mechanisms remove defective and mistargeted proteins from the outer membrane as well as precursor proteins that clog the TOM complex. Selective degradation of single proteins is also an important mode to regulate mitochondrial dynamics and initiation of mitophagy pathways. Whereas inner mitochondrial compartments are equipped with specific proteases, the ubiquitin-proteasome system is a central player in protein surveillance on the mitochondrial surface. In this review, we summarize our current knowledge about the molecular mechanisms that govern quality control of proteins at the outer mitochondrial membrane.
    Keywords:  Cdc48; TOM complex; mitochondria; protein quality control; protein sorting