bims-cytox1 Biomed News
on Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1
Issue of 2021‒11‒07
four papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University

  1. Hum Mol Genet. 2021 Oct 28. pii: ddab314. [Epub ahead of print]
      Pathogenic variants that disrupt human mitochondrial protein synthesis are associated with a clinically heterogenous group of diseases. Despite an impairment in oxidative phosphorylation being a common phenotype, the underlying molecular pathogenesis is more complex than simply a bioenergetic deficiency. Currently, we have limited mechanistic understanding on the scope by which a primary defect in mitochondrial protein synthesis contributes to organelle dysfunction. Since the proteins encoded in the mitochondrial genome are hydrophobic and need co-translational insertion into a lipid bilayer, responsive quality control mechanisms are required to resolve aberrations that arise with the synthesis of truncated and misfolded proteins. Here, we show that defects in the OXA1L-mediated insertion of MT-ATP6 nascent chains into the mitochondrial inner membrane are rapidly resolved by the AFG3L2 protease complex. Using pathogenic MT-ATP6 variants, we then reveal discrete steps in this quality control mechanism and the differential functional consequences to mitochondrial gene expression. The inherent ability of a given cell type to recognize and resolve impairments in mitochondrial protein synthesis may in part contribute at the molecular level to the wide clinical spectrum of these disorders.
  2. Mol Biol Cell. 2021 Nov 03. mbcE21070370
      We demonstrate here that mitoribosomal protein synthesis, responsible for the synthesis of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subunits encoded by mitochondrial genome, occurs at high levels during glycolysis fermentation and in a manner uncoupled from OXPHOS complex assembly regulation. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the mitospecific domain of Mrp7 (bL27), a mitoribosomal component, is required to maintain mitochondrial protein synthesis during fermentation, but is not required under respiration growth conditions. Maintaining mitotranslation under high glucose fermentation conditions also involves Mam33 (p32/gC1qR homolog), a binding partner of Mrp7's mitospecific domain, and together they confer a competitive advantage for a cell's ability to adapt to respiration-based metabolism when glucose becomes limiting. Furthermore, our findings support that the mitoribosome, and specifically the central protuberance (CP) region, may be differentially regulated and/or assembled, under the different metabolic conditions of fermentation and respiration. Based on our findings, we propose the purpose of mitotranslation is not limited to the assembly of OXPHOS complexes, but also plays a role in mitochondrial signaling critical for switching cellular metabolism from a glycolysis- to a respiratory-based state.
  3. BMJ. 2021 11 03. 375 e066288
    Genomics England Research Consortium
      OBJECTIVE: To determine whether whole genome sequencing can be used to define the molecular basis of suspected mitochondrial disease.DESIGN: Cohort study.
    SETTING: National Health Service, England, including secondary and tertiary care.
    PARTICIPANTS: 345 patients with suspected mitochondrial disorders recruited to the 100 000 Genomes Project in England between 2015 and 2018.
    INTERVENTION: Short read whole genome sequencing was performed. Nuclear variants were prioritised on the basis of gene panels chosen according to phenotypes, ClinVar pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants, and the top 10 prioritised variants from Exomiser. Mitochondrial DNA variants were called using an in-house pipeline and compared with a list of pathogenic variants. Copy number variants and short tandem repeats for 13 neurological disorders were also analysed. American College of Medical Genetics guidelines were followed for classification of variants.
    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Definite or probable genetic diagnosis.
    RESULTS: A definite or probable genetic diagnosis was identified in 98/319 (31%) families, with an additional 6 (2%) possible diagnoses. Fourteen of the diagnoses (4% of the 319 families) explained only part of the clinical features. A total of 95 different genes were implicated. Of 104 families given a diagnosis, 39 (38%) had a mitochondrial diagnosis and 65 (63%) had a non-mitochondrial diagnosis.
    CONCLUSION: Whole genome sequencing is a useful diagnostic test in patients with suspected mitochondrial disorders, yielding a diagnosis in a further 31% after exclusion of common causes. Most diagnoses were non-mitochondrial disorders and included developmental disorders with intellectual disability, epileptic encephalopathies, other metabolic disorders, cardiomyopathies, and leukodystrophies. These would have been missed if a targeted approach was taken, and some have specific treatments.