bims-cytox1 Biomed News
on Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1
Issue of 2021‒07‒04
nine papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University

  1. Chem Rev. 2021 Jun 29.
      In the final steps of energy conservation in aerobic organisms, free energy from electron transfer through the respiratory chain is transduced into a proton electrochemical gradient across a membrane. In mitochondria and many bacteria, reduction of the dioxygen electron acceptor is catalyzed by cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV), which receives electrons from cytochrome bc1 (complex III), via membrane-bound or water-soluble cytochrome c. These complexes function independently, but in many organisms they associate to form supercomplexes. Here, we review the structural features and the functional significance of the nonobligate III2IV1/2 Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondrial supercomplex as well as the obligate III2IV2 supercomplex from actinobacteria. The analysis is centered around the Q-cycle of complex III, proton uptake by CytcO, as well as mechanistic and structural solutions to the electronic link between complexes III and IV.
  2. Life (Basel). 2021 Jun 29. pii: 633. [Epub ahead of print]11(7):
      Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is predominately uniparentally transmitted. This results in organisms with a single type of mtDNA (homoplasmy), but two or more mtDNA haplotypes have been observed in low frequency in several species (heteroplasmy). In this review, we aim to highlight several aspects of heteroplasmy regarding its origin and its significance on mtDNA function and evolution, which has been progressively recognized in the last several years. Heteroplasmic organisms commonly occur through somatic mutations during an individual's lifetime. They also occur due to leakage of paternal mtDNA, which rarely happens during fertilization. Alternatively, heteroplasmy can be potentially inherited maternally if an egg is already heteroplasmic. Recent advances in sequencing techniques have increased the ability to detect and quantify heteroplasmy and have revealed that mitochondrial DNA copies in the nucleus (NUMTs) can imitate true heteroplasmy. Heteroplasmy can have significant evolutionary consequences on the survival of mtDNA from the accumulation of deleterious mutations and for its coevolution with the nuclear genome. Particularly in humans, heteroplasmy plays an important role in the emergence of mitochondrial diseases and determines the success of the mitochondrial replacement therapy, a recent method that has been developed to cure mitochondrial diseases.
    Keywords:  NUMTs; heteroplasmy; mtDNA; paternal leakage; selection
  3. Front Neurol. 2021 ;12 657317
      Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is due to missense point mutations affecting mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); 90% of cases harbor the m.3460G>A, m.11778G>A, and m.14484T>C primary mutations. Here, we report and discuss five families with patients affected by symptomatic LHON, in which we found five novel mtDNA variants. Remarkably, these mtDNA variants are located in complex I genes, though without strong deleterious effect on respiration in cellular models: this finding is likely linked to the tissue specificity of LHON. This study observes that in the case of a strong clinical suspicion of LHON, it is recommended to analyze the whole mtDNA sequence, since new rare mtDNA pathogenic variants causing LHON are increasingly identified.
    Keywords:  LHON; Leber optic atrophy; complex I; mitochondrial respiratory chain; transmitochondrial cybrids
  4. Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Jun 17. pii: 6524. [Epub ahead of print]22(12):
      NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 8 (NDUFS8) is a nuclear-encoded core subunit of human mitochondrial complex I. Defects in NDUFS8 are associated with Leigh syndrome and encephalomyopathy. Cell-penetrating peptide derived from the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription protein (TAT) has been successfully applied as a carrier to bring fusion proteins into cells without compromising the biological function of the cargoes. In this study, we developed a TAT-mediated protein transduction system to rescue complex I deficiency caused by NDUFS8 defects. Two fusion proteins (TAT-NDUFS8 and NDUFS8-TAT) were exogenously expressed and purified from Escherichia coli for transduction of human cells. In addition, similar constructs were generated and used in transfection studies for comparison. The results showed that both exogenous TAT-NDUFS8 and NDUFS8-TAT were delivered into mitochondria and correctly processed. Interestingly, the mitochondrial import of TAT-containing NDUFS8 was independent of mitochondrial membrane potential. Treatment with TAT-NDUFS8 not only significantly improved the assembly of complex I in an NDUFS8-deficient cell line, but also partially rescued complex I functions both in the in-gel activity assay and the oxygen consumption assay. Our current findings suggest the considerable potential of applying the TAT-mediated protein transduction system for treatment of complex I deficiency.
    Keywords:  HIV-1 transactivator of transcription peptide (TAT); NDUFS8; complex I; enzyme replacement therapy; mitochondria; mitochondrial membrane potential; mitochondrial targeting sequence; protein transduction domain
  5. Comput Struct Biotechnol J. 2021 ;19 3319-3329
      Mitochondria, as the energy factory of cells, participate in metabolism processes and play a critical role in the maintenance of human life activities. Mitochondria belong to semi-automatic organelles, which have their own genome different from nuclear genome. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations can cause a series of diseases and threaten human health. However, an effective approach to edit mitochondrial DNA, though long-desired, is lacking. In recent years, gene editing technologies, represented by restriction endonucleases (RE) technology, zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) technology, transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technology, CRISPR system and pAgo-based system have been comprehensively explored, but the application of these technologies in mitochondrial gene editing is still to be explored and optimized. The present study highlights the progress and limitations of current mitochondrial gene editing technologies and approaches, and provides insights for development of novel strategies for future attempts.
    Keywords:  Gene editing; Mitochondria; mtDNA
  6. Membranes (Basel). 2021 Jun 23. pii: 465. [Epub ahead of print]11(7):
      Mitochondria are known as the powerhouse of eukaryotic cells. Energy production occurs in specific dynamic membrane invaginations in the inner mitochondrial membrane called cristae. Although the integrity of these structures is recognized as a key point for proper mitochondrial function, less is known about the mechanisms at the origin of their plasticity and organization, and how they can influence mitochondria function. Here, we review the studies which question the role of lipid membrane composition based mainly on minimal model systems.
    Keywords:  cardiolipin; cone-shaped lipid asymmetry; cristae; curvature-based sorting; mitochondria; nonbilayer structures
  7. PLoS Genet. 2021 Jul 02. 17(7): e1009664
      Mitochondrial defects can cause a variety of human diseases and protective mechanisms exist to maintain mitochondrial functionality. Imbalances in mitochondrial proteostasis trigger a transcriptional program, termed mitochondrial unfolded protein response (mtUPR). However, the temporal sequence of events in mtUPR is unclear and the consequences on mitochondrial protein import are controversial. Here, we have quantitatively analyzed all main import pathways into mitochondria after different time spans of mtUPR induction. Kinetic analyses reveal that protein import into all mitochondrial subcompartments strongly increases early upon mtUPR and that this is accompanied by rapid remodelling of the mitochondrial signature lipid cardiolipin. Genetic inactivation of cardiolipin synthesis precluded stimulation of protein import and compromised cellular fitness. At late stages of mtUPR upon sustained stress, mitochondrial protein import efficiency declined. Our work clarifies the enigma of protein import upon mtUPR and identifies sequential mtUPR stages, in which an early increase in protein biogenesis to restore mitochondrial proteostasis is followed by late stages characterized by a decrease in import capacity upon prolonged stress induction.
  8. Front Neurol. 2021 ;12 675616
      Background: Bilateral striatal necrosis (BSN) is characterized by symmetrical degeneration, predominantly of the caudate and putamen nucleus, in the basal ganglia. It is associated with numerous acquired and hereditary neuro-developmental and motor dysfunction-related pathological conditions. BSN results in high morbidity and mortality among infants and children, and its diagnosis is clinically challenging due to several overlapping disease phenotypes. Therefore, a precise genetic diagnosis is urgently needed for accurate genetic counseling and improved prognostic outcomes as well. Objective: To identify novel missense mutations in the NDUFAF5 gene as a cause of childhood BSN in members of a Chinese family and summarize the clinical characteristics of patients with the NDUFAF5 gene mutations. Methods: This study included a large family living in a remote northwestern area of China. Three siblings developed a neurological disorder characterized by generalized dystonia within the first decade of their lives. Cerebral computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilateral lesions of the putamen. Biochemical and genetic approaches were used to identify the cause of BSN. Results: Sequence analysis showed no pathogenic variation in PANK2, SLC25A19, SLC19A3, and NUP62 genes and in the entire mitochondrial genome as well. Whole-exome sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutations consisting of NDUFAF5:c.425A > C(p.E142A) and c.836T > G (p.M279R). The father, a healthy sister, and a healthy brother of the affected siblings carried the c.836T > G mutation, and the mother carried the c.425A > C mutation. These variants were absent in 100 ethnically matched non-BSN controls. In silico analysis demonstrated that the E142A and M279R mutations in NDUFAF5 protein significantly perturbed the normal conformation of the protein due to alterations in the hydrogen bonding patterns around the evolutionarily conserved catalytic domains, leading to its loss of function in the early stage of mitochondrial complex I assembly. Conclusions: We identified a novel compound heterozygous mutation (c.425A > C and c.836T > G) in the NDUFAF5 gene as the potential cause of autosomal recessive childhood BSN, which extended the pathogenic variation spectrum of the NDUFAF5 gene. This study provides substantial evidence for further improvement of genetic counseling and better clinical management of BSN affected individuals.
    Keywords:  NDUFAF5; bilateral striatal necrosis; mitochondrial complex I deficiency; novel variation; whole-exome sequencing
  9. Cells. 2021 Jun 23. pii: 1579. [Epub ahead of print]10(7):
      Cytochrome c oxidase (CytOx), the oxygen-accepting and rate-limiting enzyme of mitochondrial respiration, binds with 10 molecules of ADP, 7 of which are exchanged by ATP at high ATP/ADP-ratios. These bound ATP and ADP can be exchanged by cholate, which is generally used for the purification of CytOx. Many crystal structures of isolated CytOx were performed with the enzyme isolated from mitochondria using sodium cholate as a detergent. Cholate, however, dimerizes the enzyme isolated in non-ionic detergents and induces a structural change as evident from a spectral change. Consequently, it turns off the "allosteric ATP-inhibition of CytOx", which is reversibly switched on under relaxed conditions via cAMP-dependent phosphorylation and keeps the membrane potential and ROS formation in mitochondria at low levels. This cholate effect gives an insight into the structural-functional relationship of the enzyme with respect to ATP inhibition and its role in mitochondrial respiration and energy production.
    Keywords:  ATP binding site; allosteric ATP-Inhibition; cholat; cytochrome c oxidase; regulatory function