bims-cytox1 Biomed News
on Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1
Issue of 2021‒06‒13
six papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University

  1. Mitochondrion. 2021 Jun 02. pii: S1567-7249(21)00074-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      The identification of the m.4412G>A MT-TM (mt-tRNAMet) mutation was first reported in 2019. The affected individual presented with childhood-onset seizures and myopathy and bilateral basal ganglia changes, with heteroplasmy levels in muscle as high as 90%. Here, we describe another adult-onset patient with the same mutation and additional phenotypes, including hearing impairment, cerebellar ataxia, progressive dementia, and myopathy. The 10% heteroplasmy level observed in skin fibroblasts from this patient are lower than those in the previously reported patient. Our report suggests possible clinical heterogeneity in patients with mitochondrial tRNA mutations based on heteroplasmy levels.
    Keywords:  clinical heterogeneity; mitochondrial DNA; mitochondrial disease; mitochondrial respiratory chain complex deficiencies; mitochondrial tRNA
  2. Methods Mol Biol. 2021 ;2310 17-31
      Mitochondria possess a genome that codes for proteins, in the same fashion as the nuclear genome. However, the small, circular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) molecule has a reduced base pair content, for it can only code for 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA molecules, and 13 proteins, all of them part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. As such, all of the other mitochondrial components derive from nuclear genome. This separation leads to a requirement for a well-tuned coordination between both genomes, in order to produce fully functional mitochondria. A vast number of pathologies have been demonstrated to involve, to some extent, alterations in mitochondrial function that, no doubt, can be caused by alterations to the respiratory chain activity. As such, several methods and techniques have been developed to assess both content and function of mitochondrial proteins, in order to help understand mitochondrial involvement on the pathogenesis of disease. In this chapter, we will address some of these methods, with the main focus being on isolated mitochondria.
    Keywords:  Mitochondria; Mitochondrial protein complexes; Polarography; Respiratory chain; Spectrophotometry
  3. Methods Mol Biol. 2021 ;2310 69-77
      Investigation of mitochondrial metabolism perturbations and successful diagnosis of patients with mitochondrial abnormalities often requires assessment of human samples like muscle or liver biopsy as well as autopsy material. Immunohistochemical and histochemical examination is an important technique to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction that combined with spectrophotometric and Blue Native electrophoresis techniques can be an important tool to provide diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders. In this chapter, we focus on technical description of the methods that are suitable to detect the activity of complex I, II, and IV of mitochondrial respiratory chain in frozen sections of brain, heart, muscle, and liver biopsies/autopsy. The protocols provided can be useful not only for general assessment of mitochondrial activity in studied material, but they are also successfully used in the diagnostic procedures in case of suspicion of mitochondrial disorders. In the age of high-performance NGS sequencing, these methods can be used to confirm whether mutations are pathogenic by proving their impact on the activity of individual respiratory chain complexes.
    Keywords:  Frozen sections; Histoenzymatic methods; Mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes
  4. Methods Mol Biol. 2021 ;2275 227-245
      Genetic mutations and defects in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are associated with certain types of mitochondrial dysfunctions, ultimately resulting in the emergence of a variety of human diseases. To achieve an effective mitochondrial gene therapy, it will be necessary to deliver therapeutic agents to the innermost mitochondrial space (the mitochondrial matrix), which contains the mtDNA pool. We recently developed a MITO-Porter, a liposome-based nanocarrier that delivers cargo to mitochondria via a membrane-fusion mechanism. In this chapter, we discuss the methodology used to deliver bioactive molecules to the mitochondrial matrix using a Dual Function (DF)-MITO-Porter, a liposome-based nanocarrier that delivers it cargo by means of a stepwise process, and an evaluation of mtDNA levels and mitochondrial activities in living cells. We also discuss mitochondrial gene silencing by the mitochondrial delivery of antisense RNA oligonucleotide (ASO) targeting mtDNA-encoded mRNA using the MITO-Porter system.
    Keywords:  MITO-Porter; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial DNA; Mitochondrial RNA knockdown; Mitochondrial drug delivery; Mitochondrial gene therapy; Mitochondrial matrix; Nucleic acid delivery
  5. J Cell Sci. 2021 Jun 09. pii: jcs.258399. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondrial super-complexes form around a conserved core of monomeric complex I and dimeric complex III; wherein subunit NDUFA11, of the former, is conspicuously situated at the interface. We identified B0491.5 (NDUF-11) as the C. elegans homologue, of which animals homozygous for a CRISPR-Cas9 generated knockout allele arrested at the L2 development stage. Reducing (but not eliminating) expression by RNAi allowed development to adulthood, enabling characterisation of the consequences: destabilisation of complex I and its super-complexes, and perturbation of respiratory function. The loss of NADH-dehydrogenase activity is compensated by enhanced complex II activity, with the potential for detrimental ROS-production. Electron cryo-tomography highlight aberrant cristae morphology and inter-membrane-space widening and cristae-junctions. The requirement of NDUF-11 for balanced respiration, mitochondrial morphology and development presumably arises due to its involvement in complex I/ super-complex maintenance. This highlights the importance of respiratory complex integrity for health and the potential of its perturbation for mitochondrial disease.
    Keywords:  Caenorhabditis elegans; Electron-transfer chain; Mitochondria; Mitochondrial ultrastructure; electron cryo-tomography; NDUF-11; Respirasome; Respiration; Super-complexes; Worm
  6. Int J Nephrol. 2021 ;2021 6645373
      Results: Positive consanguinity was a remarkable finding in 44 patients among the SRNS group (73%), compared with 33 patients among the SSNS group (55%). Complex I activity was significantly lower in the SRNS group (0.2657 ± 0.1831 nmol/ml/min), than in the SSNS group (0.4773 ± 0.1290 nmol/ml/min) (p < 0.001). There was a significant positive correlation between complex I activity and the heaviness of proteinuria among the SRNS group (r 0.344, p < 0.001). There were statistically significant differences in serum C3 and C4 levels between both groups (p < 0.001, 0.053, respectively).Conclusion: Mitochondrial complex I deficiency in patients who have a nephrotic syndrome complaint may play a role in their responsiveness to steroid therapy and the development of SRNS and even the prognosis of their illness.