bims-cytox1 Biomed News
on Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1
Issue of 2021‒02‒21
seven papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University

  1. Science. 2021 Feb 19. 371(6531): 846-849
      Mitochondrial ribosomes (mitoribosomes) are tethered to the mitochondrial inner membrane to facilitate the cotranslational membrane insertion of the synthesized proteins. We report cryo-electron microscopy structures of human mitoribosomes with nascent polypeptide, bound to the insertase oxidase assembly 1-like (OXA1L) through three distinct contact sites. OXA1L binding is correlated with a series of conformational changes in the mitoribosomal large subunit that catalyze the delivery of newly synthesized polypeptides. The mechanism relies on the folding of mL45 inside the exit tunnel, forming two specific constriction sites that would limit helix formation of the nascent chain. A gap is formed between the exit and the membrane, making the newly synthesized proteins accessible. Our data elucidate the basis by which mitoribosomes interact with the OXA1L insertase to couple protein synthesis and membrane delivery.
  2. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2021 Feb 16.
      Mitochondria are cellular organelles responsible for generation of chemical energy in the process called oxidative phosphorylation. They originate from a bacterial ancestor and maintain their own genome, which is expressed by designated, mitochondrial transcription and translation machineries that differ from those operating for nuclear gene expression. In particular, the mitochondrial protein synthesis machinery is structurally and functionally very different from that governing eukaryotic, cytosolic translation. Despite harbouring their own genetic information, mitochondria are far from being independent of the rest of the cell and, conversely, cellular fitness is closely linked to mitochondrial function. Mitochondria depend heavily on the import of nuclear-encoded proteins for gene expression and function, and hence engage in extensive inter-compartmental crosstalk to regulate their proteome. This connectivity allows mitochondria to adapt to changes in cellular conditions and also mediates responses to stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. With a focus on mammals and yeast, we review fundamental insights that have been made into the biogenesis, architecture and mechanisms of the mitochondrial translation apparatus in the past years owing to the emergence of numerous near-atomic structures and a considerable amount of biochemical work. Moreover, we discuss how cellular mitochondrial protein expression is regulated, including aspects of mRNA and tRNA maturation and stability, roles of auxiliary factors, such as translation regulators, that adapt mitochondrial translation rates, and the importance of inter-compartmental crosstalk with nuclear gene expression and cytosolic translation and how it enables integration of mitochondrial translation into the cellular context.
  3. Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg. 2021 Feb 15. pii: S0005-2728(21)00028-1. [Epub ahead of print] 148395
      Complexome Profiling (CP) combines size separation, by electrophoresis or other means, of native multimeric complexes with protein identification by mass spectrometry (MS). Peptide MS analysis of the multiple fractions in which the sample is separated, results in the creation of protein abundance profiles in function of molecular size, providing a visual output of the assembly status of a group of proteins of interest. Stable isotope labelling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) is an established quantitative proteomics technique that allows duplexing in the MS analysis as well as the comparison of relative protein abundances between the samples, which are processed and analysed together. Combining SILAC and CP permitted the direct comparison of migration and abundance of the proteins present in the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in two different samples. This analysis, however, introduced a level of complexity in data processing for which bioinformatic tools had to be developed in order to generate the normalised protein abundance profiles. The advantages and challenges of using of this type of analysis for the characterisation of two cell lines carrying pathological variants in MT-CO3 and MT-CYB is reviewed. An additional unpublished example of SILAC-CP of a cell line with an in-frame 18-bp deletion in MT-CYB is presented. In these cells, in contrast to other MT-CYB deficient models, a small proportion of complex III2 is formed and it is found associated with fully assembled complex I. This analysis also revealed a profuse accumulation of assembly intermediates containing complex III subunits UQCR10 and CYC1, as well as a profound early-stage complex IV assembly defect.
    Keywords:  Complex III; Complex IV; Mitochondrial Disease; Quantitative Proteomics; SILAC; mitochondrial DNA mutations
  4. EMBO Rep. 2021 Feb 15. e51635
      Mitochondria possess a small genome that codes for core subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation system and whose expression is essential for energy production. Information on the regulation and spatial organization of mitochondrial gene expression in the cellular context has been difficult to obtain. Here we devise an imaging approach to analyze mitochondrial translation within the context of single cells, by following the incorporation of clickable non-canonical amino acids. We apply this method to multiple cell types, including specialized cells such as cardiomyocytes and neurons, and monitor with spatial resolution mitochondrial translation in axons and dendrites. We also show that translation imaging allows to monitor mitochondrial protein expression in patient fibroblasts. Approaching mitochondrial translation with click chemistry opens new avenues to understand how mitochondrial biogenesis is integrated into the cellular context and can be used to assess mitochondrial gene expression in mitochondrial diseases.
    Keywords:  gene expression; hippocampal neuron; mitochondria; synapse; translation
  5. Cell Calcium. 2021 Feb 01. pii: S0143-4160(21)00018-X. [Epub ahead of print]95 102364
      Human mitochondria are complex and highly dynamic biological systems, comprised of over a thousand parts and evolved to fully integrate into the specialized intracellular signaling networks and metabolic requirements of each cell and organ. Over the last two decades, several complementary, top-down computational and experimental approaches have been developed to identify, characterize and modulate the human mitochondrial system, demonstrating the power of integrating classical reductionist and discovery-driven analyses in order to de-orphanize hitherto unknown molecular components of mitochondrial machineries and pathways. To this goal, systematic, multiomics-based surveys of proteome composition, protein networks, and phenotype-to-pathway associations at the tissue, cell and organellar level have been largely exploited to predict the full complement of mitochondrial proteins and their functional interactions, therefore catalyzing data-driven hypotheses. Collectively, these multidisciplinary and integrative research approaches hold the potential to propel our understanding of mitochondrial biology and provide a systems-level framework to unraveling mitochondria-mediated and disease-spanning pathomechanisms.
    Keywords:  Functional associations; Integrative analyses; Mitochondrial system; Multiomics approaches
  6. Methods Mol Biol. 2021 ;2224 47-60
      Like bacterial and cytoplasmic ribosomes, mitoribosomes are large ribonucleoprotein complexes with molecular weights in the range of several million Daltons. Traditionally, studying the assembly of such high molecular weight complexes is done using ultracentrifugation through linear density gradients, which remains the method of choice due to its versatility and superior resolving power in the high molecular weight range. Here, we present a protocol for the analysis of mitoribosomal assembly in heart mitochondrial extracts using linear density sucrose gradients that we have previously employed to characterize the essential role of different mitochondrial proteins in mitoribosomal biogenesis. This protocol details in a stepwise manner a typical mitoribosomal assembly analysis starting with isolation of mitochondria, preparation and ultracentrifugation of the gradients, fractionation and ending with SDS-PAGE, and immunoblotting of the gradient fractions. Even though we provide an example with heart mitochondria, this protocol can be directly applied to virtually all mouse tissues, as well as cultured cells, with little to no modifications.
    Keywords:  55S; Heart-specific knockout mice; Mitoribosome; Sedimentation analysis; Sucrose gradient; mt-LSU; mt-SSU
  7. Biochem Soc Trans. 2021 Feb 18. pii: BST20190232. [Epub ahead of print]
      Mitochondria are pivotal for normal cellular physiology, as they perform a crucial role in diverse cellular functions and processes, including respiration and the regulation of bioenergetic and biosynthetic pathways, as well as regulating cellular signalling and transcriptional networks. In this way, mitochondria are central to the cell's homeostatic machinery, and as such mitochondrial dysfunction underlies the pathology of a diverse range of diseases including mitochondrial disease and cancer. Mitochondrial import pathways and targeting mechanisms provide the means to transport into mitochondria the hundreds of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins that are critical for the organelle's many functions. One such import pathway is the highly evolutionarily conserved disulfide relay system (DRS) within the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS), whereby proteins undergo a form of oxidation-dependent protein import. A central component of the DRS is the oxidoreductase coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix (CHCH) domain-containing protein 4 (CHCHD4, also known as MIA40), the human homologue of yeast Mia40. Here, we summarise the recent advances made to our understanding of the role of CHCHD4 and the DRS in physiology and disease, with a specific focus on the emerging importance of CHCHD4 in regulating the cellular response to low oxygen (hypoxia) and metabolism in cancer.
    Keywords:  CHCHD4; cancer; disulfide relay system; hypoxia; metabolism; mitochondria; mitochondrial import; oxidoreductase