bims-cytox1 Biomed News
on Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1
Issue of 2020‒12‒13
six papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University

  1. Cells. 2020 Dec 06. pii: E2620. [Epub ahead of print]9(12):
      The biogenesis and function of eukaryotic cytochrome c oxidase or mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV (CIV) undergo several levels of regulation to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Adaptation to hypoxia and oxidative stress involves CIV subunit isoform switch, changes in phosphorylation status, and modulation of CIV assembly and enzymatic activity by interacting factors. The latter include the Hypoxia Inducible Gene Domain (HIGD) family yeast respiratory supercomplex factors 1 and 2 (Rcf1 and Rcf2) and two mammalian homologs of Rcf1, the proteins HIGD1A and HIGD2A. Whereas Rcf1 and Rcf2 are expressed constitutively, expression of HIGD1A and HIGD2A is induced under stress conditions, such as hypoxia and/or low glucose levels. In both systems, the HIGD proteins localize in the mitochondrial inner membrane and play a role in the biogenesis of CIV as a free unit or as part as respiratory supercomplexes. Notably, they remain bound to assembled CIV and, by modulating its activity, regulate cellular respiration. Here, we will describe the current knowledge regarding the specific and overlapping roles of the several HIGD proteins in physiological and stress conditions.
    Keywords:  HIGD1A; HIGD2A; Hypoxia Inducible Gene Domain; Rcf1; Rcf2; cytochrome c oxidase; mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV
  2. Mitochondrion. 2020 Dec 03. pii: S1567-7249(20)30222-1. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial disorders are a group of heterogeneous diseases characterized by biochemical disturbances in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Mutations in mitochondrial transfer RNA (mt-tRNA) genes are the most frequently in mitochondrial disease. However, few studies have detailed the molecular mechanisms behind these mutations.METHODS: We performed clinical evaluation, genetic analysis, muscle histochemistry, and molecular and biochemical investigations in muscle tissue and proband-derived cybrid cell lines.
    RESULTS: We found a mitochondrial tRNASer(UCN) mutation (m.7453G>A) in a 15-year-old patient with severe mitochondrial myopathy. We demonstrated that this mutation caused impairment of mitochondrial translation, respiratory deficiency, overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which ultimately led to severe mitochondrial myopathy.
    CONCLUSION: Our findings offer valuable new insights into the tRNASer(UCN) m.7453G>A mutation for both the pathogenic mechanism and functional consequences.
    Keywords:  m.7453G>A mutation; mitochondrial myopathy; pathogenesis; tRNA(Ser(UCN))
  3. Hum Reprod. 2020 Dec 08. pii: deaa308. [Epub ahead of print]
      STUDY QUESTION: What are the long-term developmental, reproductive and genetic consequences of mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT) in primates?SUMMARY ANSWER: Longitudinal investigation of MRT rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) generated with donor mtDNA that is exceedingly distant from the original maternal counterpart suggest that their growth, general health and fertility is unremarkable and similar to controls.
    WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mitochondrial gene mutations contribute to a diverse range of incurable human disorders. MRT via spindle transfer in oocytes was developed and proposed to prevent transmission of pathogenic mtDNA mutations from mothers to children.
    STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: The study provides longitudinal studies on general health, fertility as well as transmission and segregation of parental mtDNA haplotypes to various tissues and organs in five adult MRT rhesus macaques and their offspring.
    PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: MRT was achieved by spindle transfer between metaphase II oocytes from genetically divergent rhesus macaque populations. After fertilization of oocytes with sperm, heteroplasmic zygotes contained an unequal mixture of three parental genomes, i.e. donor (≥97%), maternal (≤3%), and paternal (≤0.1%) mitochondrial (mt)DNA. MRT monkeys were grown to adulthood and their development and general health was regularly monitored. Reproductive fitness of male and female MRT macaques was evaluated by time-mated breeding and production of live offspring. The relative contribution of donor, maternal, and paternal mtDNA was measured by whole mitochondrial genome sequencing in all organs and tissues of MRT animals and their offspring.
    MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Both male and female MRT rhesus macaques containing unequal mixture of three parental genomes, i.e. donor (≥97%), maternal (≤3%), and paternal (≤0.1%) mtDNA reached healthy adulthood, were fertile and most animals stably maintained the initial ratio of parental mtDNA heteroplasmy and donor mtDNA was transmitted from females to offspring. However, in one monkey out of four analyzed, initially negligible maternal mtDNA heteroplasmy levels increased substantially up to 17% in selected internal tissues and organs. In addition, two monkeys showed paternal mtDNA contribution up to 33% in selected internal tissues and organs.
    LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Conclusions in this study were made on a relatively low number of MRT monkeys, and on only one F1 (first generation) female. In addition, monkey MRT involved two wildtype mtDNA haplotypes, but not disease-relevant variants. Clinical trials on children born after MRT will be required to fully determine safety and efficacy of MRT for humans.
    WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Our data show that MRT is compatible with normal postnatal development including overall health and reproductive fitness in nonhuman primates without any detected adverse effects. 'Mismatched' donor mtDNA in MRT animals even from the genetically distant mtDNA haplotypes did not cause secondary mitochondrial dysfunction. However, carry-over maternal or paternal mtDNA contributions increased substantially in selected internal tissues / organs of some MRT animals implying the possibility of mtDNA mutation recurrence.
    STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): This work has been funded by the grants from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund, the National Institutes of Health (RO1AG062459 and P51 OD011092), National Research Foundation of Korea (2018R1D1A1B07043216) and Oregon Health & Science University institutional funds. The authors declare no competing interests.
    Keywords:  germline transmission; heteroplasmy; maternal mtDNA carryover; mitochondrial replacement therapy (MRT); mtDNA segregation; paternal mtDNA transmission
  4. Mol Genet Metab. 2020 Nov 24. pii: S1096-7192(20)30249-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Genetic defects in mitochondrial DNA encoded tRNA genes impair mitochondrial translation with resultant defects in the mitochondrial respiratory chain and oxidative phosphorylation system. The phenotypic spectrum of disease seen in mitochondrial tRNA defects is variable and proving pathogenicity of new variants is challenging. Only three pathogenic variants have been described previously in the mitochondrial tRNATyr gene MT-TY, with the reported phenotypes consisting largely of adult onset myopathy and ptosis. We report a patient with a novel MT-TY acceptor stem variant m.5889A>G at high heteroplasmy in muscle, low in blood, and absent in the mother's blood. The phenotype consisted of a childhood-onset severe multi-system disorder characterized by a neurodegenerative course including ataxia and seizures, failure-to-thrive, combined myopathy and neuropathy, and hearing and vision loss. Brain imaging showed progressive atrophy and basal ganglia calcifications. Mitochondrial biomarkers lactate and GDF15 were increased. Functional studies showed a deficient activity of the respiratory chain enzyme complexes containing mtDNA-encoded subunits I, III and IV. There were decreased steady state levels of these mitochondrial complex proteins, and presence of incompletely assembled complex V forms in muscle. These changes are typical of a mitochondrial translational defect. These data support the pathogenicity of this novel variant. Careful review of variants in MT-TY additionally identified two other pathogenic variants, one likely pathogenic variant, nine variants of unknown significance, five likely benign and four benign variants.
    Keywords:  Mitochondrial tRNA; Mitochondrial translation disorder; Mt-tRNA(Tyr); Multisystem mitochondrial disorder; Neurodegenerative disorder; Pathogenicity of mtDNA variants
  5. Cells. 2020 Dec 03. pii: E2588. [Epub ahead of print]9(12):
      Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is a multisubunit integral membrane complex consisting of 13 dissimilar subunits, as well as three to four tightly bound molecules of cardiolipin (CL). The monomeric unit of CcO is able to form a dimer and participate in the formation of supercomplexes in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The structural and functional integrity of the enzyme is crucially dependent on the full subunit complement and the presence of unperturbed bound CL. A direct consequence of subunit loss, CL removal, or its oxidative modification is the destabilization of the quaternary structure, loss of the activity, and the inability to dimerize. Thus, the intimate interplay between individual components of the complex is imperative for regulation of the CcO aggregation state. While it appears that the aggregation state of CcO might affect its conformational stability, the functional role of the aggregation remains unclear as both monomeric and dimeric forms of CcO seem to be fully active. Here, we review the current status of our knowledge with regard to the role of dimerization in the function and stability of CcO and factors, such as subunit composition, amphiphilic environment represented by phospholipids/detergents, and posttranslational modifications that play a role in the regulation of the CcO aggregation state.
    Keywords:  aggregations state; cardiolipin; cytochrome c oxidase; posttranslational modifications
  6. Nucleic Acids Res. 2020 Dec 09. pii: gkaa1032. [Epub ahead of print]
      Numerous lines of evidence have shown that the interaction between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes ensures the efficient functioning of the OXPHOS complexes, with substantial implications in bioenergetics, adaptation, and disease. Their interaction is a fascinating and complex trait of the eukaryotic cell that MitImpact explores with its third major release. MitImpact expands its collection of genomic, clinical, and functional annotations of all non-synonymous substitutions of the human mitochondrial genome with new information on putative Compensated Pathogenic Deviations and co-varying amino acid sites of the Respiratory Chain subunits. It further provides evidence of energetic and structural residue compensation by techniques of molecular dynamics simulation. MitImpact is freely accessible at