bims-cytox1 Biomed News
on Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1
Issue of 2020‒11‒08
six papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University


  1. FEBS Lett. 2020 Nov 07.
    Fernandez-Vizarra E, Zeviani M.
      Mitochondrial disorders are amongst the most frequent inborn errors of metabolism, their primary cause being the dysfunction of the oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS). OXPHOS is composed of the electron transport chain (ETC), formed by four multimeric enzymes and two mobile electron carriers, plus an ATP synthase (also called complex V). The ETC performs the redox reactions involved in cellular respiration while generating the proton motive force used by complex V to synthesize ATP. OXPHOS biogenesis involves multiple steps, starting from the expression of genes encoded in physically separated genomes, namely the mitochondrial and nuclear DNA, to the coordinated assembly of components and cofactors building each individual complex and eventually the supercomplexes. The genetic cause underlying around half of the diagnosed mitochondrial disease cases is currently known. Many of these cases result from pathogenic variants in genes encoding structural subunits or additional factors directly involved in the assembly of the ETC complexes. Here we review the historical and most recent findings concerning the clinical phenotypes and the molecular pathological mechanisms underlying this particular group of disorders.
    Keywords:  ATP production; Mitochondrial respiratory chain; biogenesis of the respiratory chain; mitochondrial disease; mitochondrial electrochemical gradient; mitochondrial potential; mitochondrial proton pumping; oxidative phosphorylation; respiratory complex; respiratory supercomplex
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1002/1873-3468.13995
  2. Biochem J. 2020 Nov 13. 477(21): 4085-4132
    Hock DH, Robinson DRL, Stroud DA.
      Mitochondria produce the bulk of the energy used by almost all eukaryotic cells through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) which occurs on the four complexes of the respiratory chain and the F1-F0 ATPase. Mitochondrial diseases are a heterogenous group of conditions affecting OXPHOS, either directly through mutation of genes encoding subunits of OXPHOS complexes, or indirectly through mutations in genes encoding proteins supporting this process. These include proteins that promote assembly of the OXPHOS complexes, the post-translational modification of subunits, insertion of cofactors or indeed subunit synthesis. The latter is important for all 13 of the proteins encoded by human mitochondrial DNA, which are synthesised on mitochondrial ribosomes. Together the five OXPHOS complexes and the mitochondrial ribosome are comprised of more than 160 subunits and many more proteins support their biogenesis. Mutations in both nuclear and mitochondrial genes encoding these proteins have been reported to cause mitochondrial disease, many leading to defective complex assembly with the severity of the assembly defect reflecting the severity of the disease. This review aims to act as an interface between the clinical and basic research underpinning our knowledge of OXPHOS complex and ribosome assembly, and the dysfunction of this process in mitochondrial disease.
    Keywords:  mitochondria; mitochondrial dysfunction; mitochondrial respiration; mutation; oxidative phosphorylation; ribosomes
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1042/BCJ20190767
  3. Physiol Res. 2020 Nov 02.
    Koňaříková E, Marković A, Korandová Z, Houštěk J, Mráček T.
      Mitochondrial disorders manifest enormous genetic and clinical heterogeneity - they can appear at any age, present with various phenotypes affecting any organ, and display any mode of inheritance. What mitochondrial diseases do have in common, is impairment of respiratory chain activity, which is responsible for more than 90% of energy production within cells. While diagnostics of mitochondrial disorders has been accelerated by introducing Next-Generation Sequencing techniques in recent years, the treatment options are still very limited. For many patients only a supportive or symptomatic therapy is available at the moment. However, decades of basic and preclinical research have uncovered potential target points and numerous compounds or interventions are now subjects of clinical trials. In this review, we focus on current and emerging therapeutic approaches towards the treatment of mitochondrial disorders. We focus on small compounds, metabolic interference, such as endurance training or ketogenic diet and also on genomic approaches.
  4. Physiol Res. 2020 Nov 02.
    Čunátová K, Reguera DP, Houštěk J, Mráček T, Pecina P.
      Cytochrome c oxidase (COX), the terminal enzyme of mitochondrial electron transport chain, couples electron transport to oxygen with generation of proton gradient indispensable for the production of vast majority of ATP molecules in mammalian cells. The review summarizes current knowledge of COX structure and function of nuclear-encoded COX subunits, which may modulate enzyme activity according to various conditions. Moreover, some nuclear-encoded subunits posess tissue-specific and development-specific isoforms, possibly enabling fine-tuning of COX function in individual tissues. The importance of nuclear-encoded subunits is emphasized by recently discovered pathogenic mutations in patients with severe mitopathies. In addition, proteins substoichiometrically associated with COX were found to contribute to COX activity regulation and stabilization of the respiratory supercomplexes. Based on the summarized data, a model of three levels of quaternary COX structure is postulated. Individual structural levels correspond to subunits of the i) catalytic center, ii) nuclear-encoded stoichiometric subunits and iii) associated proteins, which may constitute several forms of COX with varying composition and differentially regulated function.
  5. Biochim Biophys Acta Bioenerg. 2020 Oct 28. pii: S0005-2728(20)30182-1. [Epub ahead of print] 148332
    Cogliati S, Herranz F, Ruiz-Cabello J, Enríquez JA.
      The BlueNative page (BNGE) gel has been the reference technique for studying the electron transport chain organization since it was established 20 years ago. Although the migration of supercomplexes has been demonstrated being real, there are still several concerns about its ability to reveal genuine interactions between respiratory complexes. Moreover, the use of different solubilization conditions generates conflicting interpretations. Here, we thoroughly compare the impact of different digitonin concentrations on the liquid dispersions' physical properties and correlate with the respiratory complexes' migration pattern and supercomplexes. Our results demonstrate that digitonin concentration generates liquid dispersions with specific size and variability critical to distinguish between a real association of complexes from being trapped in the same micelle.
    Keywords:  Bluenative page; detergent,liquid dispersions; digitonin; mitochondria; supercomplexes
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbabio.2020.148332
  6. Mol Genet Metab Rep. 2020 Dec;25 100657
    Kose M, Canda E, Kagnici M, Aykut A, Adebali O, Durmaz A, Bircan A, Diniz G, Eraslan C, Kose E, Ünalp A, Yılmaz Ü, Ozyilmaz B, Özdemir TR, Atik T, Uçar SK, McFarland R, Taylor RW, Brown GK, Çoker M, Özkınay F.
      Introduction: Pathogenic variants in SURF1, a nuclear-encoded gene encoding a mitochondrial chaperone involved in COX assembly, are one of the most common causes of Leigh syndrome (LS).Material-methods: Sixteen patients diagnosed to have SURF1-related LS between 2012 and 2020 were included in the study. Their clinical, biochemical and molecular findings were recorded. 10/16 patients were diagnosed using whole-exome sequencing (WES), 4/16 by Sanger sequencing of SURF1, 1/16 via targeted exome sequencing and 1/16 patient with whole-genome sequencing (WGS). The pathogenicity of SURF1 variants was evaluated by phylogenetic studies and modelling on the 3D structure of the SURF1 protein.
    Results: We identified 16 patients from 14 unrelated families who were either homozygous or compound heterozygous for SURF1 pathogenic variants. Nine different SURF1 variants were detected The c.769G > A was the most common variant with an allelic frequency of 42.8% (12/28), c.870dupT [(p.Lys291*); (8/28 28.5%)], c.169delG [(p.Glu57Lysfs*15), (2/24; 7.1%)], c.532 T > A [(p.Tyr178Asn); (2/28, 7.1%)], c.653_654delCT [(p.Pro218Argfs*29); (4/28, 14.2%)] c.595_597delGGA [(p.Gly199del); (1/28, 3.5%)], c.751 + 1G > A (2/28, 4.1%), c.356C > T [(p.Pro119Leu); (2/28, 3.5%)] were the other detected variants. Two pathogenic variants, C.595_597delGGA and c.356C > T, were detected for the first time. The c.769 G > A variant detected in 6 patients from 5 families was evaluated in terms of phenotype-genotype correlation. There was no definite genotype - phenotype correlation.
    Conclusions: To date, more than 120 patients of LS with SURF1 pathogenic variants have been reported. We shared the clinical, molecular data and natural course of 16 new SURF1 defect patients from our country. This study is the first comprehensive research from Turkey that provides information about disease-causing variants in the SURF1 gene. The identification of common variants and phenotype of the SURF1 gene is important for understanding SURF1 related LS.
    Synopsis: SURF1 gene defects are one of the most important causes of LS; patients have a homogeneous clinical and biochemical phenotype.
    Keywords:  COX deficiency; Leigh syndrome; Neuroregression; Next-generation sequencing; Nuclear mitochondrial disorders; SURF1 gene
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgmr.2020.100657