bims-cytox1 Biomed News
on Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1
Issue of 2020‒05‒31
two papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University

  1. Biochem Soc Trans. 2020 May 26. pii: BST20190932. [Epub ahead of print]
    Duncan AL.
      Monolysocardiolipin (MLCL) is a three-tailed variant of cardiolipin (CL), the signature lipid of mitochondria. MLCL is not normally found in healthy tissue but accumulates in mitochondria of people with Barth syndrome (BTHS), with an overall increase in the MLCL:CL ratio. The reason for MLCL accumulation remains to be fully understood. The effect of MLCL build-up and decreased CL content in causing the characteristics of BTHS are also unclear. In both cases, an understanding of the nature of MLCL interaction with mitochondrial proteins will be key. Recent work has shown that MLCL associates less tightly than CL with proteins in the mitochondrial inner membrane, suggesting that MLCL accumulation is a result of CL degradation, and that the lack of MLCL-protein interactions compromises the stability of the protein-dense mitochondrial inner membrane, leading to a decrease in optimal respiration. There is some data on MLCL-protein interactions for proteins involved in the respiratory chain and in apoptosis, but there remains much to be understood regarding the nature of MLCL-protein interactions. Recent developments in structural, analytical and computational approaches mean that these investigations are now possible. Such an understanding will be key to further insights into how MLCL accumulation impacts mitochondrial membranes. In turn, these insights will help to support the development of therapies for people with BTHS and give a broader understanding of other diseases involving defective CL content.
    Keywords:  cardiolipin; mitochondria; monolysocardiolipin; protein–lipid interactions
  2. J Intern Med. 2020 Jun;287(6): 592-608
    La Morgia C, Maresca A, Caporali L, Valentino ML, Carelli V.
      Mitochondrial medicine is a field that expanded exponentially in the last 30 years. Individually rare, mitochondrial diseases as a whole are probably the most frequent genetic disorder in adults. The complexity of their genotype-phenotype correlation, in terms of penetrance and clinical expressivity, natural history and diagnostic algorithm derives from the dual genetic determination. In fact, in addition to the about 1.500 genes encoding mitochondrial proteins that reside in the nuclear genome (nDNA), we have the 13 proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA), for which 22 specific tRNAs and 2 rRNAs are also needed. Thus, besides Mendelian genetics, we need to consider all peculiarities of how mtDNA is inherited, maintained and expressed to fully understand the pathogenic mechanisms of these disorders. Yet, from the initial restriction to the narrow field of oxidative phosphorylation dysfunction, the landscape of mitochondrial functions impinging on cellular homeostasis, driving life and death, is impressively enlarged. Finally, from the clinical standpoint, starting from the neuromuscular field, where brain and skeletal muscle were the primary targets of mitochondrial dysfunction as energy-dependent tissues, after three decades virtually any subspecialty of medicine is now involved. We will summarize the key clinical pictures and pathogenic mechanisms of mitochondrial diseases in adults.
    Keywords:  mitochondria; mitochondrial diseases; mtDNA; neurology; neuromuscular disorders