bims-cytox1 Biomed News
on Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1
Issue of 2019‒11‒17
seven papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University

  1. EMBO Rep. 2019 Nov 13. e48833
    Wang C, Richter-Dennerlein R, Pacheu-Grau D, Liu F, Zhu Y, Dennerlein S, Rehling P.
      The mitochondrial genome encodes for thirteen core subunits of the oxidative phosphorylation system. These proteins assemble with imported proteins in a modular manner into stoichiometric enzyme complexes. Assembly factors assist in these biogenesis processes by providing co-factors or stabilizing transient assembly stages. However, how expression of the mitochondrial-encoded subunits is regulated to match the availability of nuclear-encoded subunits is still unresolved. Here, we address the function of MITRAC15/COA1, a protein that participates in complex I biogenesis and complex IV biogenesis. Our analyses of a MITRAC15 knockout mutant reveal that MITRAC15 is required for translation of the mitochondrial-encoded complex I subunit ND2. We find that MITRAC15 is a constituent of a ribosome-nascent chain complex during ND2 translation. Chemical crosslinking analyses demonstrate that binding of the ND2-specific assembly factor ACAD9 to the ND2 polypeptide occurs at the C-terminus and thus downstream of MITRAC15. Our analyses demonstrate that expression of the founder subunit ND2 of complex I undergoes regulation. Moreover, a ribosome-nascent chain complex with MITRAC15 is at the heart of this process.
    Keywords:  complex I; mitochondria; nascent chain; translation
  2. J Neurol Sci. 2019 Oct 15. pii: S0022-510X(19)30431-9. [Epub ahead of print]408 116499
    Lu Y, Deng J, Zhao Y, Zhang Z, Hong D, Yao S, Zhao D, Xie J, Fang H, Yuan Y, Wang Z.
      BACKGROUND: Muscle pathology usually contributes to mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episode (MELAS), even in patients without prominent muscle symptoms. We report a series of patients with MELAS without significant myopathic changes.METHODS: Twelve patients without ragged-red fibers (RRFs) on muscle pathology (RRF-negative group) and 99 patients with MELAS and RRFs and/or cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-deficient fibers (control RRF-positive group) were recruited. We analyzed clinical features, neuroimaging and pathological findings, gene mutation data, immunofluorescence assay of key respiratory chain subunits of complexes I and IV and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation load in biopsied muscle samples.
    RESULTS: None of the RRF-negative patients had RRF or COX-negative fibers, but four patients had strongly succinate dehydrogenase-stained vessels (SSVs). There was a lower proportion of m.3243A>G and higher proportion of mitochondria-encoded ND gene mutations in RRF-negative than RRF-positive patients. The proportion of aphasia was relatively higher, while complex I and IV subunit abundance in muscle and mutation load were lower in RRF-negative than in RRF-positive patients.
    CONCLUSION: RRF-negative patients had a similar disease course, clinical symptoms, and neuroimaging results to RRF-positive patients with MELAS. SSV is a valuable diagnostic indicator for MELAS. For highly suspected MELAS yet without positive myopathological findings, combined immunofluorescence and genetic studies should be used to achieve final diagnosis.
    Keywords:  Diagnosis; MELAS; Mitochondrial DNA; Ragged-red fibers; Strongly succinate dehydrogenase-stained vessels
  3. EMBO J. 2019 Nov 13. e102155
    Ferreira N, Perks KL, Rossetti G, Rudler DL, Hughes LA, Ermer JA, Scott LH, Kuznetsova I, Richman TR, Narayana VK, Abudulai LN, Shearwood AJ, Cserne Szappanos H, Tull D, Yeoh GC, Hool LC, Filipovska A, Rackham O.
      Translation fidelity is crucial for prokaryotes and eukaryotic nuclear-encoded proteins; however, little is known about the role of mistranslation in mitochondria and its potential effects on metabolism. We generated yeast and mouse models with error-prone and hyper-accurate mitochondrial translation, and found that translation rate is more important than translational accuracy for cell function in mammals. Specifically, we found that mitochondrial mistranslation causes reduced overall mitochondrial translation and respiratory complex assembly rates. In mammals, this effect is compensated for by increased mitochondrial protein stability and upregulation of the citric acid cycle. Moreover, this induced mitochondrial stress signaling, which enables the recovery of mitochondrial translation via mitochondrial biogenesis, telomerase expression, and cell proliferation, and thereby normalizes metabolism. Conversely, we show that increased fidelity of mitochondrial translation reduces the rate of protein synthesis without eliciting a mitochondrial stress response. Consequently, the rate of translation cannot be recovered and this leads to dilated cardiomyopathy in mice. In summary, our findings reveal mammalian-specific signaling pathways that respond to changes in the fidelity of mitochondrial protein synthesis and affect metabolism.
    Keywords:  metabolism; mitochondria; mitochondrial ribosome; protein synthesis; stress response
  4. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2019 Nov 13. pii: mcp.RA119.001808. [Epub ahead of print]
    Chung IC, Chen LC, Tsang NM, Chuang WY, Liao TC, Yuan SN, OuYang CN, Ojcius DM, Wu CC, Chang YS.
      We previously reported that tumor inflammasomes play a key role in tumor control and act as favorable prognostic markers in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Activated inflammasomes frequently form distinguishable specks and govern the cellular secretion of IL-1β. However, we know little about the biological and biochemical differences between cells with and without apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC) speck formation. In this study, we used proteomic iTRAQ analysis to analyze the proteomes of NPC cells that differ in their ASC speck formation upon cisplatin treatment. We identified proteins that were differentially over-expressed in cells with specks, and found that they fell into two Gene ontology (GO) pathways: mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) and ubiquinone metabolism. We observed up-regulation of various components of the OxPhos machinery (including NDUFB3, NDUFB8 and ATP5B), and subsequently found that these changes lead to mitochondrial ROS (mtROS) production, which promotes the formation and activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes and subsequent pyroptosis. In NPC patients, better local recurrence-free survival was significantly associated with high-level expression of NDUFB8 (P=0.037) and ATP5B (P=0.029), as examined using immunohistochemistry. However, there were no significant associations between the expression of NDUFB8 and ATP5B with overall survival of NPC patients. Together, our results demonstrate that upregulated mitochondrial OxPhos components are strongly associated with NLRP3 inflammasome activation in NPC. Our findings further suggest that high-level expression of OxPhos components could be markers for local recurrence and/or promising therapeutic targets in patients with NPC.
    Keywords:  Cancer Biology*; Inflammatory response; Mitochondria function or biology; Oxidative stress; iTRAQ; nasopharyngeal carcinoma
  5. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Nov 12. pii: E5643. [Epub ahead of print]20(22):
    DiMauro S.
      The history of "mitochondrial pathologies", namely genetic pathologies affecting mitochondrial metabolism because of mutations in nuclear DNA-encoded genes for proteins active inside mitochondria or mutations in mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes, began in 1988. In that year, two different groups of researchers discovered, respectively, large-scale single deletions of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in muscle biopsies from patients with "mitochondrial myopathies" and a point mutation in the mtDNA gene for subunit 4 of NADH dehydrogenase (MTND4), associated with maternally inherited Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). Henceforth, a novel conceptual "mitochondrial genetics", separate from mendelian genetics, arose, based on three features of mtDNA: (1) polyplasmy; (2) maternal inheritance; and (3) mitotic segregation. Diagnosis of mtDNA-related diseases became possible through genetic analysis and experimental approaches involving histochemical staining of muscle or brain sections, single-fiber polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of mtDNA, and the creation of patient-derived "cybrid" (cytoplasmic hybrid) immortal fibroblast cell lines. The availability of the above-mentioned techniques along with the novel sensitivity of clinicians to such disorders led to the characterization of a constantly growing number of pathologies. Here is traced a brief historical perspective on the discovery of autonomous pathogenic mtDNA mutations and on the related mendelian pathology altering mtDNA integrity.
    Keywords:  mendelian and maternal inheritance; mitochondrial pathologies; mtDNA mutations
  6. Trends Mol Med. 2019 Nov 06. pii: S1471-4914(19)30263-1. [Epub ahead of print]
    Glancy B.
      The specific cellular role of mitochondria is influenced by the surrounding environment because effective mitochondrial function requires the delivery of inputs (e.g., oxygen) and export of products (e.g., signaling molecules) to and from other cellular components, respectively. Recent technological developments in mitochondrial imaging have led to a more precise and comprehensive understanding of the spatial relationships governing the function of this complex organelle, opening a new era of mitochondrial research. Here, I highlight current imaging approaches for visualizing mitochondrial form and function within complex cellular environments. Increasing clarity of mitochondrial behavior within cells will continue to lend mechanistic insights into the role of mitochondria under normal and pathological conditions and point to spatially regulated processes that can be targeted to improve cellular function.
    Keywords:  3D electron microscopy; Energy metabolism; super-resolution microscopy; systems-level imaging
  7. FEBS J. 2019 Nov 14.
    Nasta V, Suraci D, Gourdoupis S, Ciofi-Baffoni S, Banci L.
      During its late steps, the mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster (ISC) assembly machinery leads to the formation of [4Fe-4S] clusters. In vivo studies revealed that several proteins are implicated in the biosynthesis and trafficking of [4Fe-4S] clusters in mitochondria. However, they do not provide a clear picture into how these proteins cooperate. Here, we showed that three late-acting components of the mitochondrial ISC assembly machinery (GLRX5, BOLA3 and NFU1) are part of a ISC assembly pathway leading to the synthesis of a [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster on NFU1. We showed that the [2Fe-2S]2+ GLRX5-BOLA3 complex transfers its cluster to monomeric apo NFU1 to form, in the presence of a reductant, a [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster bound to dimeric NFU1. The cluster formation on NFU1 does not occur with [2Fe-2S]2+ GLRX5 and thus the [4Fe-4S] cluster assembly pathway is activated only in the presence of BOLA3. These results define NFU1 as an "assembler" of [4Fe-4S] clusters, i.e. a protein able of converting two [2Fe-2S]2+ clusters into a [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster. Finally, we found that the [4Fe-4S]2+ cluster bound to NFU1 has a coordination site which is easily accessible to sulfur-containing ligands, as is typically observed in metallochaperones. This finding supports a role for NFU1 in promoting rapid and controlled cluster-exchange reaction.
    Keywords:  BOLA3; GLRX5; NFU1; iron-sulfur protein; mitochondrial iron-sulfur cluster assembly machinery