bims-cytox1 Biomed News
on Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1
Issue of 2019‒09‒29
four papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University

  1. Biochem Soc Trans. 2019 Sep 24. pii: BST20190265. [Epub ahead of print]
    Al-Faresi RAZ, Lightowlers RN, Chrzanowska-Lightowlers ZMA.
      Mitochondria are ubiquitous organelles present in the cytoplasm of all nucleated eukaryotic cells. These organelles are described as arising from a common ancestor but a comparison of numerous aspects of mitochondria between different organisms provides remarkable examples of divergent evolution. In humans, these organelles are of dual genetic origin, comprising ∼1500 nuclear-encoded proteins and thirteen that are encoded by the mitochondrial genome. Of the various functions that these organelles perform, it is only oxidative phosphorylation, which provides ATP as a source of chemical energy, that is dependent on synthesis of these thirteen mitochondrially encoded proteins. A prerequisite for this process of translation are the mitoribosomes. The recent revolution in cryo-electron microscopy has generated high-resolution mitoribosome structures and has undoubtedly revealed some of the most distinctive molecular aspects of the mitoribosomes from different organisms. However, we still lack a complete understanding of the mechanistic aspects of this process and many of the factors involved in post-transcriptional gene expression in mitochondria. This review reflects on the current knowledge and illustrates some of the striking differences that have been identified between mitochondria from a range of organisms.
    Keywords:  RNA; human; mitochondria; mitoribosome; protein synthesis; translation
  2. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Sep 12. pii: E4523. [Epub ahead of print]20(18):
    Key J, Kohli A, Bárcena C, López-Otín C, Heidler J, Wittig I, Auburger G.
      Research on healthy aging shows that lifespan reductions are often caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Thus, it is very interesting that the deletion of mitochondrial matrix peptidase LonP1 was observed to abolish embryogenesis, while deletion of the mitochondrial matrix peptidase Caseinolytic Mitochondrial Matrix Peptidase Proteolytic Subunit (ClpP) prolonged survival. To unveil the targets of each enzyme, we documented the global proteome of LonP1+/- mouse embryonal fibroblasts (MEF), for comparison with ClpP-/- depletion. Proteomic profiles of LonP1+/- MEF generated by label-free mass spectrometry were further processed with the STRING (Search tool for the retrieval of interacting genes) webserver Heidelberg for protein interactions. ClpP was previously reported to degrade Eral1 as a chaperone involved in mitoribosome assembly, so ClpP deficiency triggers the accumulation of mitoribosomal subunits and inefficient translation. LonP1+/- MEF also showed Eral1 accumulation, but no systematic effect on mitoribosomal subunits. In contrast to ClpP-/- profiles, several components of the respiratory complex-I membrane arm, of the glutathione pathway and of lysosomes were accumulated, whereas the upregulation of numerous innate immune defense components was similar. Overall, LonP1, as opposed to ClpP, appears to have no effect on translational machinery, instead it shows enhanced respiratory dysfunction; this agrees with reports on the human CODAS syndrome (syndrome with cerebral, ocular, dental, auricular, and skeletal anomalies) caused by LonP1 mutations.
    Keywords:  CODAS syndrome; Perrault syndrome; fidelity protein synthesis; glutathione pathway; life expectancy; longevity; lysosomal degradation; oxidative stress; protease target substrates; respiratory complex assembly
  3. J Clin Invest. 2019 Sep 24. pii: 128514. [Epub ahead of print]
    Del Dotto V, Ullah F, Di Meo I, Magini P, Gusic M, Maresca A, Caporali L, Palombo F, Tagliavini F, Baugh EH, Macao B, Szilagyi Z, Péron C, Gustafson MA, Khan K, La Morgia C, Barboni P, Carbonelli M, Valentino ML, Liguori R, Shashi V, Sullivan JA, Nagaraj S, El-Dairi M, Iannaccone A, Cutcutache I, Bertini E, Carrozzo R, Emma F, Diomedi-Camassei F, Zanna C, Armstrong M, Page MJ, Boesch S, Wortmann SB, Kopajtich R, Stong N, Sperl W, Davis E, Copeland WC, Seri M, Falkenberg M, Prokisch H, Katsanis N, Tiranti V, Pippucci T, Carelli V.
      Inherited optic neuropathies include complex phenotypes, mostly driven by mitochondrial dysfunction. We report an optic atrophy spectrum disorder, including retinal macular dystrophy and kidney insufficiency leading to transplantation, associated with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion without accumulation of multiple deletions. By whole-exome sequencing, we identified mutations affecting the mitochondrial single strand binding protein (SSBP1) in four families with dominant and one with recessive inheritance. We show that SSBP1 mutations in patient-derived fibroblasts variably affect its amount and alter multimer formation, but not the binding to ssDNA. SSBP1 mutations impaired mtDNA, nucleoids and 7S-DNA amounts as well as mtDNA replication, impacting replisome machinery. The variable mtDNA depletion in cells reflected in severity of mitochondrial dysfunction, including respiratory efficiency, OXPHOS subunits and complexes amount and assembly. mtDNA depletion and cytochrome c oxidase-negative cells were found ex-vivo in biopsies of affected tissues, like kidney and skeletal muscle. Reduced efficiency of mtDNA replication was also reproduced in vitro, confirming the pathogenic mechanism. Furthermore, ssbp1 suppression in zebrafish induced signs of nephropathy and reduced optic nerve size, the latter phenotype complemented by wild-type mRNA but not by SSBP1 mutant transcripts. This previously unrecognized disease of mtDNA maintenance implicates SSBP1 mutations as cause of human pathology.
    Keywords:  Bioenergetics; Genetic diseases; Genetics; Mitochondria; Ophthalmology
  4. Front Physiol. 2019 ;10 1143
    Brischigliaro M, Corrà S, Tregnago C, Fernandez-Vizarra E, Zeviani M, Costa R, De Pittà C.
      Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency is the biochemical hallmark of several mitochondrial disorders, including subjects affected by mutations in apoptogenic-1 (APOPT1), recently renamed as COA8 (HGNC:20492). Loss-of-function mutations are responsible for a specific infantile or childhood-onset mitochondrial leukoencephalopathy with a chronic clinical course. Patients deficient in COA8 show specific COX deficiency with distinctive neuroimaging features, i.e., cavitating leukodystrophy. In human cells, COA8 is rapidly degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system, but oxidative stress stabilizes the protein, which is then involved in COX assembly, possibly by protecting the complex from oxidative damage. However, its precise function remains unknown. The CG14806 gene (dCOA8) is the Drosophila melanogaster ortholog of human COA8 encoding a highly conserved COA8 protein. We report that dCOA8 knockdown (KD) flies show locomotor defects, and other signs of neurological impairment, reduced COX enzymatic activity, and reduced lifespan under oxidative stress conditions. Our data indicate that KD of dCOA8 in Drosophila phenocopies several features of the human disease, thus being a suitable model to characterize the molecular function/s of this protein in vivo and the pathogenic mechanisms associated with its defects.
    Keywords:  APOPT1; Drosophila melanogaster; cytochrome c oxidase deficiency; knockdown models; mitochondrial disease; resistance to oxidative stress