bims-cytox1 Biomed news
on Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1
Issue of 2019‒02‒10
six papers selected by
Gavin McStay
Staffordshire University

  1. Neurology. 2019 Feb 08. pii: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000007098. [Epub ahead of print]
    van der Knaap MS, Bugiani M, Mendes MI, Riley LG, Smith DEC, Rudinger-Thirion J, Frugier M, Breur M, Crawford J, van Gaalen J, Schouten M, Willems M, Waisfisz Q, Mau-Them FT, Rodenburg RJ, Taft RJ, Keren B, Christodoulou J, Depienne C, Simons C, Salomons GS, Mochel F.
      OBJECTIVE: To describe the leukodystrophy caused by pathogenic variants in LARS2 and KARS, encoding mitochondrial leucyl transfer RNA (tRNA) synthase and mitochondrial and cytoplasmic lysyl tRNA synthase, respectively.METHODS: We composed a group of 5 patients with leukodystrophy, in whom whole-genome or whole-exome sequencing revealed pathogenic variants in LARS2 or KARS. Clinical information, brain MRIs, and postmortem brain autopsy data were collected. We assessed aminoacylation activities of purified mutant recombinant mitochondrial leucyl tRNA synthase and performed aminoacylation assays on patients' lymphoblasts and fibroblasts.
    RESULTS: Patients had a combination of early-onset deafness and later-onset neurologic deterioration caused by progressive brain white matter abnormalities on MRI. Female patients with LARS2 pathogenic variants had premature ovarian failure. In 2 patients, MRI showed additional signs of early-onset vascular abnormalities. In 2 other patients with LARS2 and KARS pathogenic variants, magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed elevated white matter lactate, suggesting mitochondrial disease. Pathology in one patient with LARS2 pathogenic variants displayed evidence of primary disease of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes with lack of myelin and deficient astrogliosis. Aminoacylation activities of purified recombinant mutant leucyl tRNA synthase showed a 3-fold loss of catalytic efficiency. Aminoacylation assays on patients' lymphoblasts and fibroblasts showed about 50% reduction of enzyme activity.
    CONCLUSION: This study adds LARS2 and KARS pathogenic variants as gene defects that may underlie deafness, ovarian failure, and leukodystrophy with mitochondrial signature. We discuss the specific MRI characteristics shared by leukodystrophies caused by mitochondrial tRNA synthase defects. We propose to add aminoacylation assays as biochemical diagnostic tools for leukodystrophies.
  2. Sci Rep. 2019 Feb 04. 9(1): 1185
    Ueda E, Tamura Y, Sakaue H, Kawano S, Kakuta C, Matsumoto S, Endo T.
      The MICOS complex mediates formation of the crista junctions in mitochondria. Here we analyzed the mitochondrial import pathways for the six yeast MICOS subunits as a step toward understanding of the assembly mechanisms of the MICOS complex. Mic10, Mic12, Mic26, Mic27, and Mic60 used the presequence pathway to reach the intermembrane space (IMS). In contrast, Mic19 took the TIM40/MIA pathway, through its CHCH domain, to reach the IMS. Unlike canonical TIM40/MIA substrates, presence of the N-terminal unfolded DUF domain impaired the import efficiency of Mic19, yet N-terminal myristoylation of Mic19 circumvented this effect. The myristoyl group of Mic19 binds to Tom20 of the TOM complex as well as the outer membrane, which may lead to "entropy pushing" of the DUF domain followed by the CHCH domain of Mic19 into the import channel, thereby achieving efficient import.
  3. Mol Cell. 2019 Jan 23. pii: S1097-2765(19)30002-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    Sekine S, Wang C, Sideris DP, Bunker E, Zhang Z, Youle RJ.
      Mutations in PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) can cause recessive early-onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Import arrest results in PINK1 kinase activation specifically on damaged mitochondria, triggering Parkin-mediated mitophagy. Here, we show that PINK1 import is less dependent on Tim23 than on mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm). We identified a negatively charged amino acid cluster motif that is evolutionarily conserved just C-terminal to the PINK1 transmembrane. PINK1 that fails to accumulate at the outer mitochondrial membrane, either by mutagenesis of this negatively charged motif or by deletion of Tom7, is imported into depolarized mitochondria and cleaved by the OMA1 protease. Some PD patient mutations also are defective in import arrest and are rescued by the suppression of OMA1, providing a new potential druggable target for PD. These results suggest that ΔΨm loss-dependent PINK1 import arrest does not result solely from Tim23 inactivation but also through an actively regulated "tug of war" between Tom7 and OMA1.
    Keywords:  OMA1; TIM23 complex; TOM complex; mitochondrial protease; mitophagy
  4. Mol Med Rep. 2019 Jan 28.
    Li S, Sun C, Gu Y, Gao X, Zhao Y, Yuan Y, Zhang F, Hu P, Liang W, Cao K, Zhang J, Wang Z, Ye J.
      Increasing evidence has indicated that mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2) contribute to the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells; however their functions in lipid metabolism remain unknown. In the present study, the parental and IDH1 (R132H/+) mutant HCT116 cells were treated with various concentrations of oleic acid (OA) or palmitic acid (PA) in the presence or absence of glucose. The results demonstrated that mutation of IDH1 exacerbated the effects of OA and PA on cell viability and apoptosis, and consistently elevated the production of reactive oxygen species in HCT116 cells, particularly in the absence of glucose. Furthermore, mutation of IDH1 inhibited the rate of fatty acid oxidation (FAO), but elevated the glucose consumption in HCT116 cells. The results of immunoblotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) indicated that the expression of glucose transporter 1 was upregulated, whereas that of carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 was downregulated in IDH1 mutant HCT116 cells. Although mitochondrial DNA quantification demonstrated that mutation of IDH1 had no effect on the quantity of mitochondria, immunoblotting and RT‑qPCR revealed that mutation of IDH1 in HCT116 cells significantly downregulated the expression of cytochrome c (CYCS) and CYCS oxidase IV, two important components in mitochondrial respiratory chain. These results indicated that mutation of IDH1 aggravated the fatty acid‑induced oxidative stress in HCT116 cells, by suppressing FAO and disrupting the mitochondrial respiratory chain. The results of the present study may provide novel insight into therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer types with IDH mutation.
  5. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2019 Feb 04. pii: S1388-1981(18)30228-2. [Epub ahead of print]
    Raja V, Salsaa M, Joshi AS, Li Y, van Roermund CWT, Saadat N, Lazcano P, Schmidtke M, Hüttemann M, Gupta SV, Wanders RJA, Greenberg ML.
      Previous studies have shown that the cardiolipin (CL)-deficient yeast mutant, crd1Δ, has decreased levels of acetyl-CoA and decreased activities of the TCA cycle enzymes aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase. These biochemical phenotypes are expected to lead to defective TCA cycle function. In this study, we report that signaling and anaplerotic metabolic pathways that supplement defects in the TCA cycle are essential in crd1Δ mutant cells. The crd1Δ mutant is synthetically lethal with mutants in the TCA cycle, retrograde (RTG) pathway, glyoxylate cycle, and pyruvate carboxylase 1. Glutamate levels were decreased, and the mutant exhibited glutamate auxotrophy. Glyoxylate cycle genes were up-regulated, and the levels of glyoxylate metabolites succinate and citrate were increased in crd1Δ. Import of acetyl-CoA from the cytosol into mitochondria is essential in crd1Δ, as deletion of the carnitine-acetylcarnitine translocase led to lethality in the CL mutant. β-oxidation was functional in the mutant, and oleate supplementation rescued growth defects. These findings suggest that TCA cycle deficiency caused by the absence of CL necessitates activation of anaplerotic pathways to replenish acetyl-CoA and TCA cycle intermediates. Implications for Barth syndrome, a genetic disorder of CL metabolism, are discussed.
    Keywords:  Cardiolipin; Carnitine shuttle; Glyoxylate cycle; RTG pathway; TCA cycle; β-Oxidation
  6. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2019 ;2019 8069583
    De Luise M, Guarnieri V, Ceccarelli C, D'Agruma L, Porcelli AM, Gasparre G.
      The Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome has been rarely associated with renal oncocytomas, and tumors usually show HIF1α chronic stabilization. By contrast, oncocytomas mainly associated with respiratory chain (RC) defects due to severe mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are incapable of stabilizing HIF1α, since oxygen consumption by the RC is dramatically diminished and prolylhydroxylase activity is increased by α-ketoglutarate accumulation following Krebs cycle slowdown. Here, we investigate the cooccurrence of a pseudohypoxic condition with oncocytic transformation in a case of VHL-associated renal oncocytoma. While HIF1α was abundant in nuclei concordantly with defects in VHL, negative staining of its targets carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX) and glucose transporter GLUT1, usually overexpressed in VHL-associated neoplasms, suggested HIF1α to be present in its inactive (hydroxylated) form. MtDNA sequencing and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed a MT-CO1 stop-gain mutation and cytochrome c oxidase loss. We suggest that a mitochondrial respiration impairment may lead to hyperhydroxylation of the transcription factor, which we confirmed by specific staining of hydroxylated HIF1α. Such inactive form hence accumulated in the VHL-deficient tumor, where it may contribute to the benign nature of the neoplasm. We propose that the protumorigenic role of HIF1α in VHL cancers may be blunted through drugs inhibiting mitochondrial respiratory complexes, such as metformin.