bims-cytox1 Biomed News
on Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1
Issue of 2017‒07‒02
three papers selected by
Gavin McStay
New York Institute of Technology

  1. Hum Mol Genet. 2017 Jun 22.
      Leigh syndrome is a severe infantile encephalopathy with an exceptionally variable genetic background. We studied the exome of a child manifesting with Leigh syndrome at one month of age and progressing to death by the age of 2.4 years, and identified novel compound heterozygous variants in PNPT1, encoding the polynucleotide phosphorylase (PNPase). Expression of the wild type PNPT1 in the subject's myoblasts functionally complemented the defects, and the pathogenicity was further supported by structural predictions and protein and RNA analyses. PNPase is a key enzyme in mitochondrial RNA metabolism, with suggested roles in mitochondrial RNA import and degradation. The variants were predicted to locate in the PNPase active site and disturb the RNA processing activity of the enzyme. The PNPase trimer formation was not affected, but specific RNA processing intermediates derived from mitochondrial transcripts of the ND6 subunit of Complex I, as well as small mRNA fragments, accumulated in the subject's myoblasts. Mitochondrial RNA processing mediated by the degradosome consisting of hSUV3 and PNPase is poorly characterized, and controversy on the role and location of PNPase within human mitochondria exists. Our evidence indicates that PNPase activity is essential for correct maturation of the ND6 transcripts, and likely for the efficient removal of degradation intermediates. Loss of its activity will result in combined respiratory chain deficiency, and a classic respiratory chain-deficiency-associated disease, Leigh syndrome, indicating an essential role for the enzyme for normal function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain.
  2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017 Jun 20. pii: S0006-291X(17)31246-9. [Epub ahead of print]
      The functional importance of mitochondrial protein translation has been recently documented in the context of various cancers but not renal cell carcinoma (RCC). In lines with these efforts, our work demonstrates that mitochondrial translation inhibition by tigecycline or depletion of EF-Tu mitochondrial translation factor effectively targets RCC and significantly sensitizes RCC response to chemotherapy. We show that antibiotic tigecycline inhibits multiple biological functions of RCC, including growth, colony formation and survival. It also significantly enhances in vitro and in vivo efficacy of paclitaxel in RCC. Tigecycline preferentially inhibits translation of mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins, activities of mitochondrial respiratory complexes that contain mitochondrially encoded subunits. As a consequence of mitochondrial respiratory chain inhibition, decreased mitochondrial respiration is observed in RCC cells exposed to tigecycline. In contrast, tigecycline is ineffective in RCC ρ0 cells that lack mitochondrial DNA and subsequent mitochondrial respiration, further confirm mitochondrial translation inhibition as the mechanism of tigecycline's action in RCC. Importantly, genetic inhibition of mitochondrial translation by EF-Tu knockdown reproduced the inhibitory effects of tigecycline. Finally, we show the association between mitochondrial translation inhibition and suppression of PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. Our work used pharmacological and genetic strategies to demonstrate the important roles of mitochondrial translation in RCC and emphasize the therapeutic value of sensitizing RCC to chemotherapy.
    Keywords:  Chemotherapy; EF-Tu; Mitochondrial translation; RCC; Tigecycline
  3. Sci Rep. 2017 Jun 23. 7(1): 4179
      In bovine species, mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms and their correlation to productive or reproductive performances have been widely reported across breeds and individuals. However, experimental evidence of this correlation has never been provided. In order to identify differences among bovine mtDNA haplotypes, transmitochondrial cybrids were generated, with the nucleus from MAC-T cell line, derived from a Holstein dairy cow (Bos taurus) and mitochondria from either primary cell line derived from a domestic Chinese native beef Luxi cattle breed or central Asian domestic yak (Bos grunniens). Yak primary cells illustrated a stronger metabolic capacity than that of Luxi. However, all yak cybrid parameters illustrated a drop in relative yak mtDNA compared to Luxi mtDNA, in line with a mitonuclear imbalance in yak interspecies cybrid. Luxi has 250 divergent variations relative to the mitogenome of Holsteins. In cybrids there were generally higher rates of oxygen consumption (OCR) and extracellular acidification (ECAR), and lower mRNA expression levels of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes, potentially reflecting active energy metabolism and cellular stress resistance. The results demonstrate that functional differences exist between bovine cybrid cells. While cybrid viability was similar between Holstein and Luxi breeds, the mitonuclear mismatch caused a marked metabolic dysfunction in cattle:yak cybrid species.