bims-covirf Biomed News
on COVID19 risk factors
Issue of 2021‒02‒14
eight papers selected by
Catherine Rycroft
BresMed


  1. Ann Palliat Med. 2021 Feb 01. pii: apm-20-1278. [Epub ahead of print]
    Xiang G, Xie L, Chen Z, Hao S, Fu C, Wu Q, Liu X, Li S.
      BACKGROUND: New evidence from retrospective cohort studies on risk of death from COVID-19 infection became available. We aimed to systematically review the clinical risk factors for fatal outcome of COVID-19.METHODS: We performed meta-analysis, using PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases from December 1 2019 to June 10 2020. The meta-analysis summarized clinical, laboratory, radiological features, and complications of non-survivors with confirmed COVID-19. In addition, a fixed- or random-effects model was adopted based on the heterogeneity among studies. We also used funnel-plot with Egger's tests to screen potential publication bias.
    RESULTS: In total, twenty studies with 15,408 COVID-19 cases were included in our meta-analysis. Male, current smoking, and older age were associated with in-hospital death. Patients aged 60 years or over had the highest pooled ORs [OR 4.94 (2.89, 8.44)]. Non-survivors were more likely to have diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD), respiratory disease, or chronic kidney disease (CKD). Respiratory disease had the highest pooled ORs [OR 2.55 (2.14, 3.05)]. Dyspnea [OR 3.31 (1.78, 6.16); I2 : 83%] and fatigue [OR 1.36 (1.07, 1.73); I2 : 0%] were associated with increased risk of death. Increased white blood cell count, decreased lymphocyte and platelet counts, were also associated with increased risk of death. Biomarkers of coagulation function, inflammation, liver and kidney function, cardiac and muscle injury were also elevated in nonsurvivors.
    CONCLUSIONS: Male, current smoking patients aged 60 years or over might face a greater risk of in-hospital death and the comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, CVD, respiratory disease, and CKD could also influence the prognosis of the COVID-19. Clinical feature such as dyspnea and fatigue could imply the exacerbation and even death. Our findings highlighted early markers of mortality which were beneficial to identify fatal COVID-19.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; mortality; risk factor
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-1278
  2. Ann Palliat Med. 2021 Jan 27. pii: apm-20-1863. [Epub ahead of print]
    Xie J, Wang Q, Xu Y, Zhang T, Chen L, Zuo X, Liu J, Huang L, Zhan P, Lv T, Song Y.
      BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging pandemic of global public health concern. We aimed to summarize the characteristics of COVID-19 patients in the early stage of the pandemic and explore the risk factors of disease progression.METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis, searching three databases for studies published between January 1, 2020, and March 18, 2020. We used random-effects models to calculate the 95% confidence intervals of pooled estimated prevalence and the odds ratio between the severe and nonsevere cases.
    RESULTS: Ninety studies involving 16,526 COVID-19 patients were included. Hypertension (19.1%) and diabetes (9.5%) were the most common comorbidities. The most prevalent clinical symptoms were fever (78.4%), cough (58.5%), and fatigue (26.4%). Increased serum ferritin (74.2%), high C-reactive protein (73.3%), and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (72.2%) were the most frequently reported laboratory abnormalities. Most patients had bilateral lung involvement (82.2%) and showed peripheral (66.9%) and subpleural (62.1%) distribution, with multifocal involvement (73.1%). And the most common CT features were vascular enlargement (64.3%), ground-glass opacity (GGO) (60.7%), and thickened interlobular septa (55.1%). Respiratory failure was the most common complication (30.7%) and the overall case-fatality rate (CFR) was 4.2%. Moreover, male, history of smoking, and comorbidities might influence the prognosis. Most clinical symptoms such as fever, high fever, cough, sputum production, fatigue, shortness of breath, dyspnoea, and abdominal pain were linked to the severity of disease. Some specific laboratory indicators implied the deterioration of disease, such as leucocytosis, lymphopenia, platelet, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), albumin, creatinine, creatine kinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), C-reactive protein, procalcitonin (PCT), and D-dimer. Besides, the risk of bilateral pneumonia, consolidation, pleural effusion, and enlarged mediastinal nodes was higher in severe cases.
    CONCLUSIONS: Most COVID-19 patients have fever and cough with lymphopenia and increased inflammatory indices, and the main CT feature is GGO involved bilateral lung. Patients with comorbidities and worse clinical symptoms, laboratory characteristics, and CT findings tend to have poor disease progression.
    Keywords:  CT findings; Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); clinical characteristics; laboratory abnormalities; risk factors
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.21037/apm-20-1863
  3. mBio. 2021 02 09. pii: e03647-20. [Epub ahead of print]12(1):
    Ng WH, Tipih T, Makoah NA, Vermeulen JG, Goedhals D, Sempa JB, Burt FJ, Taylor A, Mahalingam S.
      Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread across the globe at unprecedented speed and is showing no signs of slowing down. The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has led to significant health burden in infected patients especially in those with underlying comorbidities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between comorbidities and their role in the exacerbation of disease in COVID-19 patients leading to fatal outcomes. A systematic review was conducted using data from MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases published from 1 December 2019 to 15 September 2020. Fifty-three articles were included in the systematic review. Of those 53 articles, 8 articles were eligible for meta-analysis. Hypertension, obesity, and diabetes mellitus were identified to be the most prevalent comorbidities in COVID-19 patients. Our meta-analysis showed that cancer, chronic kidney diseases, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension were independently associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients. Chronic kidney disease was statistically the most prominent comorbidity leading to death. However, despite having high prevalence, obesity was not associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients.IMPORTANCE COVID-19 has plagued the world since it was first identified in December 2019. Previous systematic reviews and meta-analysis were limited by various factors such as the usage of non-peer reviewed data and were also limited by the lack of clinical data on a global scale. Comorbidities are frequently cited as risk factors for severe COVID-19 outcomes. However, the degree to which specific comorbidities impact the disease is debatable. Our study selection involves a global reach and covers all comorbidities that were reported to be involved in the exacerbation of COVID-19 leading to fatal outcomes, which allows us to identify the specific comorbidities that have higher risk in patients. The study highlights COVID-19 high-risk groups. However, further research should focus on the status of comorbidities and prognosis in COVID-19 patients.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; comorbidity
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.03647-20
  4. Am J Health Promot. 2021 Feb 12. 890117121990518
    Bello B, Useh U.
      OBJECTIVE: To identify and describe the mechanisms of lifestyle characteristics-obesity, DM, hypertension and physical inactivity-that may lead to the severity of illness among individuals with COVID-19.DATA SOURCE: A scoping review was conducted by searching electronic databases of PubMed and Scopus from December 2019 to August 2020.
    INCLUSION/EXCLUSION CRITERIA: inclusion criteria were studies that explicitly describe the mechanism of COVID-19 in relationship with either hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM), obesity and/or physical inactivity. Studies of epidemiological background, descriptive surveys and interventional studies were excluded.
    DATA EXTRACTION: study characteristics were tabulated according to purpose, type of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), the hypothesis on the mechanism of infestation (MOI) and conclusion.
    DATA SYNTHESIS: NCDs were categorized according to type and hypothesis on mechanisms of infestation. The interplay between COVID-19, type of NCDs and MOI leading to the severity of the disease was appraised.
    RESULTS: Twenty-four (24) studies were identified from 357 unique records. Eight studies postulated the mechanism of infestation and interaction between COVID 19 illness severity and Obesity, while 7 studies described COVID-19 and DM. Five studies highlighted the interaction between COVID-19 and hypertension with 4 studies showing how physical activity restriction suppresses immunity.
    CONCLUSION: The current review, identified and explicitly described the mechanisms of the lifestyle characteristics that may increase the severity of illness among people with COVID-19.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; diabetes mellitus; disease management; hypertension; illness severity; infectious diseases; lifestyle risk factors; non-communicable diseases; obesity; physical inactivity
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1177/0890117121990518
  5. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2021 Feb;8(2): ofaa638
    Pennington AF, Kompaniyets L, Summers AD, Danielson ML, Goodman AB, Chevinsky JR, Preston LE, Schieber LZ, Namulanda G, Courtney J, Strosnider HM, Boehmer TK, Mac Kenzie WR, Baggs J, Gundlapalli AV.
      Background: Older adults and people from certain racial and ethnic groups are disproportionately represented in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) hospitalizations and deaths.Methods: Using data from the Premier Healthcare Database on 181 813 hospitalized adults diagnosed with COVID-19 during March-September 2020, we applied multivariable log-binomial regression to assess the associations between age and race/ethnicity and COVID-19 clinical severity (intensive care unit [ICU] admission, invasive mechanical ventilation [IMV], and death) and to determine whether the impact of age on clinical severity differs by race/ethnicity.
    Results: Overall, 84 497 (47%) patients were admitted to the ICU, 29 078 (16%) received IMV, and 27 864 (15%) died in the hospital. Increased age was strongly associated with clinical severity when controlling for underlying medical conditions and other covariates; the strength of this association differed by race/ethnicity. Compared with non-Hispanic White patients, risk of death was lower among non-Hispanic Black patients (adjusted risk ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99) and higher among Hispanic/Latino patients (risk ratio [RR], 1.15; 95% CI, 1.09-1.20), non-Hispanic Asian patients (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.09-1.23), and patients of other racial and ethnic groups (RR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.06-1.21). Risk of ICU admission and risk of IMV were elevated among some racial and ethnic groups.
    Conclusions: These results indicate that age is a driver of poor outcomes among hospitalized persons with COVID-19. Additionally, clinical severity may be elevated among patients of some racial and ethnic minority groups. Public health strategies to reduce severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection rates among older adults and racial and ethnic minorities are essential to reduce poor outcomes.
    Keywords:  2019 novel coronavirus disease; adult; health care disparities; mortality; race/ethnicity
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/ofid/ofaa638
  6. medRxiv. 2021 Feb 08. pii: 2021.02.07.21251079. [Epub ahead of print]
    Batty GD, Gaye B, Gale C, Hamer M, Lassale C.
      Ethnic disparities in COVID-19 hospitalizations and mortality have been reported but there is scant understanding of how these inequalities are embodied. The UK Biobank prospective cohort study comprises around half a million people who were aged 40-69 years at study induction between 2006 and 2010 when information on ethnic background and potential explanatory factors was captured. Study members were linked to a national mortality registry. In an analytical sample of 448,664 individuals (248,820 women), 354 deaths were ascribed to COVID-19 between 5th March and the end of follow-up on 17th September 2020. In age- and sex-adjusted analyses, relative to White participants, Black study members experienced around seven times the risk of COVID-19 mortality (odds ratio; 95% confidence interval: 7.25; 4.65, 11.33), while there was a doubling in the Asian group (1.98; 1.02, 3.84). Controlling for baseline comorbidities, socioeconomic circumstances, and lifestyle factors explained 53% of the differential in risk for Asian people (1.37; 0.68, 2.77) and 27% in Black study members (4.28; 2.67, 6.86). The residual risk in ethnic minority groups for COVID-19 deaths may be ascribed to unknown genetic factors or unmeasured phenotypes, most obviously racial discrimination.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.07.21251079
  7. Tob Induc Dis. 2021 ;19 09
    Umnuaypornlert A, Kanchanasurakit S, Lucero-Prisno DEI, Saokaew S.
      INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 has major effects on the clinical, humanistic and economic outcomes among patients, producing severe symptoms and death. Smoking has been reported as one of the factors that increases severity and mortality rate among COVID-19 patients. However, the effect of smoking on such medical outcomes is still controversial. This study conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis (SR/MA) on the association between smoking and negative outcomes among COVID-19 patients.METHODS: Electronic databases, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Google Scholar, were systematically searched from the initiation of the database until 12 December 2020. All relevant studies about smoking and COVID-19 were screened using a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the methodological quality of eligible articles. Random meta-analyses were conducted to estimate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CIs). Publication bias was assessed using the funnel plot, Begg's test and Egger's test.
    RESULTS: A total of 1248 studies were retrieved and reviewed. A total of 40 studies were finally included for meta-analysis. Both current smoking and former smoking significantly increase the risk of disease severity (OR=1.58; 95% CI: 1.16-2.15, p=0.004; and OR=2.48; 95% CI: 1.64-3.77, p<0.001; respectively) with moderate appearance of heterogeneity. Similarly, current smoking and former smoking also significantly increase the risk of death (OR=1.35; 95% CI: 1.12-1.62, p=0.002; and OR=2.58; 95% CI: 2.15-3.09, p<0.001; respectively) with moderate appearance of heterogeneity. There was no evidence of publication bias, which was tested by the funnel plot, Begg's test and Egger's test.
    CONCLUSIONS: Smoking, even current smoking or former smoking, significantly increases the risk of COVID-19 severity and death. Further causational studies on this association and ascertianing the underlying mechanisms of this relation is warranted.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; coronavirus; death; disease severity; smoking
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.18332/tid/132411
  8. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2020 Dec 11. pii: S0939-4753(20)30518-4. [Epub ahead of print]
    Du Y, Zhou N, Zha W, Lv Y.
      AIMS: As reported, hypertension may play an important role in adverse outcomes of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), but it still had many confounding factors. The aim of this study was to explore whether hypertension is an independent risk factor for critical COVID-19 and mortality.DATA SYNTHESIS: The Medline, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched until November 2020. Combined odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence interval (CIs) were calculated by using random-effect models, and the effect of covariates was analyzed using the subgroup analysis and meta-regression analysis. A total of 24 observational studies with 99,918 COVID-19 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The proportions of hypertension in critical COVID-19 were 37% (95% CI: 0.27 -0.47) when compared with 18% (95% CI: 0.14 -0.23) of noncritical COVID-19 patients, in those who died were 46% (95%CI: 0.37 -0.55) when compared with 22% (95% CI: 0.16 -0.28) of survivors. Pooled results based on the adjusted OR showed that patients with hypertension had a 1.82-fold higher risk for critical COVID-19 (aOR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.19 - 2.77; P = 0.005) and a 2.17-fold higher risk for COVID-19 mortality (aOR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.67 - 2.82; P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis results showed that male patients had a higher risk of developing to the critical condition than female patients (OR: 3.04; 95%CI: 2.06 - 4.49; P < 0.001) and age >60 years was associated with a significantly increased risk of COVID-19 mortality (OR: 3.12; 95% CI: 1.93 - 5.05; P < 0.001). Meta-regression analysis results also showed that age (Coef. = 2.3×10-2, P = 0.048) had a significant influence on the association between hypertension and COVID-19 mortality.
    CONCLUSIONS: Evidence from this meta-analysis suggested that hypertension was independently associated with a significantly increased risk of critical COVID-19 and inhospital mortality of COVID-19.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Critical illness; Hypertension; Meta-analysis; Mortality
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.numecd.2020.12.009