bims-covirf Biomed News
on COVID19 risk factors
Issue of 2020‒12‒27
three papers selected by
Catherine Rycroft

  1. Heliyon. 2020 Dec;6(12): e05684
    Barek MA, Aziz MA, Islam MS.
      Purpose: Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) cases are overgrowing globally and now become a pandemic. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the impact of age, sex, comorbidities, and clinical characteristics on the severity of COVID-19 to help diagnose and evaluate the current outbreak in clinical decision-making.Methods: PubMed, ScienceDirect, and BMC were searched to collect data about demographic, clinical characteristics, and comorbidities of COVID-19 patients. Meta-analysis was conducted with Review Manager 5.3. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's test and Begg-Mazumdar's rank correlation.
    Results: Fifty-five studies were included in this meta-analysis, including 10014 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Male cases and cases with an age of ≥50 years (OR = 2.41, p < 0.00001; RR = 3.36, p = 0.0002, respectively) were severely affected by SARS-CoV-2. Patients having age≥65 years are not associated (p = 0.110) with the severity of COVID-19. Presence of at least one comorbidity or hypertension, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disease, malignancy, chronic kidney disease and chronic liver diseases individually increased the severity of COVID-19 cases significantly (OR = 3.13, p < 0.00001; OR = 2.35, p < 0.00001; OR = 2.42, p < 0.00001; OR = 3.78, p < 0.00001; OR = 3.33, p < 0.00001; OR = 2.58, p < 0.00001; OR = 2.32, p < 0.00001; OR = 2.27, p = 0.0007; OR = 1.70, p = 0.003, respectively). Clinical manifestation such as fever, cough, fatigue, anorexia, dyspnea, chest tightness, hemoptysis, diarrhea and abdominal pain (OR = 1.68, p = 0.0001; OR = 1.41, p = 0.004; OR = 1.26, p = 0.03; OR = 2.38, p < 0.0001; OR = 4.30, p < 0.00001; OR = 2.11, p = 0.002; OR = 4.93, p < 0.0001; OR = 1.35, p = 0.03; OR = 2.38, p = 0.008, respectively) were significantly associated with the severity of cases. No association of severity was found with myalgia, pharyngalgia, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness and sore throat (p > 0.05). No publication bias was found in case of age (≥50 years, age≥65 years), comorbidities and clinical manifestations.
    Conclusions: Males patients and elderly or older patients (age ≥50 years) are at higher risk of developing severity, whereas comorbidities and clinical manifestations could significantly affect the prognosis and severity of COVID-19.
    Keywords:  Clinical manifestation; Comorbidity; Covid-19; Critical care; Health informatics; Meta-analysis; Microbiology; Nonsevere; Pneumonia; Risk factor; Severe; Travel medicine; Viral disease; Virology
  2. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2020 Dec 22.
    Ahrenfeldt LJ, Otavova M, Christensen K, Lindahl-Jacobsen R.
      AIM: To examine the magnitude of sex differences in survival from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Europe across age groups and regions. We hypothesized that men have a higher mortality than women at any given age but that sex differences will decrease with age as only the healthiest men survive to older ages.METHODS: We used population data from the Institut National D'Études Démographiques on cumulative deaths due to COVID-19 from February to June 2020 in 10 European regions: Denmark, Norway, Sweden, The Netherlands, England and Wales, France, Germany, Italy, Spain and Portugal. For each region, we calculated cumulative mortality rates stratified by age and sex and corresponding relative risks for men vs. women.
    RESULTS: The relative risk of dying from COVID-19 was higher for men than for women in almost all age groups in all regions. The overall relative risk ranged from 1.11 (95% confidence interval, CI 1.01-1.23) in Portugal to 1.54 (95% CI 1.49-1.58) in France. In most regions, sex differences increased until the ages of 60-69 years, but decreased thereafter with the smallest sex difference at age 80+ years.
    CONCLUSION: Despite variability in data collection and time coverage among regions, the study showed an overall similar pattern of sex differences in COVID-19 mortality in Europe.
    Keywords:  Cumulative mortality rates; European regions; Relative risks; SARS-CoV‑2; Sex difference