bims-covirf Biomed News
on COVID19 risk factors
Issue of 2020‒12‒20
five papers selected by
Catherine Rycroft

  1. Euro Surveill. 2020 Dec;25(50):
    , .
      BackgroundThe first wave of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic spread rapidly in Spain, one of Europe's most affected countries. A national lockdown was implemented on 15 March 2020.AimTo describe reported cases and the impact of national lockdown, and to identify disease severity risk factors.MethodsNational surveillance data were used to describe PCR-confirmed cases as at 27 April 2020. We compared case characteristics by severity categories (hospitalisation, admission to intensive care unit (ICU), death) and identified severity risk factors using multivariable regression.ResultsThe epidemic peaked on 20 March. Of 218,652 COVID-19 cases, 45.4% were hospitalised, 4.6% were admitted to ICU and 11.9% died. Among those who died, 94.8% had at least one underlying disease. Healthcare workers (HCWs) represented 22.9% of cases. Males were more likely to have severe outcomes than females. Cardiovascular disease was a consistent risk factor. Patients with pneumonia had higher odds of hospitalisation (odds ratio (OR): 26.63; 95% confidence interval (CI): 25.03-28.33). The strongest predictor of death was age ≥ 80 years (OR: 28.4; 95% CI: 19.85-40.78). Among underlying diseases, chronic renal disease had highest odds of death (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.29-1.68).ConclusionsCOVID-19 case numbers began declining 6 days after the national lockdown. The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in Spain had a severe impact on elderly people. Patients with cardiovascular or renal conditions were at higher risk for severe outcomes. A high proportion of cases were HCWs. Enhanced surveillance and control measures in these subgroups are crucial during future COVID-19 waves.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; Spain; pandemic; risk factors; surveillance
  2. Heart. 2020 Dec 17. pii: heartjnl-2020-317901. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVE: Previous studies that evaluated cardiovascular risk factors considered age as a potential confounder. We aimed to investigate the impact of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors on fatal outcomes according to age in patients with COVID-19.METHODS: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis was performed on data collected from PubMed and Embase databases up to 11 June 2020. All observational studies (case series or cohort studies) that assessed in-hospital patients were included, except those involving the paediatric population. Prevalence rates of comorbid diseases and clinical outcomes were stratified by mean patient age in each study (ranges: <50 years, 50-60 years and ≥60 years). The primary outcome measure was a composite fatal outcome of severe COVID-19 or death.
    RESULTS: We included 51 studies with a total of 48 317 patients with confirmed COVID-19 infection. Overall, the relative risk of developing severe COVID-19 or death was significantly higher in patients with risk factors for CVD (hypertension: OR 2.50, 95% CI 2.15 to 2.90; diabetes: 2.25, 95% CI 1.89 to 2.69) and CVD (3.11, 95% 2.55 to 3.79). Younger patients had a lower prevalence of hypertension, diabetes and CVD compared with older patients; however, the relative risk of fatal outcomes was higher among the former.
    CONCLUSIONS: The results of the meta-analysis suggest that CVD and its risk factors (hypertension and diabetes) were closely related to fatal outcomes in COVID-19 for patients across all ages. Although young patients had lower prevalence rates of cardiovascular comorbidities than elderly patients, relative risk of fatal outcome in young patients with hypertension, diabetes and CVD was higher than in elderly patients.
    Keywords:  cardiac risk factors and prevention; meta-analysis; quality and outcomes of care
  3. Clin Infect Dis. 2020 Dec 18. pii: ciaa1787. [Epub ahead of print]
      BACKGROUND: The relationship between common patient characteristics, such as sex and metabolic comorbidities, and mortality from COVID-19 remains incompletely understood. Emerging evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors may also vary by age. This study aimed to determine the association between common patient characteristics and mortality across age-groups among COVID-19 inpatients.METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients discharged from hospitals in the Premier Healthcare Database between April - June 2020. Inpatients were identified using COVID-19 ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes. A priori-defined exposures were sex and present-on-admission hypertension, diabetes, obesity, and interactions between age and these comorbidities. Controlling for additional confounders, we evaluated relationships between these variables and in-hospital mortality in a log-binomial model.
    RESULTS: Among 66,646 (6.5%) admissions with a COVID-19 diagnosis, across 613 U.S. hospitals, 12,388 (18.6%) died in-hospital. In multivariable analysis, male sex was independently associated with 30% higher mortality risk (aRR, 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26 - 1.34). Diabetes without chronic complications was not a risk factor at any age (aRR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.96 - 1.06), and hypertension without chronic complications was only a risk factor in 20-39 year-olds (aRR, 1.68, 95% CI: 1.17 - 2.40). Diabetes with chronic complications, hypertension with chronic complications, and obesity were risk factors in most age-groups, with highest relative risks among 20-39 year-olds (respective aRRs 1.79, 2.33, 1.92; p-values ≤ 0.002).
    CONCLUSIONS: Hospitalized men with COVID-19 are at increased risk of death across all ages. Hypertension, diabetes with chronic complications, and obesity demonstrated age-dependent effects, with the highest relative risks among adults aged 20-39.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Claims Data; Hypertension; Metabolic Comorbidities; Sex
  4. Front Med (Lausanne). 2020 ;7 583060
      In South Korea, the first confirmed case of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) was detected on January 20, 2020. After a month, the number of confirmed cases surged, as community transmission occurred. The local hospitals experienced severe shortages in medical resources such as mechanical ventilators and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) equipment. With the medical claims data of 7,590 COVID-19 confirmed patients, this study examined how the demand for major medical resources and medications changed during the outbreak and subsequent stabilization period of COVID-19 in South Korea. We also aimed to investigate how the underlying diseases and demographic factors affect disease severity. Our findings revealed that the risk of being treated with a mechanical ventilator or ECMO (critical condition) was almost twice as high in men, and a previous history of hypertension, diabetes, and psychiatric diseases increased the risk for progressing to critical condition [Odds Ratio (95% CI), 1.60 (1.14-2.24); 1.55 (1.55-2.06); 1.73 (1.25-2.39), respectively]. Although chronic pulmonary disease did not significantly increase the risk for severity of the illness, patients with a Charlson comorbidity index score of ≥5 and those treated in an outbreak area had an increased risk of developing a critical condition [3.82 (3.82-8.15); 1.59 (1.20-2.09), respectively]. Our results may help clinicians predict the demand for medical resources during the spread of COVID-19 infection and identify patients who are likely to develop severe disease.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; ECMO—extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; hydroxychloroquine; severity; ventilator
  5. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(12): e0243600
      OBJECTIVE: Based on the epidemiologic findings of Covid-19 incidence; illness and mortality seem to be associated with metabolic risk factors. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to assess the association of metabolic risk factors and risk of Covid-19.METHODS: This study was designed according to PRISMA guidelines. Two independent researchers searched for the relevant studies using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Scopus. The search terms developed focusing on two main roots of "Covid-19" and "metabolic risk factors". All relevant observational, analytical studies, review articles, and a meta-analysis on the adult population were included in this meta-analysis. Meta-analysis was performed using the random effect model for pooling proportions to address heterogeneity among studies. Data were analyzed using STATA package version 11.2, (StataCorp, USA).
    RESULTS: Through a comprehensive systematic search in the targeted databases we found 1124 papers, after running the proses of refining, 13 studies were included in the present meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of obesity in Covid-19 patients was 29% (95% CI: 14-47%). For Diabetes and Hypertension, these were 22% (95% CI: 12% 33%) and 32% (95% CI: 12% 56%), respectively. There was significant heterogeneity in the estimates of the three pooled prevalence without any significant small-study effects. Such warning points, to some extent, guide physicians and clinicians to better understand the importance of controlling co-morbid risk factors in prioritizing resource allocation and interventions.
    CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis showed that hypertension is more prevalent than obesity and diabetes in patients with Covid-19 disease. The prevalence of co-morbid metabolic risk factors must be adopted for better management and priority settings of public health vaccination and other required interventions. The results may help to improve services delivery in COVID-19 patients, while helping to develop better policies for prevention and response to COVID-19 and its critical outcomes.