bims-covirf Biomed News
on COVID19 risk factors
Issue of 2020‒11‒08
nine papers selected by
Catherine Rycroft
BresMed


  1. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(11): e0241742
    Mesas AE, Cavero-Redondo I, Álvarez-Bueno C, Sarriá Cabrera MA, Maffei de Andrade S, Sequí-Dominguez I, Martínez-Vizcaíno V.
      OBJECTIVE: Risk factors for in-hospital mortality in confirmed COVID-19 patients have been summarized in numerous meta-analyses, but it is still unclear whether they vary according to the age, sex and health conditions of the studied populations. This study explored these variables as potential mortality predictors.METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching the MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases of studies available through July 27, 2020. The pooled risk was estimated with the odds ratio (p-OR) or effect size (p-ES) obtained through random-effects meta-analyses. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression were applied to explore differences by age, sex and health conditions. The MOOSE guidelines were strictly followed.
    RESULTS: The meta-analysis included 60 studies, with a total of 51,225 patients (12,458 [24.3%] deaths) from hospitals in 13 countries. A higher in-hospital mortality risk was found for dyspnoea (p-OR = 2.5), smoking (p-OR = 1.6) and several comorbidities (p-OR range: 1.8 to 4.7) and laboratory parameters (p-ES range: 0.3 to -2.6). Age was the main source of heterogeneity, followed by sex and health condition. The following predictors were more markedly associated with mortality in studies with patients with a mean age ≤60 years: dyspnoea (p-OR = 4.3), smoking (p-OR = 2.8), kidney disease (p-OR = 3.8), hypertension (p-OR = 3.7), malignancy (p-OR = 3.7), diabetes (p-OR = 3.2), pulmonary disease (p-OR = 3.1), decreased platelet count (p-ES = -1.7), decreased haemoglobin concentration (p-ES = -0.6), increased creatinine (p-ES = 2.4), increased interleukin-6 (p-ES = 2.4) and increased cardiac troponin I (p-ES = 0.7). On the other hand, in addition to comorbidities, the most important mortality predictors in studies with older patients were albumin (p-ES = -3.1), total bilirubin (p-ES = 0.7), AST (p-ES = 1.8), ALT (p-ES = 0.4), urea nitrogen (p-ES), C-reactive protein (p-ES = 2.7), LDH (p-ES = 2.4) and ferritin (p-ES = 1.7). Obesity was associated with increased mortality only in studies with fewer chronic or critical patients (p-OR = 1.8).
    CONCLUSION: The prognostic effect of clinical conditions on COVID-19 mortality vary substantially according to the mean age of patients.
    PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020176595.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0241742
  2. Arch Acad Emerg Med. 2020 ;8(1): e72
    Khateri S, Mohammadi H, Khateri R, Moradi Y.
      Introduction: Gaining knowledge about underlying diseases and associated comorbidities in patients with COVID-19 can be beneficial in developing a proper understanding of the disease prognosis as well as comprehensive management, and treatment of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of underlying diseases and associated comorbidities in COVID-19 patients using a systematic review and meta-analysis.Methods: Major biomedical electronic databases, including Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL and EMBASE were searched for all relevant literature published in English from January to July 2020. Cross-sectional and retrospective studies reporting the prevalence of comorbid conditions such as acute cardiac injury, acute myocardial infarction, acute kidney injury, acute liver injury, shock, acute respiratory disease, and acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with COVID-19 were included in the study. After selecting eligible studies, two authors extracted data of each study, independently, and any inconsistency was resolved through discussion with the third reviewer until reaching a consensus. The risk of bias was assessed by two independent research experts using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The variance in the meta-analyses on prevalence was stabilized by double arcsine transformations.
    Results: The pooled prevalence of acute respiratory injury in patients with COVID-19 was estimated as 34% (95% Cl: 10 - 57%). Also, the prevalence of acute kidney injury, acute liver injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, and shock were estimated as 10% (95% Cl: 6 - 14%), 19% (95% Cl: 10 - 27%), 23 % (95% Cl: 19 - 27%), and 12 % (95% Cl: 5 - 19 %).
    Conclusion: According to this meta-analysis, comorbidities such as hypertension, acute liver and kidney injury, acute respiratory distress syndrome, shock, diabetes, and coronary heart disease seem to be a predisposing factor for symptomatic and severe COVID-19 infection.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Comorbidity; Meta-analysis; Prognosis; Systematic Review
  3. Saudi Med J. 2020 Nov;41(11): 1165-1174
    Radwan NM, Mahmoud NE, Alfaifi AH, Alabdulkareem KI.
      OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between comorbidities and the severity of the disease among COVID-19 patients.METHODS: We searched the Cochrane, Medline, Trip, and EMBASE databases from 2019. The review included all available studies of COVID-19 patients published in the English language and studied the clinical characteristics, comorbidities, and disease outcomes from the beginning of the pandemic.  Two authors extracted studies characteristics and the risk of bias. Odds ratio (OR) was used to analyze the data with 95% confidence interval (CI).
    RESULTS: The review included 1,885 COVID-19 patients from 7 observational studies with some degree of bias risk and substantial heterogeneity. A significant association was recorded between COVID-19 severity and the following variables: male (OR= 1.60, 95%CI= 1.05 - 2.43); current smoker (OR=2.06, 95%CI= 1.08 - 3.94); and the presence of comorbidities including hypertension (OR=2.05, 95%CI= 1.56 - 2.70), diabetes (OR=2.46, 95%CI= 1.53 - 3.96), coronary heart disease (OR=4.10, 95%CI= 2.36 - 7.12), chronic kidney disease (OR=4.06, 95%CI= 1.45 - 11.35), and cancer (OR=2.28, 95%CI= 1.08 - 4.81).
    CONCLUSIONS: Comorbidities among COVID-19 patients may contribute to increasing their susceptibility to severe illness. The identification of these potential risk factors could help reduce mortality by identifying patients with poor prognosis at an early stage.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.15537/smj.2020.11.25454
  4. Ir J Med Sci. 2020 Nov 03.
    Farrell RJ, O'Regan R, O'Neill E, Bowens G, Maclellan A, Gileece A, Bradley M, Smyth C, Kelly O, Hall B, Cormican L, Faul J, Wanic K, McDermott J, Sreenan S, Tun TK, Duffy T, Bhatti AI, Donohoe O, Leen E, Collins N, McGeary S, Cody C, Dolan E, Burke C.
      INTRODUCTION: Our hospital found itself at the epicentre of the Irish COVID-19 pandemic. We describe the organisational challenges faced in managing the surge and identified risk factors for mortality and ICU admission among hospitalised SARS-CoV-2-infected patients.METHODS: All hospitalised SARS-CoV-2 patients diagnosed between March 13 and May 1, 2020, were included. Demographic, referral, deprivation, ethnicity and clinical data were recorded. Multivariable regression, including age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR (95% CI), was used to explore risk factors associated with adverse outcomes.
    RESULTS: Of 257 inpatients, 174 were discharged (68%) and 39 died (15%) in hospital. Two hundred three (79%) patients presented from the community, 34 (13%) from care homes and 20 (8%) were existing inpatients. Forty-five percent of community patients were of a non-Irish White or Black, Asian or minority ethnic (BAME) population, including 34 Roma (13%) compared to 3% of care home and 5% of existing inpatients, (p < 0.001). Twenty-two patients were healthcare workers (9%). Of 31 patients (12%) requiring ICU admission, 18 were discharged (58%) and 7 died (23%). Being overweight/obese HR (95% CI) 3.09 (1.32, 7.23), p = 0.009; a care home resident 2.68 (1.24, 5.6), p = 0.012; socioeconomically deprived 1.05 (1.01, 1.09), p = 0.012; and older 1.04 (1.01, 1.06), p = 0.002 were significantly associated with death. Non-Irish White or BAME were not significantly associated with death 1.31 (0.28, 6.22), p = 0.63 but were significantly associated with ICU admission 4.38 (1.38, 14.2), p = 0.014 as was being overweight/obese 2.37 (1.37, 6.83), p = 0.01.
    CONCLUSION: The COVID-19 pandemic posed unprecedented organisational issues for our hospital resulting in the greatest surge in ICU capacity above baseline of any Irish hospital. Being overweight/obese, a care home resident, socioeconomically deprived and older were significantly associated with death, while ethnicity and being overweight/obese were significantly associated with ICU admission.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Clinical care; Ethnicity; Obesity; Outcomes; Socioeconomic deprivation
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11845-020-02407-z
  5. Glob Heart. 2020 Sep 22. 15(1): 64
    Matsushita K, Ding N, Kou M, Hu X, Chen M, Gao Y, Honda Y, Zhao D, Dowdy D, Mok Y, Ishigami J, Appel LJ.
      Background: Whether cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its traditional risk factors predict severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is uncertain, in part, because of potential confounding by age and sex.Methods: We performed a systematic review of studies that explored pre-existing CVD and its traditional risk factors as risk factors of severe COVID-19 (defined as death, acute respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation, or intensive care unit admission). We searched PubMed and Embase for papers in English with original data (≥10 cases of severe COVID-19). Using random-effects models, we pooled relative risk (RR) estimates and conducted meta-regression analyses.
    Results: Of the 661 publications identified in our search, 25 papers met our inclusion criteria, with 76,638 COVID-19 patients including 11,766 severe cases. Older age was consistently associated with severe COVID-19 in all eight eligible studies, with RR >~5 in >60-65 versus <50 years. Three studies showed no change in the RR of age after adjusting for covariate(s). In univariate analyses, factors robustly associated with severe COVID-19 were male sex (10 studies; pooled RR = 1.73, [95% CI 1.50-2.01]), hypertension (8 studies; 2.87 [2.09-3.93]), diabetes (9 studies; 3.20 [2.26-4.53]), and CVD (10 studies; 4.97 [3.76-6.58]). RR for male sex was likely to be independent of age. For the other three factors, meta-regression analyses suggested confounding by age. Only four studies reported multivariable analysis, but most of them showed adjusted RR ~2 for hypertension, diabetes, and CVD. No study explored renin-angiotensin system inhibitors as a risk factor for severe COVID-19.
    Conclusions: Despite the potential for confounding, these results suggest that hypertension, diabetes, and CVD are independently associated with severe COVID-19 and, together with age and male sex, can be informative for predicting the risk of severe COVID-19.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; cardiovascular disease; meta-analysis; risk factors
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.5334/gh.814
  6. PLoS One. 2020 ;15(11): e0241827
    Lakbar I, Luque-Paz D, Mege JL, Einav S, Leone M.
      BACKGROUND: Epidemiological differences between men and women have been reported with regards to sepsis, influenza and severe coronavirus infections including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV.AIM: To systematically review the literature relating to men versus women on SARS-CoV-2 in order to seek differences in disease characteristics (e.g. infectivity, severity) and outcomes (e.g. mortality).
    METHODS: We searched 3 electronic databases up or observational studies reporting differences between men and women in the SARS-CoV-2 disease characteristics stated. We identified and included 47 studies, reporting data for 21,454 patients mainly from China.
    RESULTS: The unadjusted mortality rates of men were higher than those of women, with a mortality OR 0.51 [0.42, 0.61] (p<0.001) for women. The proportion of men presenting with severe disease and admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) was also higher than that of women (OR 0.75 [0.60-0.93] p<0.001 and OR 0.45 [0.40-0.52] p<0.001 respectively). Adjusted analyses could not be conducted due to lack of data.
    CONCLUSION: COVID-19 may be associated with worse outcomes in males than in females. However, until more detailed data are provided in further studies enabling adjusted analysis, this remains an unproven assumption.
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0241827
  7. Brain Behav Immun. 2020 Oct 24. pii: S0889-1591(20)32369-2. [Epub ahead of print]
    Zhou J, Liu C, Sun Y, Huang W, Ye K.
      INTRODUCTION: Our understanding of risk factors for COVID‑19, including pre-existing medical conditions and genetic variations, is limited. To what extent the pre-existing clinical condition and genetic background have implications for COVID-19 still needs to be explored.METHODS: Our study included 389,620 participants of European descent from the UK Biobank, of whom 3,884 received the COVID-19 test and 1,091 were tested positive for COVID-19. We examined the association of COVID-19 status with an extensive list of 974 medical conditions and 30 blood biomarkers. Additionally, we tested the association of genetic variants in two key genes related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2), with COVID-19 or any other phenotypes.
    RESULTS: The most significant risk factors for COVID-19 include Alzheimer's disease (OR = 2.29, 95% CI: 1.25-4.16), dementia (OR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.36-3.42), and the overall category of delirium, dementia, amnestic and other cognitive disorders (OR = 1.90, 95% CI: 1.24-2.90). Evidence suggesting associations of genetic variants in SARS-CoV-2 infection-related genes with COVID-19 (rs7282236, OR = 1.33, 95% CI: 1.14-1.54, p = 2.31 × 10-4) and other phenotypes, such as an immune deficiency (p = 5.65 × 10-5) and prostate cancer (p = 1.1 × 10-5), was obtained.
    CONCLUSIONS: Our unbiased and extensive search identified pre-existing Alzheimer's disease and dementia as top risk factors for hospital admission due to COVID-19, highlighting the importance of providing special protective care for patients with cognitive disorders during this pandemic. We also obtained evidence suggesting a direct association of genetic variants with COVID-19.
    Keywords:  Alzheimer's disease; COVID-19; Cognitive disorders; Dementia; Pre-existing conditions; Risk factors
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.10.019
  8. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2020 Nov 02. pii: djaa168. [Epub ahead of print]
    Zhang H, Han H, He T, Labbe KE, Hernandez AV, Chen H, Velcheti V, Stebbing J, Wong KK.
      BACKGROUND: Previous studies have indicated Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with cancer have a high fatality rate.METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of studies that reported fatalities in COVID-19 patients with cancer. A comprehensive meta-analysis that assessed the overall case fatality rate and associated risk factors was performed. Using individual patient data, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) for each variable with outcomes.
    RESULTS: We included 15 studies with 3019 patients, of which 1628 were men; 41.0% were from the UK and Europe, followed by the USA and Canada (35.7%) and Asia (China, 23.3%). The overall case fatality rate of COVID-19 patients with cancer measured 22.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 17.3% to 28.0%). Univariate analysis revealed age (odds ratio [OR] = 3.57; 95% CI = 1.80 to 7.06), male (OR = 2.10; 95% CI = 1.07 to 4.13), and comorbidity (OR = 2.00; 95% CI = 1.04 to 3.85) were associated with increased risk of severe events (defined as the individuals being admitted to the intensive care unit, or requiring invasive ventilation, or death). In multivariate analysis, only age greater than 65 years (OR = 3.16; 95% CI = 1.45 to 6.88) and being male (OR = 2.29; 95% CI = 1.07 to 4.87) were associated with increased risk of severe events.
    CONCLUSION: Our analysis demonstrated that COVID-19 patients with cancer have a higher fatality rate when compared with that of COVID-19 patients without cancer. Age and gender appear to be risk factors associated with a poorer prognosis.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; cancer; fatality rate; meta-analysis; systematic review
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa168
  9. J Nutr Health Aging. 2020 ;24(9): 1011-1018
    Abdulah DM, Hassan AB.
      OBJECTIVE: Poor dietary habits are considered to be the second-leading risk factors for mortality and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) in the world. Dietary patterns are different based on cultural, environmental, technological, and economic factors. Nutritional deficiencies of energy, protein, and specific micronutrients have been shown to contribute to depressed immune function and increased susceptibility to infections. We aimed to explore the relation of dietary factors with global infection and mortality rates of COVID-19 in this study.DESIGN: In the current ecological study, the countries that had national dietary data from the Global Dietary Databases of the United Nations and coronavirus disease statistics from the World Health Organization (WHO) were included. The countries that had coronavirus disease statistics from the WHO were consecutively checked for the recent data of the dietary factors.
    SETTING: World.
    PARTICIPANTS: 158 countries across the world.
    MEASUREMENTS: infection and mortality rates of COVID-19; dietary factors.
    RESULTS: The median crude infection and mortality rates by COVID-19 were 87.78 (IQR: 468.03) and 0.0015 (IQR: 0.0059), respectively. The two highest percentage of the crude infection rate were between 0 and 500 (75.9%) and 500-1000 (8.9%) per one million persons. The regression analysis showed that the crude infection rate has been increased by raising consuming fruits (Beta: 0.237; P=0.006) and calcium (Beta: 0.286; P=0.007) and was decreased with rising consuming beans and legumes (Beta: -0.145; P=0.038). The analysis showed that the crude mortality rate was increased by raising consuming sugar-sweetened beverages (Beta: 0.340; P<0.001). Whereas, the crude mortality rate by COVID-19 has been decreased by increasing fruits consuming (Beta: -0.226; P=0.047) and beans and legumes (Beta: -0.176; P=0.046).
    CONCLUSION: The present study showed the higher intake of fruits and sugar-sweetened beverages had a positive effect on infection and mortally rates by COVID-19, respectively. In contrast, the higher intake of beans and legumes had a negative effect on both increasing infection and mortality rates.
    Keywords:  Dietary Factors; acute respiratory infections; fruits; macronutrients; proteins
    DOI:  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-020-1434-0