bims-covirf Biomed News
on COVID19 risk factors
Issue of 2020‒10‒11
six papers selected by
Catherine Rycroft

  1. Clin Cardiol. 2020 Oct 07.
      BACKGROUD: The association between underlying comorbidities and cardiac injury and the prognosis in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients was assessed in this study.HYPOTHESIS: The underlying comorbidities and cardiac injury may be associated with the prognosis in COVID-19 patients.
    METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of science, and The Cochrane library from December 2019 to July 2020. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to estimate the probability of comorbidities and cardiac injury in COVID-19 patients with or without severe type, or in survivors vs nonsurvivors of COVID-19 patients.
    RESULTS: A total of 124 studies were included in this analysis. A higher risk for severity was observed in COVID-19 patients with comorbidities. The pooled result in patients with hypertension (OR 2.57, 95% CI: 2.12-3.11), diabetes (OR 2.54, 95% CI: 1.89-3.41), cardiovascular diseases (OR 3.86, 95% CI: 2.70-5.52), chronic obstractive pulmonary disease (OR 2.71, 95% CI: 1.98-3.70), chronic kidney disease (OR 2.20, 95% CI: 1.27-3.80), and cancer (OR 2.42, 95% CI: 1.81-3.22) respectively. All the comorbidities presented a higher risk of mortality. Moreover, the prevalence of acute cardiac injury is higher in severe group than in nonsevere group, and acute cardiac injury is associated with an increased risk for in-hospital mortality.
    CONCLUSION: Comorbidities and acute cardiac injury are closely associated with poor prognosis in COVID-19 patients. It is necessary to continuously monitor related clinical indicators of organs injury and concern comorbidities in COVID-19 patients.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; cardiac injury; comorbidities; meta-analysis; mortality; severity
  2. Acta Med Indones. 2020 Jul;52(3): 227-245
      BackgroundWe aimed to systematically review all relevant studies related to the risk factors and laboratory test results associated with severe illness and mortality in COVID-19 patients.MethodsWe utilised PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, Wiley Online Library, ScienceDirect and MedRxiv to search for studies, with additional hand-searched journals. We included systematic reviews/meta-analyses, cohort and case control studies of suspected and/or confirmed COVID-19 cases with severe illness and/or mortality as outcomes. We included laboratory test results and risk factors. We assessed risk of bias using ROBIS-I and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale assessment tool. Type of study, risk of bias, and precision of results determined evidence sufficiency.ResultsOf 26 records included, sufficient evidence suggested the association between age >60 years, hypertension, coronary heart disease, DM, serum LDH 250-500 U/L, LDH >500 U/L, and lymphopenia (lymphocyte count ≤1.0 x 109 /L) and severe illness of COVID-19. CD3+CD8+ cell count ≤ 75 cell/μl, D-dimer > 1 mg/L, AKI stage 2 and 3, proteinuria ≥1+, hematuria ≥1+, and peak serum creatinine > 13.26 μmol/L are associated with mortality.ConclusionAge >60 years, hypertension, DM, and coronary heart disease are the risk factors for severe illness of COVID-19. Laboratory test results associated with severe illness are serum LDH 250-500 U/L, LDH >500 U/L, and lymphopenia, whereas test results associated with mortality are CD3+CD8+ cell count ≤ 75 cell/μl, AKI stage 2 and 3, proteinuria ≥1+, hematuria ≥1+, D-dimer > 1 mg/L, peak serum creatinine > 13.26 μmol/L.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; laboratory test; mortality; risk factor; severe illness
  3. Cureus. 2020 Sep 29. 12(9): e10716
      Background Morocco was affected, as were other countries, by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Many risk factors of COVID-19 severity have been described, but data on infected patients in North Africa are limited. We aimed to explore the predictive factors of disease severity in COVID-19 patients in a tertiary hospital in Casablanca. Methods In this single-center, retrospective, observational study, we included all adult patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, admitted to Sheikh Khalifa International University Hospital in Casablanca between March 18 and May 20, 2020. Patients were separated into two groups: Non-severe patients were those with mild or moderate forms of COVID-19, and severe patients were those admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) who had one of the following signs-respiratory rate > 30 breaths/min; oxygen saturation < 93% on room air; acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); or required mechanical ventilation. Demographic, clinical, laboratory data, and outcomes were reviewed. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression to explore predictive factors of severity. Results We reported 134 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The median age was 53 years (interquartile range [IQR], 36-64), and 73 (54.5%) were men. Eighty-nine non-severe patients (66.4%) were admitted to single bedrooms, and 45 (33.6%) were placed in the ICU. The median time from illness onset to hospital admission was seven days (IQR, 3.0-7.2). Ninety-nine patients (74%) were admitted directly to the hospital, and 35 (26%) were transferred from other structures. Also, 68 patients (65.4%) were infected in clusters. Of the 134 patients, 61 (45.5%) had comorbidities, such as hypertension (n = 36; 26.9%), diabetes (n = 19; 14.2%), and coronary heart disease (n = 16; 11.9%). The most frequent symptoms were fever (n = 61; 45.5%), dry cough (n = 59; 44%), and dyspnea (n = 39; 29%). A total of 127 patients received hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (95%). Eleven critical cases received lopinavir/ritonavir (8.2%). Five patients received tocilizumab (3.7%). We reported 13 ARDS cases in ICU patients (29%), eight with acute kidney injury (17.8%), and four thromboembolic events (8.8%). Fourteen ICU patients (31.1%) died at 28 days. In univariable analysis, older men with one or more comorbidities, infection in a cluster, chest scan with the COVID-19 Reporting and Data System (CO-RADS) 5, lymphopenia, high rates of ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, and lactate dehydrogenase were associated with severe forms of COVID-19. Multivariable logistic regression model founded increasing odds of severity associated with older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.09, P = .0039), men (OR 3.19, CI 1.06-9.60, P = .016), one or more comorbidities (OR 4.36, CI 1.32-14.45, P = .016), CRP > 10 mg/L (OR 5.47, CI 1.57-19.10, P = .008), and lymphopenia lower than 0.8 x109/L (OR 6.65, CI 1.43-30.92, P = .016). Conclusions Clinicians should consider older male patients with comorbidities, lymphopenia, and a high CRP rate as factors to predict severe forms of COVID-19 earlier. The higher severity of infected patients in clusters must be confirmed by epidemiological and genetic studies.
    Keywords:  hydroxychloroquine; icu patients; predictive factors; sars-cov-2; severe covid-19
  4. World Psychiatry. 2020 Oct 07.
      Concerns have been expressed that persons with a pre-existing mental disorder may represent a population at increased risk for COVID-19 infection and with a higher likelihood of adverse outcomes of the infection, but there is no systematic research evidence in this respect. This study assessed the impact of a recent (within past year) diagnosis of a mental disorder - including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder, depression and schizophrenia - on the risk for COVID-19 infection and related mortality and hospitalization rates. We analyzed a nation-wide database of electronic health records of 61 million adult patients from 360 hospitals and 317,000 providers, across 50 states in the US, up to July 29, 2020. Patients with a recent diagnosis of a mental disorder had a significantly increased risk for COVID-19 infection, an effect strongest for depression (adjusted odds ratio, AOR=7.64, 95% CI: 7.45-7.83, p<0.001) and schizophrenia (AOR=7.34, 95% CI: 6.65-8.10, p<0.001). Among patients with a recent diagnosis of a mental disorder, African Americans had higher odds of COVID-19 infection than Caucasians, with the strongest ethnic disparity for depression (AOR=3.78, 95% CI: 3.58-3.98, p<0.001). Women with mental disorders had higher odds of COVID-19 infection than males, with the strongest gender disparity for ADHD (AOR=2.03, 95% CI: 1.73-2.39, p<0.001). Patients with both a recent diagnosis of a mental disorder and COVID-19 infection had a death rate of 8.5% (vs. 4.7% among COVID-19 patients with no mental disorder, p<0.001) and a hospitalization rate of 27.4% (vs. 18.6% among COVID-19 patients with no mental disorder, p<0.001). These findings identify individuals with a recent diagnosis of a mental disorder as being at increased risk for COVID-19 infection, which is further exacerbated among African Americans and women, and as having a higher frequency of some adverse outcomes of the infection. This evidence highlights the need to identify and address modifiable vulnerability factors for COVID-19 infection and to prevent delays in health care provision in this population.
    Keywords:  ADHD; COVID‐19; access to care; bipolar disorder; depression; discrimination; ethnic disparity; gender disparity; hospitalization; mental disorders; mortality; risk of infection; schizophrenia
  5. Acta Med Indones. 2020 Jul;52(3): 246-254
      BACKGROUND: Coronavirus Disease 2019 is an emerging respiratory disease that is now a pandemic. Indonesia is experiencing a rapid surge of cases but the local data are scarce.METHODS: this is an analysis using data from the ongoing recapitulation of Epidemiological Surveillance (ES) by the Provincial Health Office of Jakarta from March 2nd to April 27th 2020. We evaluated demographic and clinical characteristics of all confirmed cases in association with death.
    RESULTS: of the 4,052 patients, 381 (9.4%) patients were deceased. Multivariable analysis showed that death was associated with older age (odds ratio [OR] 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02, 1.05, per year increase; p<0.001), dyspnea (OR 4.83; 95% CI 3.20, 7.29; p<0.001), pneumonia (OR 2.46; 95%CI 1.56, 3.88; p<0.001), and pre-existing hypertension (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.24, 2.78; p=0.003). Death was highest in the week of April 6th 2020 and declined in the subsequent weeks, after a large-scale social restriction commenced.
    CONCLUSION: older age, dyspnea, pneumonia, and pre-existing hypertension were associated with death. Mortality was high, but may be reduced by lockdown.
    Keywords:  COVID-19; Indonesia; Jakarta; death; patient characteristics
  6. Medicine (Baltimore). 2020 Oct 02. 99(40): e22439
      BACKGROUND: The mortality rate associated with Covid-19 varies considerably among studies and determinants of this variability are not well characterized.METHODS: A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature published through March 31, 2020 was performed to estimate the mortality rate among hospitalized patients in China with a confirmed diagnosis of Covid-19. Hospital mortality rates were estimated using an inverse variance-weighted random-effects meta-analysis model. Funnel plot symmetry was evaluated for small-study effects, a one-study removed sensitivity analysis assessed the influence of individual studies on the pooled mortality rate, and metaregression assessed the association of potential confounding variables with mortality rates.
    RESULTS: The review included 16 observational studies involving 1832 hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of Covid-19. The surveillance period among studies ranged from December 16, 2019 to February 23, 2020. The median patient age was 53 years and 53% were males. A total of 38.5% of patients presented with at least 1 comorbidity, most commonly hypertension (24.0%), cardiac disease (15.1%), and diabetes mellitus (14.4%). Fever and cough, reported in 84.8% and 61.7% of patients respectively, were the most common patient symptoms. The pooled mortality rate was 9.9% (95% confidence interval 6.1% to 14.5%). Funnel plot asymmetry was not observed and the meta-analysis results were not substantially influenced by any single study since the pooled mortality rate ranged from 8.9% to 11.1% following iterative removal of one study at a time. Substantial heterogeneity in the mortality rate was identified among studies (I = 87%; P < .001). In a metaregression that included demographics, patient risk factors, and presenting symptoms, only a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus was associated with a higher mortality rate (P = .03).
    CONCLUSIONS: In a meta-analysis of hospitalized patients in China with a diagnosis of Covid-19, the mortality rate was 9.9% and a higher diabetes mellitus prevalence was independently associated with a worse prognosis. The independent influence of diabetes mellitus with Covid-19 mortality should be viewed as hypothesis-generating and warrants further study.