bims-climfi Biomed News
on Cerebellar cortical circuitry
Issue of 2021‒08‒15
two papers selected by
Jun Maruta
Mount Sinai Health System

  1. Elife. 2021 Aug 09. pii: e68802. [Epub ahead of print]10
      Circuitry of the cerebellar cortex is regionally and functionally specialized. Unipolar brush cells (UBCs), and Purkinje cell (PC) synapses made by axon collaterals in the granular layer, are both enriched in areas that control balance and eye movement. Here, we find a link between these specializations in mice: PCs preferentially inhibit metabotropic glutamate receptor type 1 (mGluR1)-expressing UBCs that respond to mossy fiber (MF) inputs with long lasting increases in firing, but PCs do not inhibit mGluR1-lacking UBCs. PCs inhibit about 29% of mGluR1-expressing UBCs by activating GABAA receptors (GABAARs) and inhibit almost all mGluR1-expressing UBCs by activating GABAB receptors (GABABRs). PC to UBC synapses allow PC output to regulate the input layer of the cerebellar cortex in diverse ways. Based on optogenetic studies and a small number of paired recordings, GABAAR-mediated feedback is fast and unreliable. GABABR-mediated inhibition is slower and is sufficiently large to strongly influence the input-output transformations of mGluR1-expressing UBCs.
    Keywords:  GABAB; cerebellum; inhibition; mouse; neuroscience; purkinje cell; target dependent; unipolar brush cell; vestibular cerebellum
  2. Cerebellum. 2021 Aug 12.
      Gerbrandus Jelgersma published extensively on the (pathological) anatomy of the cerebellum between 1886 and 1934. Based on his observations on the double innervation of the Purkinje cells, he formulated a hypothesis on the function of the cerebellum. Both afferent systems of the cerebellum, the mossy fiber-parallel fiber system and the climbing fibers terminate on the Purkinje cell dendrites. According to Jelgersma, the mossy fiber-parallel fiber system is derived from the pontine nuclei and the inferior olive, and would transmit the movement images derived from the cerebral cortex. Spinocerebellar climbing fibers would transmit information about the execution of the movement. When the Purkinje cell compares these inputs and notices a difference between instruction and execution, it sends a correction through the descending limb of the superior cerebellar peduncle to the anterior horn cells. Jelgersma postulates that this cerebro-cerebellar coordination system shares plasticity with other nervous connections because nerve cell dendritic protrusions possess what he called amoeboid mobility: dendritic protrusions can be extended or retracted and are so able to create new connections or to abolish them. Jelgersma's theories are discussed against the background of more recent theories of cerebellar function that, similarly, are based on the double innervation of the Purkinje cells. The amoeboid hypothesis is traced to its roots in the late nineteenth century.
    Keywords:  Cerebellum: anatomy; Golgi Cox method; Leiden University; Marr and Albus cerebellar theory; Neurons: amoeboid movements; Purkinje cell: double innervations