bims-ciryme Biomed News
on Circadian rhythms and metabolism
Issue of 2022‒08‒07
three papers selected by
Gabriela Da Silva Xavier
University of Birmingham

  1. Mol Metab. 2022 Jul 29. pii: S2212-8778(22)00125-9. [Epub ahead of print] 101556
      The circadian clock aligns physiology with the 24-hour rotation of Earth. Light and food are the main environmental cues (zeitgebers) regulating circadian rhythms in mammals. Yet, little is known about the interaction between specific dietary components and light in coordinating circadian homeostasis. Herein, we focused on essential amino acids and identified tryptophan as a key circadian modulator. Through a multi-omics approach and combinatory diet/light interventions, we demonstrated that tryptophan metabolism modulates temporal regulation of metabolism and transcription programs by buffering photic cues. Specifically, tryptophan metabolites regulate central circadian functions of the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the core clock machinery in the liver. Taken together, our findings propose tryptophan metabolism as a potential point for pharmacologic intervention to modulate phenotypes associated with disrupted circadian rhythms.
  2. PLoS Biol. 2022 Aug;20(8): e3001725
      Recent evidence suggests that circadian clocks ensure temporal orchestration of lipid homeostasis and play a role in pathophysiology of metabolic diseases in humans, including type 2 diabetes (T2D). Nevertheless, circadian regulation of lipid metabolism in human pancreatic islets has not been explored. Employing lipidomic analyses, we conducted temporal profiling in human pancreatic islets derived from 10 nondiabetic (ND) and 6 T2D donors. Among 329 detected lipid species across 8 major lipid classes, 5% exhibited circadian rhythmicity in ND human islets synchronized in vitro. Two-time point-based lipidomic analyses in T2D human islets revealed global and temporal alterations in phospho- and sphingolipids. Key enzymes regulating turnover of sphingolipids were rhythmically expressed in ND islets and exhibited altered levels in ND islets bearing disrupted clocks and in T2D islets. Strikingly, cellular membrane fluidity, measured by a Nile Red derivative NR12S, was reduced in plasma membrane of T2D diabetic human islets, in ND donors' islets with disrupted circadian clockwork, or treated with sphingolipid pathway modulators. Moreover, inhibiting the glycosphingolipid biosynthesis led to strong reduction of insulin secretion triggered by glucose or KCl, whereas inhibiting earlier steps of de novo ceramide synthesis resulted in milder inhibitory effect on insulin secretion by ND islets. Our data suggest that circadian clocks operative in human pancreatic islets are required for temporal orchestration of lipid homeostasis, and that perturbation of temporal regulation of the islet lipid metabolism upon T2D leads to altered insulin secretion and membrane fluidity. These phenotypes were recapitulated in ND islets bearing disrupted clocks.
  3. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2022 Aug 01.
      OBJECTIVE: Time-restricted eating (TRE) restores circadian rhythms in mice, but the evidence to support this in humans is limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of TRE on 24-hour profiles of plasma metabolites, glucoregulatory hormones, and the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) transcriptome in humans.METHODS: Men (n = 15, age = 63 [4] years, BMI 30.5 [2.4] kg/m2 ) were recruited. A 35-hour metabolic ward stay was conducted at baseline and after 8 weeks of 10-hour TRE. Assessment included 24-hour profiles of plasma glucose, nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), triglyceride, glucoregulatory hormones, and the SAT transcriptome. Dim light melatonin onset and cortisol area under the curve were calculated.
    RESULTS: TRE did not alter dim light melatonin onset but reduced morning cortisol area under the curve. TRE altered 24-hour profiles of insulin, NEFA, triglyceride, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide and increased transcripts of circadian locomotor output cycles protein kaput (CLOCK) and nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group D member 2 (NR1D2) and decreased period circadian regulator 1 (PER1) and nuclear receptor subfamily 1 group D member 1 (NR1D1) at 12:00 am. The rhythmicity of 450 genes was altered by TRE, which enriched in transcripts for transcription corepressor activity, DNA-binding transcription factor binding, regulation of chromatin organization, and small GTPase binding pathways. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis revealed eigengenes that were correlated with BMI, insulin, and NEFA.
    CONCLUSIONS: TRE restored 24-hour profiles in hormones, metabolites, and genes controlling transcriptional regulation in SAT, which could underpin its metabolic health benefit.