bims-ciryme Biomed News
on Circadian rhythms and metabolism
Issue of 2022‒01‒30
two papers selected by
Gabriela Da Silva Xavier
University of Birmingham

  1. Front Physiol. 2021 ;12 771944
      Background: Generally, food intake occurs in a three-meal per 24 h fashion with in-between meal snacking. As such, most humans spend more than ∼ 12-16 h per day in the postprandial state. It may be reasoned from an evolutionary point of view, that the human body is physiologically habituated to less frequent meals. Metabolic flexibility (i.e., reciprocal changes in carbohydrate and fatty acid oxidation) is a characteristic of metabolic health and is reduced by semi-continuous feeding. The effects of time-restricted feeding (TRF) on metabolic parameters and physical performance in humans are equivocal. Methods: To investigate the effect of TRF on metabolism and physical performance in free-living healthy lean individuals, we compared the effects of eucaloric feeding provided by a single meal (22/2) vs. three meals per day in a randomized crossover study. We included 13 participants of which 11 (5 males/6 females) completed the study: age 31.0 ± 1.7 years, BMI 24.0 ± 0.6 kg/m2 and fat mass (%) 24.0 ± 0.6 (mean ± SEM). Participants consumed all the calories needed for a stable weight in either three meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) or one meal per day between 17:00 and 19:00 for 11 days per study period. Results: Eucaloric meal reduction to a single meal per day lowered total body mass (3 meals/day -0.5 ± 0.3 vs. 1 meal/day -1.4 ± 0.3 kg, p = 0.03), fat mass (3 meals/day -0.1 ± 0.2 vs. 1 meal/day -0.7 ± 0.2, p = 0.049) and increased exercise fatty acid oxidation (p < 0.001) without impairment of aerobic capacity or strength (p > 0.05). Furthermore, we found lower plasma glucose concentrations during the second half of the day during the one meal per day intervention (p < 0.05). Conclusion: A single meal per day in the evening lowers body weight and adapts metabolic flexibility during exercise via increased fat oxidation whereas physical performance was not affected.
    Keywords:  bile acids; energy expentidure; glucose; human; physical performance; postprandial metabolism; time restricted eating; time restricted feeding
  2. Front Neurosci. 2021 ;15 832535
      Light is known to exert powerful effects on behavior and physiology, including upon the amount and distribution of activity across the day/night cycle. Here we use home cage activity monitoring to measure the effect of differences in home cage light spectrum and intensity on key circadian activity parameters in mice. Due to the relative positioning of any individually ventilated cage (IVC) with regard to the animal facility lighting, notable differences in light intensity occur across the IVC rack. Although all mice were found to be entrained, significant differences in the timing of activity onset and differences in activity levels were found between mice housed in standard versus red filtering cages. Furthermore, by calculating the effective irradiance based upon the known mouse photopigments, a significant relationship between light intensity and key circadian parameters are shown. Perhaps unsurprisingly given the important role of the circadian photopigment melanopsin in circadian entrainment, melanopic illuminance is shown to correlate more strongly with key circadian activity parameters than photopic lux. Collectively, our results suggest that differences in light intensity may reflect an uncharacterized source of variation in laboratory rodent research, with potential consequences for reproducibility. Room design and layout vary within and between facilities, and caging design and lighting location relative to cage position can be highly variable. We suggest that cage position should be factored into experimental design, and wherever possible, experimental lighting conditions should be characterized as a way of accounting for this source of variation.
    Keywords:  cage rack; circadian; individually ventilated cage (IVC); light; melanopsin; reproducibility; retina