bims-ciryme Biomed News
on Circadian rhythms and metabolism
Issue of 2022‒01‒16
six papers selected by
Gabriela Da Silva Xavier
University of Birmingham

  1. Cell Metab. 2022 Jan 10. pii: S1550-4131(21)00635-5. [Epub ahead of print]
      Tissue sensitivity and response to exercise vary according to the time of day and alignment of circadian clocks, but the optimal exercise time to elicit a desired metabolic outcome is not fully defined. To understand how tissues independently and collectively respond to timed exercise, we applied a systems biology approach. We mapped and compared global metabolite responses of seven different mouse tissues and serum after an acute exercise bout performed at different times of the day. Comparative analyses of intra- and inter-tissue metabolite dynamics, including temporal profiling and blood sampling across liver and hindlimb muscles, uncovered an unbiased view of local and systemic metabolic responses to exercise unique to time of day. This comprehensive atlas of exercise metabolism provides clarity and physiological context regarding the production and distribution of canonical and novel time-dependent exerkine metabolites, such as 2-hydroxybutyrate (2-HB), and reveals insight into the health-promoting benefits of exercise on metabolism.
    Keywords:  2-hydroxybutyrate; arteriovenous metabolomics; circadian rhythms; exercise metabolism; exerkines; metabolomics; multitissue analysis
  2. Cell Rep. 2022 Jan 11. pii: S2211-1247(21)01332-2. [Epub ahead of print]38(2): 109865
      Pitx3ak mice lack a functioning retina and develop fewer than 10% of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra. Del Río-Martín et al. (2019) reported that entrainment of circadian rhythms to daily light-dark (LD) cycles is absent in these mice, and that rhythms of locomotor activity, energy expenditure, and other metabolic variables are disrupted with food available ad libitum and fail to entrain to a daily feeding. The authors propose that retinal innervation of the suprachiasmatic nucleus is required for development of cyclic metabolic homeostasis, but methodological issues limit interpretation of the results. Using standardized feeding schedules and procedures for distinguishing free-running from entrained circadian rhythms, we confirm that behavioral and metabolic rhythms in Pitx3ak mice do not entrain to LD cycles, but we find no impairment in circadian organization of metabolism with food available ad libitum and no impairment in entrainment of metabolic or behavioral rhythms by daily feeding schedules. This Matters Arising paper is in response to Del Río-Martín et al. (2019), published in Cell Reports. See also the response by Fernandez-Perez et al. (2022), published in this issue.
    Keywords:  Pitx3(ak); aphakia mouse; circadian; dopamine; food anticipatory activity; food entrainment; metabolism
  3. Cell Rep. 2022 Jan 11. pii: S2211-1247(21)01750-2. [Epub ahead of print]38(2): 110241
      Metabolic homeostasis is under circadian regulation to adapt energy requirements to light-dark cycles. Feeding cycles are regulated by photic stimuli reaching the suprachiasmatic nucleus via retinohypothalamic axons and by nutritional information involving dopaminergic neurotransmission. Previously, we reported that Pitx3-mutant Aphakia mice with altered development of the retinohypothalamic tract and the dopaminergic neurons projecting to the striatum, are resistant to locomotor and metabolic entrainment by time-restricted feeding. In their Matters Arising article, Scarpa et al. (2022) challenge this conclusion using mice from the same strain but following a different experimental paradigm involving calorie restriction. Here, we address their concerns by extending the analyses of our previous data, by identifying important differences in the experimental design between both studies and by presenting additional results on the dopaminergic deficit in the brain of Aphakia mice. This Matters Arising Response article addresses the Matters Arising article by Scarpa et al. (2022), published concurrently in Cell Reports.
    Keywords:  Pitx3(ak); calorie restriction; circadian clock; dopamine; energy metabolism; retinohypothalamic tract; striatum; suprachiasmatic nucleus; time-restricted feeding; ventral tegmental area
  4. Eur J Neurosci. 2022 Jan 09.
      Substance use disorders are associated with disruptions to both circadian rhythms and cellular metabolic state. At the molecular level, the circadian molecular clock and cellular metabolic state may be interconnected through interactions with the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase, Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1). In the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a region important for reward, both SIRT1 and the circadian transcription factor neuronal PAS domain protein 2 (NPAS2) are highly enriched, and both are regulated by the metabolic cofactor NAD+. Substances of abuse, like cocaine, greatly disrupt cellular metabolism and promote oxidative stress; however, their effects on NAD+ in the brain remain unclear. Interestingly, cocaine also induces NAc expression of both NPAS2 and SIRT1, and both have independently been shown to regulate cocaine reward in mice. However, whether NPAS2 and SIRT1 interact in the NAc and/or whether together they regulate reward is unknown. Here, we demonstrate diurnal expression of Npas2, Sirt1, and NAD+ in the NAc, which is altered by cocaine-induced upregulation. Additionally, co-immunoprecipitation reveals NPAS2 and SIRT1 interact in the NAc, and cross-analysis of NPAS2 and SIRT1 chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing reveals several reward-relevant and metabolic-related pathways enriched among shared gene targets. Notably, NAc-specific Npas2 knock-down or a functional Npas2 mutation in mice attenuates SIRT1-mediated increases in cocaine preference. Together, our data reveal an interaction between NPAS2 and SIRT1 in the NAc which may serve to integrate cocaine's effects on circadian and metabolic factors, leading to regulation of drug reward.
    Keywords:  Circadian; Cocaine; NPAS2; Nucleus Accumbens; Reward; SIRT1
  5. Genome Biol. 2022 Jan 10. 23(1): 17
      BACKGROUND: Circadian (daily) timekeeping is essential to the survival of many organisms. An integral part of all circadian timekeeping systems is negative feedback between an activator and repressor. However, the role of this feedback varies widely between lower and higher organisms.RESULTS: Here, we study repression mechanisms in the cyanobacterial and eukaryotic clocks through mathematical modeling and systems analysis. We find a common mathematical model that describes the mechanism by which organisms generate rhythms; however, transcription's role in this has diverged. In cyanobacteria, protein sequestration and phosphorylation generate and regulate rhythms while transcription regulation keeps proteins in proper stoichiometric balance. Based on recent experimental work, we propose a repressor phospholock mechanism that models the negative feedback through transcription in clocks of higher organisms. Interestingly, this model, when coupled with activator phosphorylation, allows for oscillations over a wide range of protein stoichiometries, thereby reconciling the negative feedback mechanism in Neurospora with that in mammals and cyanobacteria.
    CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these results paint a picture of how circadian timekeeping may have evolved.
    Keywords:  Circadian clocks; Evolution; Phosphorylation; Protein sequestration; Transcription
  6. Diabetes Care. 2022 Jan 10. pii: dc211314. [Epub ahead of print]
      OBJECTIVE: We tested whether the concurrence of food intake and elevated concentration of endogenous melatonin, as occurs in late eating, results in impaired glucose control, in particular in carriers of the type 2 diabetes-associated G allele in the melatonin receptor-1b gene (MTNR1B).RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In a Spanish natural late-eating population, a randomized, crossover study was performed. Each participant (n = 845) underwent two evening 2-h 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests following an 8-h fast: an early condition scheduled 4 h prior to habitual bedtime ("early dinner timing") and a late condition scheduled 1 h prior to habitual bedtime ("late dinner timing"), simulating an early and a late dinner timing, respectively. Differences in postprandial glucose and insulin responsesbetween early and late dinner timing were determined using incremental area under the curve (AUC) calculated by the trapezoidal method.
    RESULTS: Melatonin serum levels were 3.5-fold higher in the late versus early condition, with late dinner timing resulting in 6.7% lower insulin AUC and 8.3% higher glucose AUC. In the late condition, MTNR1B G-allele carriers had lower glucose tolerance than noncarriers. Genotype differences in glucose tolerance were attributed to reductions in β-cell function (P for interaction, Pint glucose area under the curve = 0.009, Pint corrected insulin response = 0.022, and Pint Disposition Index = 0.018).
    CONCLUSIONS: Concurrently high endogenous melatonin and carbohydrate intake, as typical for late eating, impairs glucose tolerance, especially in MTNR1B G-risk allele carriers, attributable to insulin secretion defects.