bims-ciryme Biomed News
on Circadian rhythms and metabolism
Issue of 2021‒05‒09
two papers selected by
Gabriela Da Silva Xavier
University of Birmingham

  1. Sci Rep. 2021 May 06. 11(1): 9673
      Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases cardiac inflammation which promotes the development of cardiac fibrosis. We sought to determine the impact of circadian disruption on the induction of hyperglycaemia, inflammation and cardiac fibrosis.METHODS: Psammomys obesus (P. obesus) were exposed to neutral (12 h light:12 h dark) or short (5 h light:19 h dark) photoperiods and fed a low energy (LE) or high energy (HE) diet for 8 or 20 weeks. To determine daily rhythmicity, P. obesus were euthanised at 2, 8, 14, and 20 h after 'lights on'.
    RESULTS: P. obesus exposed to a short photoperiod for 8 and 20 weeks had impaired glucose tolerance following oral glucose tolerance testing, compared to a neutral photoperiod exposure. This occurred with both LE and HE diets but was more pronounced with the HE diet. Short photoperiod exposure also increased myocardial perivascular fibrosis after 20 weeks on LE (51%, P < 0.05) and HE (44%, P < 0.05) diets, when compared to groups with neutral photoperiod exposure. Short photoperiod exposure caused elevations in mRNA levels of hypertrophy gene Nppa (atrial natriuretic peptide) and hypertrophy transcription factors Gata4 and Mef2c in myocardial tissue after 8 weeks.
    CONCLUSION: Exposure to a short photoperiod causes impaired glucose tolerance in P. obesus that is exacerbated with HE diet and is accompanied by an induction in myocardial perivascular fibrosis.
  2. Front Physiol. 2021 ;12 665476
      Daily recurring events can be predicted by animals based on their internal circadian timing system. However, independently from the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the central pacemaker of the circadian system in mammals, restriction of food access to a particular time of day elicits food anticipatory activity (FAA). This suggests an involvement of other central and/or peripheral clocks as well as metabolic signals in this behavior. One of the metabolic signals that is important for FAA under combined caloric and temporal food restriction is β-hydroxybutyrate (βOHB). Here we show that the monocarboxylate transporter 1 (Mct1), which transports ketone bodies such as βOHB across membranes of various cell types, is involved in FAA. In particular, we show that lack of the Mct1 gene in the liver, but not in neuronal or glial cells, reduces FAA in mice. This is associated with a reduction of βOHB levels in the blood. Our observations suggest an important role of ketone bodies and its transporter Mct1 in FAA under caloric and temporal food restriction.
    Keywords:  Per2; Slc16a1; circadian rhythms; food-anticipatory activity; hydroxybutyric acid; ketone bodies; period 2; restricted feeding