bims-ciryme Biomed News
on Circadian rhythms and metabolism
Issue of 2021‒05‒02
two papers selected by
Gabriela Da Silva Xavier
University of Birmingham

  1. Endocrinology. 2021 Apr 29. pii: bqab089. [Epub ahead of print]
      Beta cell dysfunction is central to the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In T2D, environmental and genetic influences can manifest beta cell dysfunction in many ways, including impaired glucose-sensing and secretion coupling mechanisms, insufficient adaptative responses to stress and aberrant beta cell loss through increased cell death and/or beta cell de-differentiation. In recent years, circadian disruption has emerged as an important environmental risk factor for T2D. In support of this, genetic disruption of the circadian timing system in rodents impairs insulin secretion and triggers diabetes development, lending important evidence that the circadian timing system is intimately connected to, and essential for the regulation of pancreatic beta cell function; however, the role of the circadian timing system in the regulation of beta cell biology is only beginning to be unravelled. Here, we review the recent literature that explores the importance of the pancreatic islet/beta cell circadian clock in the regulation of various aspects of beta cell biology, including transcriptional and functional control of daily cycles of insulin secretion capacity, regulation of postnatal beta cell maturation, and control of the adaptive responses of the beta cell to metabolic stress and acute injury.
    Keywords:  Circadian clock; beta cell maturation; beta cell proliferation; circadian transcriptome; glucose homeostasis; glucose-secretion coupling; insulin secretion; pancreatic islet
  2. Science. 2021 Apr 30. pii: eabc9141. [Epub ahead of print]372(6541):
      Human health is dependent on a plentiful and nutritious supply of food, primarily derived from crop plants. Rhythmic supply of light as a result of the day and night cycle led to the evolution of circadian clocks that modulate most plant physiology, photosynthesis, metabolism, and development. To regulate crop traits and adaptation, breeders have indirectly selected for variation at circadian genes. The pervasive impact of the circadian system on crops suggests that future food production might be improved by modifying circadian rhythms, engineering the timing of transgene expression, and applying agricultural treatments at the most effective time of day. We describe the applied research required to take advantage of circadian biology in agriculture to increase production and reduce inputs.