bims-ciryme Biomed News
on Circadian rhythms and metabolism
Issue of 2021‒01‒03
two papers selected by
Gabriela Da Silva Xavier
University of Birmingham

  1. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Dec 23. pii: E83. [Epub ahead of print]22(1):
      Pancreatic β-cell-specific clock knockout mice develop β-cell oxidative-stress and failure, as well as glucose-intolerance. How inflammatory stress affects the cellular clock is under-investigated. Real-time recording of Per2:luciferase reporter activity in murine and human pancreatic islets demonstrated that the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β (IL-1β) lengthened the circadian period. qPCR-profiling of core clock gene expression in insulin-producing cells suggested that the combination of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) caused pronounced but uncoordinated increases in mRNA levels of multiple core clock genes, in particular of reverse-erythroblastosis virus α (Rev-erbα), in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The REV-ERBα/β agonist SR9009, used to mimic cytokine-mediated Rev-erbα induction, reduced constitutive and cytokine-induced brain and muscle arnt-like 1 (Bmal1) mRNA levels in INS-1 cells as expected. SR9009 induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced insulin-1/2 (Ins-1/2) mRNA and accumulated- and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, reduced cell viability, and increased apoptosis levels, reminiscent of cytokine toxicity. In contrast, low (<5,0 μM) concentrations of SR9009 increased Ins-1 mRNA and accumulated insulin-secretion without affecting INS-1 cell viability, mirroring low-concentration IL-1β mediated β-cell stimulation. Inhibiting nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, the lysine deacetylase HDAC3 and the immunoproteasome reduced cytokine-mediated increases in clock gene expression. In conclusion, the cytokine-combination perturbed the intrinsic clocks operative in mouse and human pancreatic islets and induced uncoordinated clock gene expression in INS-1 cells, the latter effect associated with NO, HDAC3, and immunoproteasome activity.
    Keywords:  chronobiology; diabetes; epigenetics; immuno-metabolism; nitric oxide synthase
  2. Eur J Neurosci. 2020 Dec 22.
      The circadian rhythms are endogenous rhythms of about 24 hours, and are driven by the circadian clock. The clock center locates in the suprachiasmatic nucleus. Light signals from the retina shift the circadian rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, but there is a robust part of the suprachiasmatic nucleus that causes jet lag after an abrupt shift of the environmental lighting condition. To examine the effect of attenuated circadian rhythm on the duration of jet lag, we established a transgenic rat expressing BMAL1 dominant negative form under control by mouse Prnp-based transcriptional regulation cassette [BMAL1 DN (+)]. The transgenic rats became active earlier than controls, just after light offset. Compared to control rats, BMAL1 DN (+) rats showed smaller circadian rhythm amplitudes in both behavioral and Per2 promoter driven luciferase activity rhythms. A light pulse during the night resulted in a larger phase shift of behavioral rhythm. Further, at an abrupt shift of the light-dark cycle, BMAL1 DN (+) rat showed faster entrainment to the new light-dark cycle compared to controls. The circadian rhythm has been regarded as a limit cycle phenomenon, and our results support the hypothesis that modification of the amplitude of the circadian limit cycle leads to alteration in the length of the phase shift.
    Keywords:  BMAL1; Circadian rhythm; amplitude; jet lag