bims-ciryme Biomed News
on Circadian rhythms and metabolism
Issue of 2020‒05‒10
six papers selected by
Gabriela Da Silva Xavier
University of Birmingham

  1. Front Nutr. 2020 ;7 39
      The molecular circadian clock regulates metabolic processes within the cell, and the alignment of these clocks between tissues is essential for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis. The possibility of misalignment arises from the differential responsiveness of tissues to the environmental cues that synchronize the clock (zeitgebers). Although light is the dominant environmental cue for the master clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus, many other tissues are sensitive to feeding and fasting. When rhythms of feeding behavior are altered, for example by shift work or the constant availability of highly palatable foods, strong feedback is sent to the peripheral molecular clocks. Varying degrees of phase shift can cause the systemic misalignment of metabolic processes. Moreover, when there is a misalignment between the endogenous rhythms in physiology and environmental inputs, such as feeding during the inactive phase, the body's ability to maintain homeostasis is impaired. The loss of phase coordination between the organism and environment, as well as internal misalignment between tissues, can produce cardiometabolic disease as a consequence. The aim of this review is to synthesize the work on the mechanisms and metabolic effects of circadian misalignment. The timing of food intake is highlighted as a powerful environmental cue with the potential to destroy or restore the synchrony of circadian rhythms in metabolism.
    Keywords:  circadian; fasting; high fat diet; ketogenic diet; metabolism; peripheral clock; time-restricted feeding
  2. Mol Cell. 2020 Apr 24. pii: S1097-2765(20)30236-7. [Epub ahead of print]
      Disrupted sleep-wake and molecular circadian rhythms are a feature of aging associated with metabolic disease and reduced levels of NAD+, yet whether changes in nucleotide metabolism control circadian behavioral and genomic rhythms remains unknown. Here, we reveal that supplementation with the NAD+ precursor nicotinamide riboside (NR) markedly reprograms metabolic and stress-response pathways that decline with aging through inhibition of the clock repressor PER2. NR enhances BMAL1 chromatin binding genome-wide through PER2K680 deacetylation, which in turn primes PER2 phosphorylation within a domain that controls nuclear transport and stability and that is mutated in human advanced sleep phase syndrome. In old mice, dampened BMAL1 chromatin binding, transcriptional oscillations, mitochondrial respiration rhythms, and late evening activity are restored by NAD+ repletion to youthful levels with NR. These results reveal effects of NAD+ on metabolism and the circadian system with aging through the spatiotemporal control of the molecular clock.
    Keywords:  NAD(+); SIRT1; aging; circadian; clock; heat shock factor 1; liver; nicotinamide mononucleotide; nicotinamide riboside; transcriptomics
  3. J Mol Biol. 2020 May 03. pii: S0022-2836(20)30329-6. [Epub ahead of print]
      Under normal circadian function, metabolic control is temporally coordinated across tissues and behaviors with a 24-hour period. However, circadian disruption results in negative consequences for metabolic homeostasis including energy or redox imbalances. Yet, circadian disruption has become increasingly prevalent within today's society due to many factors including sleep loss. Metabolic consequences of both have been revealed by metabolomics analyses of circadian biology and sleep. Specifically, two primary analytical platforms, mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy have been used to study molecular clock and sleep influences on overall metabolic rhythmicity. For example, human studies have demonstrated the prevalence of metabolic rhythms in human biology, as well as pan-metabolome consequences of sleep disruption. However, human studies are limited to peripheral metabolic readouts primarily through minimally invasive procedures. For further tissue- and organism-specific investigations, a number of model systems have been studied, based upon the conserved nature of both the molecular clock and sleep across species. Here we summarize human studies as well as key findings from metabolomics studies using mice, Drosophila, and zebrafish. While informative, a limitation in existing literature is a lack of interpretation regarding dynamic synthesis or catabolism within metabolite pools. To this extent, future work incorporating isotope tracers, specific metabolite reporters, and single-cell metabolomics may provide a means of exploring dynamic activity in pathways of interest.
    Keywords:  Circadian Clocks; LC-MS; NMR; chronometabolomics; diurnal rhythms
  4. Nat Metab. 2020 Apr;2(4): 351-363
      Estrogen receptor a (ERa) signaling in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) contributes to energy homeostasis by modulating physical activity and thermogenesis. However, the precise neuronal populations involved remain undefined. Here, we describe six neuronal populations in the mouse VMH by using single-cell RNA transcriptomics and in situ hybridization. ERa is enriched in populations showing sex biased expression of reprimo (Rprm), tachykinin 1 (Tac1), and prodynorphin (Pdyn). Female biased expression of Tac1 and Rprm is patterned by ERa-dependent repression during male development, whereas male biased expression of Pdyn is maintained by circulating testicular hormone in adulthood. Chemogenetic activation of ERa positive VMH neurons stimulates heat generation and movement in both sexes. However, silencing Rprm gene function increases core temperature selectively in females and ectopic Rprm expression in males is associated with reduced core temperature. Together these findings reveal a role for Rprm in temperature regulation and ERa in the masculinization of neuron populations that underlie energy expenditure.
  5. Commun Biol. 2020 May 08. 3(1): 225
      Metabolic and cardiovascular processes controlled by the hindbrain exhibit 24 h rhythms, but the extent to which the hindbrain possesses endogenous circadian timekeeping is unresolved. Here we provide compelling evidence that genetic, neuronal, and vascular activities of the brainstem's dorsal vagal complex are subject to intrinsic circadian control with a crucial role for the connection between its components in regulating their rhythmic properties. Robust 24 h variation in clock gene expression in vivo and neuronal firing ex vivo were observed in the area postrema (AP) and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), together with enhanced nocturnal responsiveness to metabolic cues. Unexpectedly, we also find functional and molecular evidence for increased penetration of blood borne molecules into the NTS at night. Our findings reveal that the hindbrain houses a local network complex of neuronal and non-neuronal autonomous circadian oscillators, with clear implications for understanding local temporal control of physiology in the brainstem.
  6. Front Physiol. 2020 ;11 327
      Circadian rhythms form a self-sustaining, endogenous, time-keeping system that allows organisms to anticipate daily environmental changes. The core of the clock network consists of interlocking transcriptional-translational feedback loops that ensures that metabolic, behavioral, and physiological processes run on a 24 h timescale. The hierarchical nature of the clock manifests itself in multiple points of control on the daily cell division cycle, which relies on synthesis, degradation, and post-translational modification for progression. This relationship is particularly important for understanding the role of clock components in sensing stress conditions and triggering checkpoint signals that stop cell cycle progression. A case in point is the interplay among the circadian factor PERIOD2 (PER2), the tumor suppressor p53, and the oncogenic mouse double minute-2 homolog protein (MDM2), which is the p53's negative regulator. Under unstressed conditions, PER2 and p53 form a stable complex in the cytosol and, along with MDM2, a trimeric complex in the nucleus. Association of PER2 to the C-terminus end of p53 prevents MDM2-mediated ubiquitylation and degradation of p53 as well as p53's transcriptional activation. Remarkably, when not bound to p53, PER2 acts as substrate for the E3-ligase activity of MDM2; thus, PER2 is degraded in a phosphorylation-independent fashion. Unexpectedly, the phase relationship between PER2 and p53 are opposite; however, a systematic modeling approach, inferred from the oscillatory time course data of PER2 and p53, aided in identifying additional regulatory scenarios that explained, a priori, seemingly conflicting experimental data. Therefore, we advocate for a combined experimental/mathematical approach to elucidating multilevel regulatory cellular processes.
    Keywords:  checkpoint signaling; circadian rhythms; clock genes; mathematical modeling; p53; systematic approach; tumor suppressor