bims-ciryme Biomed News
on Circadian rhythms and metabolism
Issue of 2020‒01‒12
five papers selected by
Gabriela Da Silva Xavier
University of Birmingham

  1. Diabetologia. 2020 Jan 08.
      The circadian system generates endogenous rhythms of approximately 24 h, the synchronisation of which are vital for healthy bodily function. The timing of many physiological processes, including glucose metabolism, are coordinated by the circadian system, and circadian disruptions that desynchronise or misalign these rhythms can result in adverse health outcomes. In this review, we cover the role of the circadian system and its disruption in glucose metabolism in healthy individuals and individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. We begin by defining circadian rhythms and circadian disruption and then we provide an overview of circadian regulation of glucose metabolism. We next discuss the impact of circadian disruptions on glucose control and type 2 diabetes. Given the concurrent high prevalence of type 2 diabetes and circadian disruption, understanding the mechanisms underlying the impact of circadian disruption on glucose metabolism may aid in improving glycaemic control.
    Keywords:  Beta cell function; Circadian disruption; Circadian misalignment; Circadian rhythm; Diabetes; Glucose control; Glucose metabolism; Glucose tolerance; Insulin sensitivity; Review; Type 2 diabetes mellitus
  2. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2020 Jan 01. pii: S1043-2760(19)30236-X. [Epub ahead of print]
      The past decade has witnessed a revival of interest in the hormone melatonin, partly attributable to the discovery that genetic variation in MTNR1B - the melatonin receptor gene - is a risk factor for impaired fasting glucose and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite intensive investigation, there is considerable confusion and seemingly conflicting data on the metabolic effects of melatonin and MTNR1B variation, and disagreement on whether melatonin is metabolically beneficial or deleterious, a crucial issue for melatonin agonist/antagonist drug development and dosing time. We provide a conceptual framework - anchored in the dimension of 'time' - to reconcile paradoxical findings in the literature. We propose that the relative timing between elevated melatonin concentrations and glycemic challenge should be considered to better understand the mechanisms and therapeutic opportunities of melatonin signaling in glycemic health and disease.
    Keywords:  MTNR1B; circadian system; glucose metabolism; melatonin; type 2 diabetes
  3. Mol Metab. 2020 Jan;pii: S2212-8778(19)30931-7. [Epub ahead of print]31 124-137
      OBJECTIVES: The incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is secreted from intestinal L-cells upon nutrient intake. While recent evidence has shown that GLP-1 is released in a circadian manner in rats, whether this occurs in mice and if this pattern is regulated by the circadian clock remain to be elucidated. Furthermore, although circadian GLP-1 secretion parallels expression of the core clock gene Bmal1, the link between the two remains largely unknown. Secretagogin (Scgn) is an exocytotic SNARE regulatory protein that demonstrates circadian expression and is essential for insulin secretion from β-cells. The objective of the current study was to establish the necessity of the core clock gene Bmal1 and the SNARE protein SCGN as essential regulators of circadian GLP-1 secretion.METHODS: Oral glucose tolerance tests were conducted at different times of the day on 4-hour fasted C57BL/6J, Bmal1 wild-type, and Bmal1 knockout mice. Mass spectrometry, RNA-seq, qRT-PCR and/or microarray analyses, and immunostaining were conducted on murine (m) and human (h) primary L-cells and mGLUTag and hNCI-H716 L-cell lines. At peak and trough GLP-1 secretory time points, the mGLUTag cells were co-stained for SCGN and a membrane-marker, ChIP was used to analyze BMAL1 binding sites in the Scgn promoter, protein interaction with SCGN was tested by co-immunoprecipitation, and siRNA was used to knockdown Scgn for GLP-1 secretion assay.
    RESULTS: C57BL/6J mice displayed a circadian rhythm in GLP-1 secretion that peaked at the onset of their feeding period. Rhythmic GLP-1 release was impaired in Bmal1 knockout (KO) mice as compared to wild-type controls at the peak (p < 0.05) but not at the trough secretory time point. Microarray identified SNARE and transport vesicle pathways as highly upregulated in mGLUTag L-cells at the peak time point of GLP-1 secretion (p < 0.001). Mass spectrometry revealed that SCGN was also increased at this time (p < 0.001), while RNA-seq, qRT-PCR, and immunostaining demonstrated Scgn expression in all human and murine primary L-cells and cell lines. The mGLUTag and hNCI-H716 L-cells exhibited circadian rhythms in Scgn expression (p < 0.001). The ChIP analysis demonstrated increased binding of BMAL1 only at the peak of Scgn expression (p < 0.01). Immunocytochemistry showed the translocation of SCGN to the cell membrane after stimulation at the peak time point only (p < 0.05), while CoIP showed that SCGN was pulled down with SNAP25 and β-actin, but only the latter interaction was time-dependent (p < 0.05). Finally, Scgn siRNA-treated cells demonstrated significantly blunted GLP-1 secretion (p < 0.01) in response to stimulation at the peak time point only.
    CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate, for the first time, that mice display a circadian pattern in GLP-1 secretion, which is impaired in Bmal1 knockout mice, and that Bmal1 regulation of Scgn expression plays an essential role in the circadian release of the incretin hormone GLP-1.
    Keywords:  Bmal1; Circadian; GLP-1; L-cell; Secretagogin; Secretion
  4. Proc Biol Sci. 2020 Jan 15. 287(1918): 20192440
      Marine coastal habitats are complex cyclic environments as a result of sun and moon interactions. In contrast with the well-known circadian orchestration of the terrestrial animal rhythmicity (approx. 24 h), the mechanism responsible for the circatidal rhythm (approx. 12.4 h) remains largely elusive in marine organisms. We revealed in subtidal field conditions that the oyster Crassostrea gigas exhibits tidal rhythmicity of circadian clock genes and clock-associated genes. A free-running (FR) experiment showed an endogenous circatidal rhythm. In parallel, we showed in the field that oysters' valve behaviour exhibited a strong tidal rhythm combined with a daily rhythm. In the FR experiment, all behavioural rhythms were circatidal, and half of them were also circadian. Our results fuel the debate on endogenous circatidal mechanisms. In contrast with the current hypothesis on the existence of an independent tidal clock, we suggest that a single 'circadian/circatidal' clock in bivalves is sufficient to entrain behavioural patterns at tidal and daily frequencies.
    Keywords:  bimodal behaviour; biological timing; circadian clock; circatidal clock; oyster; tidal rhythm
  5. Front Behav Neurosci. 2019 ;13 268
      Previous studies have shown that exposure to circadian disruption produces negative effects on overall health and behavior. More recent studies illustrate that strain differences in the behavioral and physiological responses to circadian disruption exist, even if the strains have similar genetic backgrounds. As such, we investigated the effects of constant room-level light (LL) with running-wheel access on the behavior and physiology of male C57BL6/J from Jackson Laboratories and C57BL6/N from Charles River Laboratories mice. Mice were exposed to either a 12:12 light-dark (LD) cycle or LL and given either a standard home cage or a cage with a running-wheel. Following 6 weeks of LD or LL, their response to behavioral assays (open-field, light-dark box, novel object) and measures of metabolism were observed. Under standard LD, C57BL6/J mice exhibited increased locomotor activity and reduced exploratory behavior compared to C57BL6/N mice. In LL, C57BL6/J mice had greater period lengthening and increased anxiety, while C57BL6/N mice exhibited increased weight gain and no change in exploratory behavior. C57BL6/J mice also decreased exploration with running-wheel access while C57BL6/N mice did not. These results further demonstrate that C57BL/6 substrains exhibit different behavioral and physiological responses to circadian disruption and wheel-running access.
    Keywords:  circadian rhythm; constant light; mice; mouse model; running wheel; strain difference