bims-ciryme Biomed News
on Circadian rhythms and metabolism
Issue of 2019‒04‒07
two papers selected by
Gabriela Da Silva Xavier
University of Birmingham

  1. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Mar 30. pii: E1597. [Epub ahead of print]20(7):
      Circadian timekeeping allows appropriate temporal regulation of an organism's internal metabolism to anticipate and respond to recurrent daily changes in the environment. Evidence from animal genetic models and from humans under circadian misalignment (such as shift work or jet lag) shows that disruption of circadian rhythms contributes to the development of obesity and metabolic disease. Inappropriate timing of food intake and high-fat feeding also lead to disruptions of the temporal coordination of metabolism and physiology and subsequently promote its pathogenesis. This review illustrates the impact of genetically or environmentally induced molecular clock disruption (at the level of the brain and peripheral tissues) and the interplay between the circadian system and metabolic processes. Here, we discuss some mechanisms responsible for diet-induced circadian desynchrony and consider the impact of nutritional cues in inter-organ communication, with a particular focus on the communication between peripheral organs and brain. Finally, we discuss the relay of environmental information by signal-dependent transcription factors to adjust the timing of gene oscillations. Collectively, a better knowledge of the mechanisms by which the circadian clock function can be compromised will lead to novel preventive and therapeutic strategies for obesity and other metabolic disorders arising from circadian desynchrony.
    Keywords:  adipose tissue; circadian rhythm; high-fat diet; metabolism; molecular clock; nutrients; obesity; suprachiasmatic nucleus
  2. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Mar 29. pii: S1043-2760(19)30046-3. [Epub ahead of print]
      Eating behavior is regulated by metabolic and hedonic brain networks, which interact with each other to balance the physiological regulation of hunger and satiety. The daily balance of this regulation is controlled by the central circadian clock. Importantly, metabolic and reward properties of food impact the functioning of circadian clocks, altering the oscillatory activity of the molecular clockwork and circadian rhythms. However, when feeding (metabolic or reward) is timed, the whole circadian system is entrained. Furthermore, besides synchronizing the clock, the timing of both metabolic and reward eating might be crucial for health, to improve circadian physiology, as well as to treat metabolic (e.g., diabetes, obesity) and neurological diseases (e.g., mental, neurodegenerative).
    Keywords:  circadian; clock genes; eating; hedonic; metabolic; suprachiasmatic